Tamas Varnai

Tamas Varnai

  • RESEARCH PROFESSOR
  • 301.614.6408
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 613
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY
  • Positions/Employment

    2008 - Present

    Research Associate Professor

    University of Maryland Baltimore County: Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology and the Department of Physics , Baltimore, MD  
    2001 - 2008

    Research Assistant Professor

    University of Maryland Baltimore County: Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology and the Department of Physics, Baltimore, MD  
    1999 - 2001

    Assistant Research Scientist

    University of Maryland Baltimore County: Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, Baltimore, MD  
    1997 - 1999

    Postdoctoral Research Associate

    University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ  
    1996 - 1997

    Postdoctoral Research Associate

    McGill University, Montreal, Canada  
    1989 - 1991

    Research Meteorologist

    Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, Hungary  

    Education

    1996 - Ph.D. in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, Dissertation: "Reflection of solar radiation by inhomogeneous clouds"
    1989 - M.Sc. equivalent degree in Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary, Thesis: "The adaptation of a spectral global circulation model"

    Professional Service

    2019 - present: Member of the editorial board for the journal Remote Sensing

    Publications

    Refereed

    Varnai, T., A. B. Kostinski, and A. Marshak. 2019. "Deep Space Observations of Sun Glints from Marine Ice Clouds." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 1-5 [10.1109/lgrs.2019.2930866]

    Várnai, T., C. Gatebe, R. Gautam, R. Poudyal, and W. Su. 2019. "Developing an Aircraft-Based Angular Distribution Model of Solar Reflection from Wildfire Smoke to Aid Satellite-Based Radiative Flux Estimation." Remote Sensing, 11 (13): 1509 [10.3390/rs11131509]

    Wu, D., T. Wang, T. Várnai, et al. J. Limbacher, R. Kahn, G. Taha, J. Lee, J. Gong, and T. Yuan. 2018. "MISR Radiance Anomalies Induced by Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols." Remote Sensing, 10 (12): 1875 [10.3390/rs10121875]

    Várnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2018. "Satellite Observations of Cloud-Related Variations in Aerosol Properties." Atmosphere, 9 (11): 430 [10.3390/atmos9110430]

    Fauchez, T., S. Platnick, T. Várnai, et al. K. Meyer, C. Cornet, and F. Szczap. 2018. "Scale dependence of cirrus heterogeneity effects. Part II: MODIS NIR and SWIR channels." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18 (16): 12105-12121 [10.5194/acp-18-12105-2018]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Várnai, and Y. Knyazikhin. 2018. "EPIC Spectral Observations of Variability in Earth’s Global Reflectance." Remote Sensing, 10 (2): 254 [10.3390/rs10020254]

    Várnai, T., A. Marshak, and T. F. Eck. 2017. "Observation-Based Study on Aerosol Optical Depth and Particle Size in Partly Cloudy Regions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122 (18): 10,013-10,024 [10.1002/2017jd027028]

    Fauchez, T., S. Platnick, K. Meyer, et al. C. Cornet, F. Szczap, and T. Várnai. 2017. "Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (13): 8489-8508 [10.5194/acp-17-8489-2017]

    Marshak, A., T. Várnai, and A. Kostinski. 2017. "Terrestrial glint seen from deep space: Oriented ice crystals detected from the Lagrangian point." Geophysical Research Letters, Online: [10.1002/2017gl073248]

    Wen, G., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and R. C. Levy. 2016. "Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Near Cloud Reflectance Enhancement Using LES/SHDOM Simulated Radiances ." J. Geophys. Res., Atmos., (121): 9661–9674 [10.1002/2016JD025021]

    Gautam, R., C. K. Gatebe, M. K. Singh, T. Várnai, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "Radiative characteristics of Clouds Embedded in Smoke derived from airborne multi-angular measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121 (15): 9140–9152 [10.1002/2016jd025309]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2015. "Effect of cloud fraction on near-cloud aerosol behavior in the MODIS atmospheric correction ocean color product." Rem. Sens, 7: 5283-5299 [10.3390/rs70505283]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and R. Wood. 2014. "CALIPSO observations of near-cloud aerosol properties as a function of cloud fraction." Geophys. Res. Lett, 41: 9150-9157 [10.1002/2014GL061896]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2014. "Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (3): 1546-1554 [10.1002/2013JD020633]

    Marshak, A., K. F. Evans, T. Varnai, and G. Wen. 2014. "Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 147: 79-85 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.022]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, A. B. Kostinski, and T. Varnai. 2013. "Shape-induced gravitational sorting of Saharan dust during transatlantic voyage: Evidence from CALIOP lidar depolarization measurements." Geophys. Res. Lett, 40 (12): 3281-3286 [10.1002/grl.50603]

    Wen, G., A. Marshak, R. C. Levy, et al. L. A. Remer, N. Loeb, T. Varnai, and R. F. Cahalan. 2013. "Improvement of MODIS aerosol retrievals near clouds." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (16): 9168-9181 [10.1002/jgrd.50617]

    Varnai, T., A. Marshak, and W. Yang. 2013. "Multi-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of clouds." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (8): 3899-3908 [10.5194/acp-13-3899-2013]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, O. V. Kalashnikova, and A. B. Kostinski. 2012. "CALIPSO observations of transatlantic dust: vertical stratification and effect of clouds." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (23): 11339-11354 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/acp-12-11339-2012]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and Z. Liu. 2012. "Effect of CALIPSO cloud–aerosol discrimination (CAD) confidence levels on observations of aerosol properties near clouds." Atmospheric Research, 116: 134-141 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.03.013]

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment, 52: 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Chiu, J., A. Marshak, C. Huang, et al. T. Varnai, R. Hogan, D. Giles, B. Holben, E. OConnor, Y. Knyazikhin, and W. Wiscombe. 2012. "Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements: examples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (21): 10313-10329 [10.5194/acp-12-10313-2012]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2012. "Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds." Atmos Meas Tech, 5 (2): 389-396 [10.5194/amt-5-389-2012]

    Pounder, N., R. Hogan, T. Varnai, A. Battaglia, and R. F. Cahalan. 2012. "A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple-Field-of-View Lidar." J Appl Meteor Climatol, 51 (2): 350-365 [10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05007.1]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, S. P. Palm, T. Varnai, and W. J. Wiscombe. 2011. "Cloud Impact on Surface Altimetry From a Spaceborne 532-nm Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar: System Modeling for Cloudy and Clear Atmospheres." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 49 (12): 4910-4919 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2011.2153860]

    Oreopoulos, L., M. Wilson, and T. Varnai. 2011. "Implementation on Landsat Data of a Simple Cloud-Mask Algorithm Developed for MODIS Land Bands." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 8 (4): 597-601 [10.1109/LGRS.2010.2095409]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2011. "Global CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Changes Near Clouds." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 8 (1): 19-23 [10.1109/LGRS.2010.2049982]

    Varnai, T. 2010. "Multiyear Statistics of 2D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites." J Atmos Sci, 67 (11): 3757-3762 [10.1175/2010JAS3506.1]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, W. J. Wiscombe, and P. Yang. 2010. "Uncertainties in Ice-Sheet Altimetry From a Spaceborne 1064-nm Single-Channel Lidar Due to Undetected Thin Clouds." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 48 (1): 250-259 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2028335]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2009. "MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds." Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 (6): L06807 [10.1029/2008GL037089]

    Evans, K., A. Marshak, and T. Varnai. 2008. "The Potential for Improved Boundary Layer Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from the Multiple Directions of MISR." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 65 (10): 3179-3196 [10.1175/2008JAS2627.1]

    Varnai, T., and R. F. Cahalan. 2007. "Potential for airborne offbeam lidar measurements of snow and sea ice thickness." J. Geophys. Res., 112 (C12): C12S90 [10.1029/2007JC004091]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2007. "View angle dependence of cloud optical thicknesses retrieved by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)." J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D6): D06203 [10.1029/2005JD006912]

    Marshak, A., S. E. Platnick, T. Varnai, G. Wen, and R. F. Cahalan. 2006. "Impact of three-dimensional radiative effects on satellite retrievals of cloud droplet sizes." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D9): D09207 [10.1029/2005JD006686]

    Oreopoulos, L., A. Marshak, R. F. Cahalan, et al. T. Varnai, A. B. Davis, and A. Macke. 2006. "New directions in the radiative transfer of cloudy atmospheres." Eos Trans. AGU, 87 (5): 52 [10.1029/2006EO050006]

    Cahalan, R., L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, et al. K. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, O. Macke, O. Macke, O. Macke, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Varnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva. 2005. "The International Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres." Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 86 (9): 1275-1293 [10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1275]

    Cahalan, R. F., M. J. Mcgill, J. Kolasinski, T. Varnai, and K. Yetzer. 2005. "THOR—Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Lidar Returns." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 22 (6): 605-627 [10.1175/JTECH1740.1]

    Varnai, T. 2003. "A method for analyzing how various parts of clouds influence each other's brightness." J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D22): 4706 [10.1029/2003JD003561]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2002. "Observations of three-dimensional radiative effects that influence satellite retrievals of cloud properties." Quart Jour of Hungarian Meteor Service (Idojaras), 106: 265-278.

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2002. "Observations of three-dimensional radiative effects that influence MODIS cloud optical thickness retrievals." J Atmos Sci, 59: 1607-1618.

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2001. "Statistical analysis of the uncertainties in cloud optical depth retrievals caused by three-dimensional radiative effects." J Atmos Sci, 58: 1540-1548.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Varnai, T., A. B. Kostinski, and A. Marshak. 2019. "Deep Space Observations of Sun Glints from Marine Ice Clouds." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 1-5 [10.1109/lgrs.2019.2930866]

    Várnai, T., C. Gatebe, R. Gautam, R. Poudyal, and W. Su. 2019. "Developing an Aircraft-Based Angular Distribution Model of Solar Reflection from Wildfire Smoke to Aid Satellite-Based Radiative Flux Estimation." Remote Sensing 11 (13): 1509 [10.3390/rs11131509]

    Wu, D., T. Wang, T. Várnai, et al. J. Limbacher, R. Kahn, G. Taha, J. Lee, J. Gong, and T. Yuan. 2018. "MISR Radiance Anomalies Induced by Stratospheric Volcanic Aerosols." Remote Sensing 10 (12): 1875 [10.3390/rs10121875]

    Várnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2018. "Satellite Observations of Cloud-Related Variations in Aerosol Properties." Atmosphere 9 (11): 430 [10.3390/atmos9110430]

    Fauchez, T., S. Platnick, T. Várnai, et al. K. Meyer, C. Cornet, and F. Szczap. 2018. "Scale dependence of cirrus heterogeneity effects. Part II: MODIS NIR and SWIR channels." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (16): 12105-12121 [10.5194/acp-18-12105-2018]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Várnai, and Y. Knyazikhin. 2018. "EPIC Spectral Observations of Variability in Earth’s Global Reflectance." Remote Sensing 10 (2): 254 [10.3390/rs10020254]

    Várnai, T., A. Marshak, and T. F. Eck. 2017. "Observation-Based Study on Aerosol Optical Depth and Particle Size in Partly Cloudy Regions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122 (18): 10,013-10,024 [10.1002/2017jd027028]

    Fauchez, T., S. Platnick, K. Meyer, et al. C. Cornet, F. Szczap, and T. Várnai. 2017. "Scale dependence of cirrus horizontal heterogeneity effects on TOA measurements – Part I: MODIS brightness temperatures in the thermal infrared." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (13): 8489-8508 [10.5194/acp-17-8489-2017]

    Marshak, A., T. Várnai, and A. Kostinski. 2017. "Terrestrial glint seen from deep space: Oriented ice crystals detected from the Lagrangian point." Geophysical Research Letters Online [10.1002/2017gl073248]

    Wen, G., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and R. C. Levy. 2016. "Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Near Cloud Reflectance Enhancement Using LES/SHDOM Simulated Radiances ." J. Geophys. Res., Atmos. 9661–9674 [10.1002/2016JD025021]

    Gautam, R., C. K. Gatebe, M. K. Singh, T. Várnai, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "Radiative characteristics of Clouds Embedded in Smoke derived from airborne multi-angular measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121 (15): 9140–9152 [10.1002/2016jd025309]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2015. "Effect of cloud fraction on near-cloud aerosol behavior in the MODIS atmospheric correction ocean color product." Rem. Sens 7 5283-5299 [10.3390/rs70505283]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and R. Wood. 2014. "CALIPSO observations of near-cloud aerosol properties as a function of cloud fraction." Geophys. Res. Lett 41 9150-9157 [10.1002/2014GL061896]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2014. "Near-cloud aerosol properties from the 1 km resolution MODIS ocean product." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (3): 1546-1554 [10.1002/2013JD020633]

    Marshak, A., K. F. Evans, T. Varnai, and G. Wen. 2014. "Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 147 79-85 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.05.022]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, A. B. Kostinski, and T. Varnai. 2013. "Shape-induced gravitational sorting of Saharan dust during transatlantic voyage: Evidence from CALIOP lidar depolarization measurements." Geophys. Res. Lett 40 (12): 3281-3286 [10.1002/grl.50603]

    Wen, G., A. Marshak, R. C. Levy, et al. L. A. Remer, N. Loeb, T. Varnai, and R. F. Cahalan. 2013. "Improvement of MODIS aerosol retrievals near clouds." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (16): 9168-9181 [10.1002/jgrd.50617]

    Varnai, T., A. Marshak, and W. Yang. 2013. "Multi-satellite aerosol observations in the vicinity of clouds." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (8): 3899-3908 [10.5194/acp-13-3899-2013]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, O. V. Kalashnikova, and A. B. Kostinski. 2012. "CALIPSO observations of transatlantic dust: vertical stratification and effect of clouds." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (23): 11339-11354 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/acp-12-11339-2012]

    Yang, W., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, and Z. Liu. 2012. "Effect of CALIPSO cloud–aerosol discrimination (CAD) confidence levels on observations of aerosol properties near clouds." Atmospheric Research 116 134-141 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2012.03.013]

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment 52 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Chiu, J., A. Marshak, C. Huang, et al. T. Varnai, R. Hogan, D. Giles, B. Holben, E. OConnor, Y. Knyazikhin, and W. Wiscombe. 2012. "Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements: examples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (21): 10313-10329 [10.5194/acp-12-10313-2012]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2012. "Analysis of co-located MODIS and CALIPSO observations near clouds." Atmos Meas Tech 5 (2): 389-396 [10.5194/amt-5-389-2012]

    Pounder, N., R. Hogan, T. Varnai, A. Battaglia, and R. F. Cahalan. 2012. "A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple-Field-of-View Lidar." J Appl Meteor Climatol 51 (2): 350-365 [10.1175/JAMC-D-10-05007.1]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, S. P. Palm, T. Varnai, and W. J. Wiscombe. 2011. "Cloud Impact on Surface Altimetry From a Spaceborne 532-nm Micropulse Photon-Counting Lidar: System Modeling for Cloudy and Clear Atmospheres." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 49 (12): 4910-4919 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2011.2153860]

    Oreopoulos, L., M. Wilson, and T. Varnai. 2011. "Implementation on Landsat Data of a Simple Cloud-Mask Algorithm Developed for MODIS Land Bands." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett. 8 (4): 597-601 [10.1109/LGRS.2010.2095409]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2011. "Global CALIPSO Observations of Aerosol Changes Near Clouds." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett. 8 (1): 19-23 [10.1109/LGRS.2010.2049982]

    Varnai, T. 2010. "Multiyear Statistics of 2D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites." J Atmos Sci 67 (11): 3757-3762 [10.1175/2010JAS3506.1]

    Yang, Y., A. Marshak, T. Varnai, W. J. Wiscombe, and P. Yang. 2010. "Uncertainties in Ice-Sheet Altimetry From a Spaceborne 1064-nm Single-Channel Lidar Due to Undetected Thin Clouds." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 48 (1): 250-259 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2028335]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2009. "MODIS observations of enhanced clear sky reflectance near clouds." Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (6): L06807 [10.1029/2008GL037089]

    Evans, K., A. Marshak, and T. Varnai. 2008. "The Potential for Improved Boundary Layer Cloud Optical Depth Retrievals from the Multiple Directions of MISR." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 65 (10): 3179-3196 [10.1175/2008JAS2627.1]

    Varnai, T., and R. F. Cahalan. 2007. "Potential for airborne offbeam lidar measurements of snow and sea ice thickness." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (C12): C12S90 [10.1029/2007JC004091]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2007. "View angle dependence of cloud optical thicknesses retrieved by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D6): D06203 [10.1029/2005JD006912]

    Marshak, A., S. E. Platnick, T. Varnai, G. Wen, and R. F. Cahalan. 2006. "Impact of three-dimensional radiative effects on satellite retrievals of cloud droplet sizes." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D9): D09207 [10.1029/2005JD006686]

    Oreopoulos, L., A. Marshak, R. F. Cahalan, et al. T. Varnai, A. B. Davis, and A. Macke. 2006. "New directions in the radiative transfer of cloudy atmospheres." Eos Trans. AGU 87 (5): 52 [10.1029/2006EO050006]

    Cahalan, R., L. Oreopoulos, A. Marshak, et al. K. Evans, A. Davis, R. Pincus, K. Yetzer, B. Mayer, R. Davies, T. Ackerman, H. Barker, E. Clothiaux, R. Ellingson, M. Garay, E. Kassianov, S. Kinne, O. Macke, O. Macke, O. Macke, P. Partain, S. Prigarin, A. Rublev, G. Stephens, F. Szczap, E. Takara, T. Varnai, G. Wen, and T. Zhuravleva. 2005. "The International Intercomparison of 3D Radiation Codes (I3RC): Bringing together the most advanced radiative transfer tools for cloudy atmospheres." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 86 (9): 1275-1293 [10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1275]

    Cahalan, R. F., M. J. Mcgill, J. Kolasinski, T. Varnai, and K. Yetzer. 2005. "THOR—Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Lidar Returns." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 22 (6): 605-627 [10.1175/JTECH1740.1]

    Varnai, T. 2003. "A method for analyzing how various parts of clouds influence each other's brightness." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D22): 4706 [10.1029/2003JD003561]

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2002. "Observations of three-dimensional radiative effects that influence satellite retrievals of cloud properties." Quart Jour of Hungarian Meteor Service (Idojaras) 106 265-278

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2002. "Observations of three-dimensional radiative effects that influence MODIS cloud optical thickness retrievals." J Atmos Sci 59 1607-1618

    Varnai, T., and A. Marshak. 2001. "Statistical analysis of the uncertainties in cloud optical depth retrievals caused by three-dimensional radiative effects." J Atmos Sci 58 1540-1548

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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