Nancy Y Kiang

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Nancy Y Kiang

  • (AST,ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY & DYNAMIC)
  • 212.678.5553
  • NASA GISS
  • 2880 Broadway
  • New York , NY 10025
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Kiang conducts research on the interaction between the biosphere and the atmosphere, focusing on life on land. Through photosynthesis and the evapotranspiration of water from plant leaves, seasonal cycles of growth and decay, and occasional big events like fires, the biosphere on Earth exchanges heat, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen in different forms, and many other compounds with the atmosphere. These exchanges result in the biosphere actively controlling the climate and spectral properties of the Earth. Dr. Kiang also relates this work to research in astrobiology, particularly with regard to how photosynthetic activity produces signs of life at the global scale -- biogenic gases like oxygen and photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll - and how these may exhibit adaptations to alternative environments on extrasolar planets, resulting in other “biosignatures” that might be detected by space telescopes. Her work includes computer simulation modeling of vegetation dynamics coupled to atmospheric general circiulation models (GCMs), occasional fieldwork, and theoretical studies on the thermodynamic efficiency of photon energy use in photosynthesis.

    Education

    PhD, Biometeorology, Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy & Mgmt., University of Caifornia at Berkeley
    M.S., Energy & Resources Group, University of Caifornia at Berkeley
    B.S., Computer Science, Stanford University

    Publications

    Refereed

    Kim, Y., P. R. Moorcroft, I. Aleinov, M. J. Puma, and N. Y. Kiang. 2015. "Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0)." Geosci. Model Dev., 8 (12): 3837-3865 [10.5194/gmd-8-3837-2015]

    Nazarenko, L., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. N. L. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2015. "Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403]

    Kiang, N. Y. 2014. "Looking for life elsewhere: Photosynthesis and astrobiology." Biochemist, 36 (6): 24-30.

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Sanroma, E., E. Palle, M. N. Parenteau, et al. N. Y. Kiang, A. M. Gutierrez-Navarro, R. Lopez, and P. Montanes-Rodriguez. 2014. "Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth." ApJ, 780 (1): 52 [10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/52]

    Sanroma, E., E. Palle, M. N. Parenteau, et al. N. Y. Kiang, A. M. Gutierrez-Navarro, R. Lopez, and P. Montanes-Rodriguez. 2013. "Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth." Astrophys. J., 780 (1): 52 [10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/52]

    Mielke, S. P., N. Y. Kiang, R. E. Blankenship, and D. Mauzerall. 2013. "Photosystem trap energies and spectrally-dependent energy-storage efficiencies in the Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, 1827 (3): 255-265 [10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.11.002]

    Unger, N., K. Harper, Y. Zheng, et al. N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serca. 2013. "Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (20): 10243-10269 [10.5194/acp-13-10243-2013]

    Mielke, S. P., N. Y. Kiang, R. E. Blankenship, M. R. Gunner, and D. Mauzerall. 2011. "Efficiency of photosynthesis in a Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium is comparable to or higher than that in Chl a-utilizing oxygenic species." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, 1807 (9): 1231-1236 [10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.06.007]

    Yang, W., W. Ni-Meister, N. Y. Kiang, et al. P. R. Moorcroft, A. H. Strahler, and A. Oliphant. 2010. "A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model II: Comparison to measurements." Agr Forest Meteorol, 150 (7-8): 895-907 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.008]

    Ni-Meister, W., W. Yang, and N. Y. Kiang. 2010. "A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model. I: Theory." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150 (7-8): 881-894 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.009]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn, 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Kiang, N. Y., J. Siefert, G. Govindjee, R. E. Blankenship, and V. S. Meadows. 2007. "Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. I. Review of Earth Organisms." Astrobiology, 7 (1): 222-251 [10.1089/ast.2006.0105]

    Kiang, N. Y., A. Segura, G. Tinetti, et al. G. Govindjee, R. E. Blankenship, M. Cohen, J. Siefert, D. Crisp, and V. S. Meadows. 2007. "Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. II. Coevolution with Other Stars And The Atmosphere on Extrasolar Worlds." Astrobiology, 7 (1): 252-274 [10.1089/ast.2006.0108]

    Friend, A. D., A. Arneth, N. Y. Kiang, et al. M. Lomas, J. Ogee, C. Roedenbeck, S. W. Running, J. D. Santaren, S. Sitch, N. Viovy, F. I. Woodward, and S. Zaele. 2007. "FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle." Global Change Biology, 13 (3): 610-633 [10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01223.x]

    Tinetti, G., V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, et al. N. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull. 2006. "Detectability of Planetary Characteristics in Disk-Averaged Spectra II: Synthetic Spectra and Light-Curves of Earth." Astrobiology, 6 (6): 881-900 [10.1089/ast.2006.6.881]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate, 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Friend, A., and N. Y. Kiang. 2005. "Land Surface Model Development for the GISS GCM: Effects of Improved Canopy Physiology on Simulated Climate." J. Climate, 18 (15): 2883-2902 [10.1175/JCLI3425.1]

    Baldocchi, D. D., L. Xu, and N. Y. Kiang. 2004. "How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought, and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak–grass savanna and an annual grassland." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 123 (1-2): 13-39 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.11.006]

    Selected Public Outreach

    "Alien Planets Revealed," NOVA 1 / 2014 - Present
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/alien-planets-revealed.html

    NOVA documentary.

    "The Color of Extraterrestrial Plants," WAMC Northeast Public Radio 9 / 2012 - 9 / 2012
    http://wamc.org/post/dr-nancy-kiang-columbia-university-color-extraterrestrial-plants  Podcast
    "Space Pioneer - Exoplanet", Discovery Channel 2009 - Present
     Television documentary
    "The Color of Plants on Other Worlds," Scientific American 4 / 2008 - 4 / 2008
    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-color-of-plants-on-other-worlds  Cover article
    "Looking for plant life on other planets," Earth & Sky 6 / 2007 - 6 / 2007
    http://earthsky.org/space/seeking-life-on-alien-worlds-look-to-plants  Podcast

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Kiang conducts research on the interaction between the biosphere and the atmosphere, focusing on life on land. Through photosynthesis and the evapotranspiration of water from plant leaves, seasonal cycles of growth and decay, and occasional big events like fires, the biosphere on Earth exchanges heat, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen in different forms, and many other compounds with the atmosphere. These exchanges result in the biosphere actively controlling the climate and spectral properties of the Earth. Dr. Kiang also relates this work to research in astrobiology, particularly with regard to how photosynthetic activity produces signs of life at the global scale -- biogenic gases like oxygen and photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll - and how these may exhibit adaptations to alternative environments on extrasolar planets, resulting in other “biosignatures” that might be detected by space telescopes. Her work includes computer simulation modeling of vegetation dynamics coupled to atmospheric general circiulation models (GCMs), occasional fieldwork, and theoretical studies on the thermodynamic efficiency of photon energy use in photosynthesis.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Kim, Y., P. R. Moorcroft, I. Aleinov, M. J. Puma, and N. Y. Kiang. 2015. "Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0)." Geosci. Model Dev. 8 (12): 3837-3865 [10.5194/gmd-8-3837-2015]

    Nazarenko, L., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. N. L. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2015. "Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403]

    Kiang, N. Y. 2014. "Looking for life elsewhere: Photosynthesis and astrobiology." Biochemist 36 (6): 24-30

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Sanroma, E., E. Palle, M. N. Parenteau, et al. N. Y. Kiang, A. M. Gutierrez-Navarro, R. Lopez, and P. Montanes-Rodriguez. 2014. "Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth." ApJ 780 (1): 52 [10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/52]

    Sanroma, E., E. Palle, M. N. Parenteau, et al. N. Y. Kiang, A. M. Gutierrez-Navarro, R. Lopez, and P. Montanes-Rodriguez. 2013. "Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth." Astrophys. J. 780 (1): 52 [10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/52]

    Mielke, S. P., N. Y. Kiang, R. E. Blankenship, and D. Mauzerall. 2013. "Photosystem trap energies and spectrally-dependent energy-storage efficiencies in the Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium, Acaryochloris marina." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 1827 (3): 255-265 [10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.11.002]

    Unger, N., K. Harper, Y. Zheng, et al. N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serca. 2013. "Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (20): 10243-10269 [10.5194/acp-13-10243-2013]

    Mielke, S. P., N. Y. Kiang, R. E. Blankenship, M. R. Gunner, and D. Mauzerall. 2011. "Efficiency of photosynthesis in a Chl d-utilizing cyanobacterium is comparable to or higher than that in Chl a-utilizing oxygenic species." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 1807 (9): 1231-1236 [10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.06.007]

    Yang, W., W. Ni-Meister, N. Y. Kiang, et al. P. R. Moorcroft, A. H. Strahler, and A. Oliphant. 2010. "A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model II: Comparison to measurements." Agr Forest Meteorol 150 (7-8): 895-907 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.008]

    Ni-Meister, W., W. Yang, and N. Y. Kiang. 2010. "A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model. I: Theory." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150 (7-8): 881-894 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.009]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Kiang, N. Y., J. Siefert, G. Govindjee, R. E. Blankenship, and V. S. Meadows. 2007. "Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. I. Review of Earth Organisms." Astrobiology 7 (1): 222-251 [10.1089/ast.2006.0105]

    Kiang, N. Y., A. Segura, G. Tinetti, et al. G. Govindjee, R. E. Blankenship, M. Cohen, J. Siefert, D. Crisp, and V. S. Meadows. 2007. "Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. II. Coevolution with Other Stars And The Atmosphere on Extrasolar Worlds." Astrobiology 7 (1): 252-274 [10.1089/ast.2006.0108]

    Friend, A. D., A. Arneth, N. Y. Kiang, et al. M. Lomas, J. Ogee, C. Roedenbeck, S. W. Running, J. D. Santaren, S. Sitch, N. Viovy, F. I. Woodward, and S. Zaele. 2007. "FLUXNET and modelling the global carbon cycle." Global Change Biology 13 (3): 610-633 [10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01223.x]

    Tinetti, G., V. S. Meadows, D. Crisp, et al. N. Kiang, B. H. Kahn, E. Bosc, E. Fishbein, T. Velusamy, and M. Turnbull. 2006. "Detectability of Planetary Characteristics in Disk-Averaged Spectra II: Synthetic Spectra and Light-Curves of Earth." Astrobiology 6 (6): 881-900 [10.1089/ast.2006.6.881]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Friend, A., and N. Y. Kiang. 2005. "Land Surface Model Development for the GISS GCM: Effects of Improved Canopy Physiology on Simulated Climate." J. Climate 18 (15): 2883-2902 [10.1175/JCLI3425.1]

    Baldocchi, D. D., L. Xu, and N. Y. Kiang. 2004. "How plant functional-type, weather, seasonal drought, and soil physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak–grass savanna and an annual grassland." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 123 (1-2): 13-39 [10.1016/j.agrformet.2003.11.006]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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