Patricia T Boyd

Patricia T Boyd

  • Chief , Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory
  • Additional Roles: Associate Director
  • 301.286.2550
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 667
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Padi Boyd is the Chief of the Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory in the Astrophysics Science Division, and the Project Scientist for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission (a NASA Explorer Mission launched in 2018). She has been at Goddard since 1993, when she was a USRA visiting scientist with the High Speed Photometer and Polarimeter Team aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, studying the optical and ultraviolet polarization seen in X-ray binaries, pulsars and active galaxies.

    In 1995, Boyd joined the Monitoring X-ray Experiment team, an X-ray all-sky monitor that was in development and testing as part of the Russian-led Spectrum X-Gamma mission. In 1997, she joined the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment Guest Observer Facility performing science support for that mission. From 2003 to 2008, she managed that facility, as well as the Swift Science Center.

    Padi spent a two-year detail at NASA Headquarters in Washington as the program scientist for the Kepler mission. While at NASA Headquarters, she was also the NASA point of contact for the MOST U.S. Guest Observer program and also served as a discipline scientist for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. She was also the Program Officer for the Origins of Solar Systems Exoplanets program.

    Since returning to Goddard in 2010, she has held a number of positions including Deputy Project Scientist for Operations of the Hubble Space Telescope, Associate Chief of the Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, Acting Deputy Director of the Astrophysics Division, and Associate Director of the Astrophysics Division.

    Her research interests focus on applying traditional and novel time series and spectral analysis techniques to uncover the drivers of stellar variability, and accretion in compact binaries and active galaxies, using data from a variety of space telescopes.

    Research Interests

    Long-term variability in X-ray binaries and accretion disk dynamics.

    Multiwavelength studies of the flux and spectral variability of binaries harboring a compact object, on timescales much longer than the orbital period. Application of nonlinear time series analysis methods to X-ray light curves to uncover the drivers of accretion disk dynamics, and/or accretion rate changes.

    Current Projects

    Rapidly rotating, X-ray bright stars and flare stars

    KSwAGS- a Swift survey of the Kepler field of view to find previously unidentified active galaxies, CVs, X-ray binaries and unusual stars.

    Anomalous low states in X-ray binaries and their effects on long-term cycles (LMC X-3, Her X-1).

    Positions/Employment

    7/2011 - Present

    Associate Chief, Astroparticle Physics Laboratory and Deputy Project Scientist for Operations, Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center

    Education

    B. S. in astronomy and astrophysics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, 1987

    M. S. in physics and atmospheric science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 1989

    Ph. D. in physics and atmospheric science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 1993, thesis title: "Chaotic Scattering in the Gravitational Three-body Problem"

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Smale, A. P., and P. T. Boyd. 2012. "Anomalous Low States and Long-term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3." The Astrophysical Journal, 756: 146 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/146]

    Breeveld, A. A., P. A. Curran, E. A. Hoversten, et al. S. Koch, W. Landsman, F. E. Marshall, M. J. Page, T. S. Poole, P. Roming, P. J. Smith, M. Still, V. Yershov, A. J. Blustin, P. J. Brown, C. Gronwall, S. T. Holland, N. P. Kuin, K. McGowan, S. Rosen, P. Boyd, P. Broos, M. Carter, M. M. Chester, B. Hancock, H. Huckle, S. Immler, M. Ivanushkina, T. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, A. N. Morgan, S. Oates, M. de Pasquale, P. Schady, M. Siegel, and D. vanden Berk. 2010. "Further calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 406: 1687 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16832.x]

    Roming, P. W., T. S. Koch, S. R. Oates, et al. B. L. Porterfield, D. E. Vanden Berk, P. T. Boyd, S. T. Holland, E. A. Hoversten, S. Immler, F. E. Marshall, M. J. Page, J. L. Racusin, D. P. Schneider, A. A. Breeveld, P. J. Brown, M. M. Chester, A. Cucchiara, M. DePasquale, C. Gronwall, S. D. Hunsberger, N. P. Kuin, W. B. Landsman, P. Schady, and M. Still. 2009. "The First Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope GRB Afterglow Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal, 690: 163 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/690/1/163]

    Boyd, P. T., A. P. Smale, and K. M. Smale. 2008. "AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe." BAAS, 212: 254.

    Ziaeepour, H., S. T. Holland, P. T. Boyd, et al. K. Page, S. Oates, C. B. Markwardt, P. Mészáros, N. Gehrels, F. E. Marshall, J. Cummings, and M. Goad. 2008. "GRB 060607A: a gamma-ray burst with bright asynchronous early X-ray and optical emissions." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 385: 453 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12859.x]

    Poole, T. S., A. A. Breeveld, M. J. Page, et al. W. Landsman, S. T. Holland, P. Roming, N. P. Kuin, P. J. Brown, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, S. Koch, K. O. Mason, P. Schady, D. vanden Berk, A. J. Blustin, P. Boyd, P. Broos, M. Carter, M. M. Chester, A. Cucchiara, B. Hancock, H. Huckle, S. Immler, M. Ivanushkina, T. Kennedy, F. Marshall, A. Morgan, S. B. Pandey, M. de Pasquale, P. J. Smith, and M. Still. 2008. "Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 383: 627 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12563.x]

    Perri, M., D. Guetta, L. A. Antonelli, et al. A. Cucchiara, V. Mangano, J. Reeves, L. Angelini, A. P. Beardmore, P. Boyd, D. N. Burrows, S. Campana, M. Capalbi, G. Chincarini, G. Cusumano, P. Giommi, J. E. Hill, S. T. Holland, V. La Parola, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, C. Pagani, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, R. L. Starling, G. Tagliaferri, E. Troja, L. Vetere, and N. Gehrels. 2007. "The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with Swift and XMM-Newton." Astronomy and Astrophysics, [10.1051/0004-6361:20066227]

    Holland, S. T., P. T. Boyd, J. Gorosabel, et al. J. Hjorth, P. Schady, B. Thomsen, T. Augusteijn, A. J. Blustin, A. Breeveld, M. De Pasquale, J. P. Fynbo, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, W. Landsman, P. Laursen, K. McGowan, V. Mangano, C. B. Markwardt, F. Marshall, K. O. Mason, A. Moretti, M. J. Page, T. Poole, P. Roming, S. Rosen, and M. Still. 2007. "Optical, Infrared, and Ultraviolet Observations of the X-Ray Flash XRF 050416A." The Astronomical Journal, 133: 122 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/509656]

    Cusumano, G., V. Mangano, G. Chincarini, et al. A. Panaitescu, D. N. Burrows, V. La Parola, T. Sakamoto, S. Campana, T. Mineo, G. Tagliaferri, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, L. R. Cominsky, C. Gronwall, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, K. Hurley, S. Immler, J. A. Kennea, K. O. Mason, F. Marshal, P. Mészáros, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, P. W. Roming, A. Wells, N. E. White, and B. Zhang. 2007. "Swift observations of GRB 050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed." Astronomy and Astrophysics, 462: 73 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1051/0004-6361:20065173]

    Mason, K. O., A. J. Blustin, P. Boyd, et al. S. T. Holland, M. J. Page, P. Roming, M. Still, B. Zhang, A. Breeveld, M. de Pasquale, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, W. Landsman, K. McGowan, J. Nousek, T. Poole, J. Rhoads, S. Rosen, and P. Schady. 2006. "Prompt Optical Observations of GRB 050319 with the Swift UVOT." The Astrophysical Journal, 639: 311 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/499293]

    Roming, P. W., P. Schady, D. B. Fox, et al. B. Zhang, E. Liang, K. O. Mason, E. Rol, D. N. Burrows, A. J. Blustin, P. T. Boyd, P. Brown, S. T. Holland, K. McGowan, W. B. Landsman, K. L. Page, J. E. Rhoads, S. R. Rosen, D. Vanden Berk, S. D. Barthelmy, A. A. Breeveld, A. Cucchiara, M. De Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, M. R. Goad, M. Ivanushkina, C. James, J. A. Kennea, S. Kobayashi, V. Mangano, P. Mészáros, A. N. Morgan, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, T. Poole, M. D. Still, G. Tagliaferri, and S. Zane. 2006. "Very Early Optical Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for Relative Paucity of Detection." The Astrophysical Journal, 652: 1416 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/508481]

    Blustin, A. J., D. Band, S. Barthelmy, et al. P. Boyd, M. Capalbi, S. T. Holland, F. E. Marshall, K. O. Mason, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Roming, S. Rosen, P. Schady, M. Still, B. Zhang, L. Angelini, L. Barbier, A. Beardmore, A. Breeveld, D. N. Burrows, J. R. Cummings, J. Cannizzo, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, A. Cucchiara, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, S. Hunsberger, K. C. Hurley, M. Ivanushkina, J. A. Kennea, H. A. Krimm, P. Kumar, W. Landsman, V. La Parola, C. B. Markwardt, K. McGowan, P. Mészáros, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, A. Morgan, J. Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, M. J. Page, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, J. Rhoads, P. Romano, T. Sakamoto, G. Sato, G. Tagliaferri, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, and N. E. White. 2006. "Swift Panchromatic Observations of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 050525a." The Astrophysical Journal, 637: 901 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/498425]

    Cusumano, G., V. Mangano, G. Chincarini, et al. A. Panaitescu, D. N. Burrows, V. La Parola, T. Sakamoto, S. Campana, T. Mineo, G. Tagliaferri, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelemy, A. P. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, L. R. Cominsky, C. Gronwall, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, K. Hurley, J. A. Kennea, K. O. Mason, F. Marshall, P. Mészáros, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, P. W. Roming, A. Wells, N. E. White, and B. Zhang. 2006. "Gamma-ray bursts: Huge explosion in the early Universe." Nature, 440: 164 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/440164a]

    Campana, S., V. Mangano, A. J. Blustin, et al. P. Brown, D. N. Burrows, G. Chincarini, J. R. Cummings, G. Cusumano, M. Della Valle, D. Malesani, P. Mészáros, J. A. Nousek, M. Page, T. Sakamoto, E. Waxman, B. Zhang, Z. G. Dai, N. Gehrels, S. Immler, F. E. Marshall, K. O. Mason, A. Moretti, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, K. L. Page, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, G. Tagliaferri, L. R. Cominsky, P. Giommi, O. Godet, J. A. Kennea, H. Krimm, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelmy, P. T. Boyd, D. M. Palmer, A. A. Wells, and N. E. White. 2006. "The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave." Nature, 442: 1008 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature04892]

    Still, M., P. W. Roming, K. O. Mason, et al. A. Blustin, P. Boyd, A. Breeveld, P. Brown, M. De Pasquale, C. Gronwall, S. T. Holland, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, C. James, W. Landsman, K. McGowan, A. Morgan, T. Poole, S. Rosen, P. Schady, B. Zhang, H. Krimm, T. Sakamoto, P. Giommi, M. R. Goad, V. Mangano, K. Page, M. Perri, D. N. Burrows, N. Gehrels, and J. Nousek. 2005. "Swift UVOT Detection of GRB 050318." The Astrophysical Journal, 635: 1187 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/497627]

    Brown, P. J., S. T. Holland, C. James, et al. P. Milne, P. W. Roming, K. O. Mason, K. L. Page, A. P. Beardmore, D. Burrows, A. Morgan, C. Gronwall, A. J. Blustin, P. Boyd, M. Still, A. Breeveld, M. de Pasquale, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, W. Landsman, K. McGowan, T. Poole, S. Rosen, P. Schady, and N. Gehrels. 2005. "Ultraviolet, Optical, and X-Ray Observations of the Type Ia Supernova 2005am with Swift." The Astrophysical Journal, 635: 1192 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/497437]

    Gehrels, N., G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, et al. K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Mészáros, P. W. Roming, L. Angelini, L. M. Barbier, T. Belloni, P. T. Boyd, S. Campana, P. A. Caraveo, M. M. Chester, O. Citterio, T. L. Cline, M. S. Cropper, J. R. Cummings, A. J. Dean, E. D. Feigelson, E. E. Fenimore, D. A. Frail, A. S. Fruchter, G. P. Garmire, K. Gendreau, G. Ghisellini, J. Greiner, J. E. Hill, S. D. Hunsberger, H. A. Krimm, S. R. Kulkarni, P. Kumar, F. Lebrun, N. M. Lloyd-Ronning, C. B. Markwardt, B. J. Mattson, R. F. Mushotzky, J. P. Norris, B. Paczynski, D. M. Palmer, H. Park, A. M. Parsons, J. Paul, M. J. Rees, C. S. Reynolds, J. E. Rhoads, T. P. Sasseen, B. E. Schaefer, A. T. Short, A. P. Smale, I. A. Smith, L. Stella, M. Still, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, L. K. Townsley, J. Tueller, M. J. Turner, M. Vietri, W. Voges, M. J. Ward, R. Willingale, F. M. Zerbi, and W. W. Zhang. 2005. "Erratum: ``The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission'' (ApJ, 611, 1005 [2004])." The Astrophysical Journal, 621: 558 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/427409]

    Boyd, P. T., and A. P. Smale. 2004. "The Long-Term Light Curves of X-Ray Binaries Contain Simultaneous Periodic and Random Components." The Astrophysical Journal, 612: 1006 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/421078]

    Boyd, P. T., A. P. Smale, and J. F. Dolan. 2001. "X-Ray and Ultraviolet Orbital Phase Dependence in LMC X-3." The Astrophysical Journal, 555: 822 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/321511]

    Boroson, B., K. O'Brien, K. Horne, et al. T. Kallman, M. Still, P. T. Boyd, H. Quaintrell, and S. D. Vrtilek. 2000. "Discovery of Millihertz ULTRAVIOLET Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Hercules X-1." The Astrophysical Journal, 545: 399 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/317786]

    Boyd, P. T., A. P. Smale, J. Homan, et al. P. G. Jonker, M. van der Klis, and E. Kuulkers. 2000. "Canonical Timing and Spectral Behavior of LMC X-3 in the Low/Hard State." The Astrophysical Journal, 542: L127 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/312931]

    Brief Bio

    Padi Boyd is the Chief of the Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory in the Astrophysics Science Division, and the Project Scientist for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Mission (a NASA Explorer Mission launched in 2018). She has been at Goddard since 1993, when she was a USRA visiting scientist with the High Speed Photometer and Polarimeter Team aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, studying the optical and ultraviolet polarization seen in X-ray binaries, pulsars and active galaxies.

    In 1995, Boyd joined the Monitoring X-ray Experiment team, an X-ray all-sky monitor that was in development and testing as part of the Russian-led Spectrum X-Gamma mission. In 1997, she joined the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment Guest Observer Facility performing science support for that mission. From 2003 to 2008, she managed that facility, as well as the Swift Science Center.

    Padi spent a two-year detail at NASA Headquarters in Washington as the program scientist for the Kepler mission. While at NASA Headquarters, she was also the NASA point of contact for the MOST U.S. Guest Observer program and also served as a discipline scientist for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. She was also the Program Officer for the Origins of Solar Systems Exoplanets program.

    Since returning to Goddard in 2010, she has held a number of positions including Deputy Project Scientist for Operations of the Hubble Space Telescope, Associate Chief of the Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, Acting Deputy Director of the Astrophysics Division, and Associate Director of the Astrophysics Division.

    Her research interests focus on applying traditional and novel time series and spectral analysis techniques to uncover the drivers of stellar variability, and accretion in compact binaries and active galaxies, using data from a variety of space telescopes.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Smale, A. P., and P. T. Boyd. 2012. "Anomalous Low States and Long-term Variability in the Black Hole Binary LMC X-3." The Astrophysical Journal 756 146 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/146]

    Breeveld, A. A., P. A. Curran, E. A. Hoversten, et al. S. Koch, W. Landsman, F. E. Marshall, M. J. Page, T. S. Poole, P. Roming, P. J. Smith, M. Still, V. Yershov, A. J. Blustin, P. J. Brown, C. Gronwall, S. T. Holland, N. P. Kuin, K. McGowan, S. Rosen, P. Boyd, P. Broos, M. Carter, M. M. Chester, B. Hancock, H. Huckle, S. Immler, M. Ivanushkina, T. Kennedy, K. O. Mason, A. N. Morgan, S. Oates, M. de Pasquale, P. Schady, M. Siegel, and D. vanden Berk. 2010. "Further calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 406 1687 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16832.x]

    Roming, P. W., T. S. Koch, S. R. Oates, et al. B. L. Porterfield, D. E. Vanden Berk, P. T. Boyd, S. T. Holland, E. A. Hoversten, S. Immler, F. E. Marshall, M. J. Page, J. L. Racusin, D. P. Schneider, A. A. Breeveld, P. J. Brown, M. M. Chester, A. Cucchiara, M. DePasquale, C. Gronwall, S. D. Hunsberger, N. P. Kuin, W. B. Landsman, P. Schady, and M. Still. 2009. "The First Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope GRB Afterglow Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal 690 163 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/690/1/163]

    Boyd, P. T., A. P. Smale, and K. M. Smale. 2008. "AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe." BAAS 212 254

    Ziaeepour, H., S. T. Holland, P. T. Boyd, et al. K. Page, S. Oates, C. B. Markwardt, P. Mészáros, N. Gehrels, F. E. Marshall, J. Cummings, and M. Goad. 2008. "GRB 060607A: a gamma-ray burst with bright asynchronous early X-ray and optical emissions." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 385 453 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12859.x]

    Poole, T. S., A. A. Breeveld, M. J. Page, et al. W. Landsman, S. T. Holland, P. Roming, N. P. Kuin, P. J. Brown, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, S. Koch, K. O. Mason, P. Schady, D. vanden Berk, A. J. Blustin, P. Boyd, P. Broos, M. Carter, M. M. Chester, A. Cucchiara, B. Hancock, H. Huckle, S. Immler, M. Ivanushkina, T. Kennedy, F. Marshall, A. Morgan, S. B. Pandey, M. de Pasquale, P. J. Smith, and M. Still. 2008. "Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 383 627 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.12563.x]

    Perri, M., D. Guetta, L. A. Antonelli, et al. A. Cucchiara, V. Mangano, J. Reeves, L. Angelini, A. P. Beardmore, P. Boyd, D. N. Burrows, S. Campana, M. Capalbi, G. Chincarini, G. Cusumano, P. Giommi, J. E. Hill, S. T. Holland, V. La Parola, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, C. Pagani, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, R. L. Starling, G. Tagliaferri, E. Troja, L. Vetere, and N. Gehrels. 2007. "The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with Swift and XMM-Newton." Astronomy and Astrophysics [10.1051/0004-6361:20066227]

    Holland, S. T., P. T. Boyd, J. Gorosabel, et al. J. Hjorth, P. Schady, B. Thomsen, T. Augusteijn, A. J. Blustin, A. Breeveld, M. De Pasquale, J. P. Fynbo, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, W. Landsman, P. Laursen, K. McGowan, V. Mangano, C. B. Markwardt, F. Marshall, K. O. Mason, A. Moretti, M. J. Page, T. Poole, P. Roming, S. Rosen, and M. Still. 2007. "Optical, Infrared, and Ultraviolet Observations of the X-Ray Flash XRF 050416A." The Astronomical Journal 133 122 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/509656]

    Cusumano, G., V. Mangano, G. Chincarini, et al. A. Panaitescu, D. N. Burrows, V. La Parola, T. Sakamoto, S. Campana, T. Mineo, G. Tagliaferri, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, L. R. Cominsky, C. Gronwall, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, K. Hurley, S. Immler, J. A. Kennea, K. O. Mason, F. Marshal, P. Mészáros, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, P. W. Roming, A. Wells, N. E. White, and B. Zhang. 2007. "Swift observations of GRB 050904: the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed." Astronomy and Astrophysics 462 73 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1051/0004-6361:20065173]

    Mason, K. O., A. J. Blustin, P. Boyd, et al. S. T. Holland, M. J. Page, P. Roming, M. Still, B. Zhang, A. Breeveld, M. de Pasquale, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, S. Hunsberger, M. Ivanushkina, W. Landsman, K. McGowan, J. Nousek, T. Poole, J. Rhoads, S. Rosen, and P. Schady. 2006. "Prompt Optical Observations of GRB 050319 with the Swift UVOT." The Astrophysical Journal 639 311 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/499293]

    Roming, P. W., P. Schady, D. B. Fox, et al. B. Zhang, E. Liang, K. O. Mason, E. Rol, D. N. Burrows, A. J. Blustin, P. T. Boyd, P. Brown, S. T. Holland, K. McGowan, W. B. Landsman, K. L. Page, J. E. Rhoads, S. R. Rosen, D. Vanden Berk, S. D. Barthelmy, A. A. Breeveld, A. Cucchiara, M. De Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, M. R. Goad, M. Ivanushkina, C. James, J. A. Kennea, S. Kobayashi, V. Mangano, P. Mészáros, A. N. Morgan, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, T. Poole, M. D. Still, G. Tagliaferri, and S. Zane. 2006. "Very Early Optical Afterglows of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for Relative Paucity of Detection." The Astrophysical Journal 652 1416 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/508481]

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