Dr. Kelly M Brunt

Dr. Kelly M Brunt

  • ASST. RESEARCH SCIENTIST
  • 301.286.5943 | 301.614.5644
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 615
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Brunt is an Associate Research Scientist with Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, at the University of Maryland and the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory. She obtained a B.S. and an M.S. in Geology from Syracuse University and the University of Montana, respectively. She received her Ph.D. in Geophysics from the University of Chicago in 2008, modeling ice-shelf flow and the connection between ice shelves and the ocean. As a postdoctoral scholar at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, she worked on Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry data. Dr. Brunt is part of the ICESat-2 mission, and is working on post-launch calibration and validation of the satellite elevation data.

    Research Interests

    Ice Shelves and Laser Altimetry

    Dr. Brunt is interested in the mechanisms of large-scale ice-sheet flow as part of the effort to understand the role of ice margins in climate change. Her dissertation developed a model to assess the flow of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, in response to ocean tides and then validated the model results based on GPS data collected at the front of the ice shelf. Her most recent projects use ICESat data to examine the character of the grounding zones of Antarctic ice shelves. At ESSIC and NASA, she is providing ice-sheet analysis for the ICESat-2 mission.

    Education

    Ph.D., Geophysics (Glaciology), University of Chicago (2008)
    M.S., Geology, University of Montana (1997)
    B.S., Geology, Syracuse University (1993)

    Publications

    Refereed

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, and B. E. Smith. 2019. "Assessment of ICESat‐2 ice sheet surface heights, based on comparisons over the interior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet." Geophysical Research Letters, 46: [10.1029/2019GL084886]

    Magruder, L., T. Neumann, H. Fricker, et al. S. Farrell, K. Brunt, A. Gardner, D. Hancock, K. Harbeck, M. Jasinski, R. Kwok, N. Kurtz, J. Lee, T. Markus, J. Morison, A. Neuenschwander, S. Palm, S. Popescu, B. Smith, and Y. Yang. 2019. "New Earth Orbiter Provides a Sharper Look at a Changing Planet." Eos, 100: [10.1029/2019eo133233]

    Neumann, T. A., A. J. Martino, T. Markus, et al. S. Bae, M. R. Bock, A. C. Brenner, K. M. Brunt, J. Cavanaugh, S. T. Fernandes, D. W. Hancock, K. Harbeck, J. Lee, N. T. Kurtz, P. J. Luers, S. B. Luthcke, L. Magruder, T. A. Pennington, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, T. Rebold, J. Skoog, and T. C. Thomas. 2019. "The Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite – 2 mission: A global geolocated photon product derived from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System." Remote Sensing of Environment, 233: 111325 [10.1016/j.rse.2019.111325]

    Smith, B., H. A. Fricker, N. Holschuh, et al. A. S. Gardner, S. Adusumilli, K. M. Brunt, B. Csatho, K. Harbeck, A. Huth, T. Neumann, J. Nilsson, and M. R. Siegfried. 2019. "Land ice height-retrieval algorithm for NASA's ICESat-2 photon-counting laser altimeter." Remote Sensing of Environment, 111352 [10.1016/j.rse.2019.111352]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, and C. F. Larsen. 2019. "Assessment of altimetry using ground-based GPS data from the 88S Traverse, Antarctica, in support of ICESat-2." The Cryosphere, 13 (2): 579-590 [10.5194/tc-13-579-2019]

    Borsa, A., K. M. Brunt, and H. A. Fricker. 2019. "A terrestrial validation of ICESat elevation measurements." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 57 (9): 6946–6959 [10.1109/TGRS.2019.2909739]

    Crawford, C. J., J. van den Bosch, K. M. Brunt, et al. M. G. Hom, J. W. Cooper, D. J. Harding, J. J. Butler, P. W. Dabney, T. A. Neumann, C. S. Cleckner, and T. Markus. 2018. "Radiometric calibration of a non-imaging airborne spectrometer to measure the Greenland Ice Sheet surface." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 1-37 [10.5194/amt-2018-170]

    Magruder, L. A., and K. M. Brunt. 2018. "Performance Analysis of Airborne Photon-Counting Lidar Data in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, PP (99): 1-8 [10.1109/tgrs.2017.2786659]

    Sun, X., J. B. Abshire, A. A. Borsa, et al. H. A. Fricker, D. Yi, J. P. Dimarzio, F. S. Paolo, K. M. Brunt, D. J. Harding, and G. A. Neumann. 2017. "ICESAT/GLAS Altimetry Measurements: Received Signal Dynamic Range and Saturation Correction." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 1-15 [10.1109/tgrs.2017.2702126]

    Scambos, T., R. Bell, R. Alley, et al. S. Anandakrishnan, D. Bromwich, K. Brunt, K. Christianson, T. Creyts, S. Das, R. DeConto, P. Dutrieux, H. Fricker, D. Holland, J. MacGregor, B. Medley, J. Nicolas, D. Pollard, M. Siegfried, A. Smith, E. Steig, L. Trusel, D. Vaughan, and P. Yager. 2017. "How much, how fast?: A science review and outlook for research on the instability of Antarctica's Thwaites Glacier in the 21st century." Global and Planetary Change, 153: 16-34 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.04.008]

    Brunt, K. M., R. L. Hawley, E. R. Lutz, et al. M. Studinger, J. G. Sonntag, M. A. Hofton, L. C. Andrews, and T. A. Neumann. 2017. "Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland." The Cryosphere, 11 (2): 681-692 [10.5194/tc-11-681-2017]

    Markus, T., T. Neumann, A. Martino, et al. W. Abdalati, K. Brunt, B. Csatho, S. Farrell, H. Fricker, A. Gardner, D. Harding, M. Jasinski, R. Kwok, L. Magruder, D. Lubin, S. B. Luthcke, J. Morison, R. Nelson, A. Neuenschwander, S. Palm, S. Popescu, C. Shum, B. E. Schutz, B. Smith, Y. Yang, and J. Zwally. 2017. "The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2): Science requirements, concept, and implementation." Remote Sensing of Environment, 190: 260-273 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.12.029]

    Jasinski, M., J. Stoll, W. Cook, et al. M. Ondrusek, E. Stengel, and K. Brunt. 2016. "Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude, Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)." Journal of Coastal Research, (Special Issue 76): 44-55 [10.2112/SI76-005 ]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, J. M. Amundson, et al. J. L. Kavanaugh, M. S. Moussavi, K. M. Walsh, W. B. Cook, and T. Markus. 2016. "MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development." The Cryosphere, 10 (4): 1707-1719 [10.5194/tc-10-1707-2016]

    Brunt, K. M., and J. A. Macgregor. 2015. "What Instruments are Available for Polar Studies?" Eos, 96: [10.1029/2015EO026855]

    Farrell, S. L., K. M. Brunt, J. M. Kuhn, L. N. Connor, and K. M. Walsh. 2015. "Sea ice freeboard retrieval using digital photon-counting laser altimetry." Annals of Glaciology, 56 (69): 167-174 [10.3189/2015AoG69A686]

    Borsa, A. A., G. Moholdt, H. A. Fricker, and K. M. Brunt. 2014. "A range correction for ICESat and its potential impact on ice-sheet mass balance studies." The Cryosphere, 8 (2): 345-357 [10.5194/tc-8-345-2014]

    Walker, R. T., B. R. Parizek, R. B. Alley, K. M. Brunt, and S. Anandakrishnan. 2014. "Ice-shelf flexure and tidal forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 395: 184-193 [10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.049]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, K. M. Walsh, and T. Markus. 2014. "Determination of Local Slope on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using a Multibeam Photon-Counting Lidar in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett., 11 (5): 935-939 [10.1109/LGRS.2013.2282217]

    Kwok, R., T. Markus, J. Morison, et al. S. P. Palm, T. A. Neumann, K. M. Brunt, W. B. Cook, D. W. Hancock, and G. F. Cunningham. 2014. "Profiling Sea Ice with a Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 31 (5): 1151-1168 [10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00120.1]

    Hurford, T. A., and K. M. Brunt. 2014. "Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 401: 275-283 [10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.015]

    Brunt, K. M., and D. R. MacAyeal. 2014. "Tidal modulation of ice-shelf flow: a viscous model of the Ross Ice Shelf." Journal of Glaciology, 60 (221): 500-508 [10.3189/2014JoG13J203]

    Brunt, K. M., H. Fricker, and L. Padman. 2011. "Analysis of ice plains of Filchner/Ronne Ice Shelf Antarctica using ICESat laser altimetry." Journal of Glaciolog, 57 (205): 965-975 [10.3189/002214311798043753]

    Bindschadler, R. A., H. Choi, A. Wichlacz, et al. R. Bingham, J. Bohlander, K. M. Brunt, H. Corr, R. Drews, H. Fricker, M. Hall, R. Hindmarsh, J. Kohler, L. Padman, W. Rack, G. Rotschky, S. Urbini, P. L. Vornberger, and N. Young. 2011. "Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the International Polar Year." The Cryosphere, 5 (3): 569-588 [10.5194/tc-5-569-2011]

    Brunt, K. M., E. A. Okal, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2011. "Antarctic ice-shelf calving triggered by the Honshu (Japan) earthquake and tsunami, March 2011." Journal of Glaciology, 57 (205): 785-788 [10.3189/002214311798043681]

    Brunt, K. M., H. Fricker, L. Padman, T. Scambos, and S. O'Neel. 2010. "Mapping the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using ICESat laser altimetry." Annals of Glaciology, 51 (55): 71-79 [10.3189/172756410791392790]

    Brunt, K. M., M. King, H. A. Fricker, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2010. "Flow of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, is modulated by the ocean tide." Journal of Glaciology, 56 (195): 157-161 [10.3189/002214310791190875]

    Fricker, H. A., R. Coleman, L. Padman, et al. T. A. Scambos, J. Bohlander, and K. M. Brunt. 2009. "Mapping the grounding zone of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica using InSAR, MODIS and ICESat." Antarctic Science, 21 (5): 515-532 [10.1017/S095410200999023X]

    MacAyeal, D. R., M. H. Okal, J. E. Thom, et al. K. M. Brunt, Y. J. Kim, and A. K. Bliss. 2008. "Tabular iceberg collisions within the coastal regime." Journal of Glaciology, 54 (185): 371-386 [10.3189/002214308784886180]

    MacAyeal, D. R., E. A. Okal, R. C. Aster, et al. J. N. Bassis, K. M. Brunt, L. M. Cathles, R. Drucker, H. A. Fricker, Y. J. Kim, S. Martin, M. H. Okal, O. V. Sergienko, M. P. Sponsler, and J. E. Thom. 2006. "Transoceanic wave propagation links iceberg calving margins of Antarctica with storms in tropics and Northern Hemisphere." Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (17): L17502 [10.1029/2006GL027235]

    Brunt, K. M., O. Sergienko, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2006. "Observations of unusual fast-ice conditions in the southwest Ross Sea, Antarctica: preliminary analysis of iceberg and storminess effects." Annals of Glaciology, 44 (1): 183-187 [10.3189/172756406781811754]

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Brunt is an Associate Research Scientist with Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, at the University of Maryland and the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory. She obtained a B.S. and an M.S. in Geology from Syracuse University and the University of Montana, respectively. She received her Ph.D. in Geophysics from the University of Chicago in 2008, modeling ice-shelf flow and the connection between ice shelves and the ocean. As a postdoctoral scholar at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, she worked on Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimetry data. Dr. Brunt is part of the ICESat-2 mission, and is working on post-launch calibration and validation of the satellite elevation data.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, and B. E. Smith. 2019. "Assessment of ICESat‐2 ice sheet surface heights, based on comparisons over the interior of the Antarctic Ice Sheet." Geophysical Research Letters 46 [10.1029/2019GL084886]

    Magruder, L., T. Neumann, H. Fricker, et al. S. Farrell, K. Brunt, A. Gardner, D. Hancock, K. Harbeck, M. Jasinski, R. Kwok, N. Kurtz, J. Lee, T. Markus, J. Morison, A. Neuenschwander, S. Palm, S. Popescu, B. Smith, and Y. Yang. 2019. "New Earth Orbiter Provides a Sharper Look at a Changing Planet." Eos 100 [10.1029/2019eo133233]

    Neumann, T. A., A. J. Martino, T. Markus, et al. S. Bae, M. R. Bock, A. C. Brenner, K. M. Brunt, J. Cavanaugh, S. T. Fernandes, D. W. Hancock, K. Harbeck, J. Lee, N. T. Kurtz, P. J. Luers, S. B. Luthcke, L. Magruder, T. A. Pennington, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, T. Rebold, J. Skoog, and T. C. Thomas. 2019. "The Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite – 2 mission: A global geolocated photon product derived from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System." Remote Sensing of Environment 233 111325 [10.1016/j.rse.2019.111325]

    Smith, B., H. A. Fricker, N. Holschuh, et al. A. S. Gardner, S. Adusumilli, K. M. Brunt, B. Csatho, K. Harbeck, A. Huth, T. Neumann, J. Nilsson, and M. R. Siegfried. 2019. "Land ice height-retrieval algorithm for NASA's ICESat-2 photon-counting laser altimeter." Remote Sensing of Environment 111352 [10.1016/j.rse.2019.111352]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, and C. F. Larsen. 2019. "Assessment of altimetry using ground-based GPS data from the 88S Traverse, Antarctica, in support of ICESat-2." The Cryosphere 13 (2): 579-590 [10.5194/tc-13-579-2019]

    Borsa, A., K. M. Brunt, and H. A. Fricker. 2019. "A terrestrial validation of ICESat elevation measurements." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 57 (9): 6946–6959 [10.1109/TGRS.2019.2909739]

    Crawford, C. J., J. van den Bosch, K. M. Brunt, et al. M. G. Hom, J. W. Cooper, D. J. Harding, J. J. Butler, P. W. Dabney, T. A. Neumann, C. S. Cleckner, and T. Markus. 2018. "Radiometric calibration of a non-imaging airborne spectrometer to measure the Greenland Ice Sheet surface." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions 1-37 [10.5194/amt-2018-170]

    Magruder, L. A., and K. M. Brunt. 2018. "Performance Analysis of Airborne Photon-Counting Lidar Data in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing PP (99): 1-8 [10.1109/tgrs.2017.2786659]

    Sun, X., J. B. Abshire, A. A. Borsa, et al. H. A. Fricker, D. Yi, J. P. Dimarzio, F. S. Paolo, K. M. Brunt, D. J. Harding, and G. A. Neumann. 2017. "ICESAT/GLAS Altimetry Measurements: Received Signal Dynamic Range and Saturation Correction." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1-15 [10.1109/tgrs.2017.2702126]

    Scambos, T., R. Bell, R. Alley, et al. S. Anandakrishnan, D. Bromwich, K. Brunt, K. Christianson, T. Creyts, S. Das, R. DeConto, P. Dutrieux, H. Fricker, D. Holland, J. MacGregor, B. Medley, J. Nicolas, D. Pollard, M. Siegfried, A. Smith, E. Steig, L. Trusel, D. Vaughan, and P. Yager. 2017. "How much, how fast?: A science review and outlook for research on the instability of Antarctica's Thwaites Glacier in the 21st century." Global and Planetary Change 153 16-34 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.04.008]

    Brunt, K. M., R. L. Hawley, E. R. Lutz, et al. M. Studinger, J. G. Sonntag, M. A. Hofton, L. C. Andrews, and T. A. Neumann. 2017. "Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland." The Cryosphere 11 (2): 681-692 [10.5194/tc-11-681-2017]

    Markus, T., T. Neumann, A. Martino, et al. W. Abdalati, K. Brunt, B. Csatho, S. Farrell, H. Fricker, A. Gardner, D. Harding, M. Jasinski, R. Kwok, L. Magruder, D. Lubin, S. B. Luthcke, J. Morison, R. Nelson, A. Neuenschwander, S. Palm, S. Popescu, C. Shum, B. E. Schutz, B. Smith, Y. Yang, and J. Zwally. 2017. "The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2): Science requirements, concept, and implementation." Remote Sensing of Environment 190 260-273 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.12.029]

    Jasinski, M., J. Stoll, W. Cook, et al. M. Ondrusek, E. Stengel, and K. Brunt. 2016. "Inland and Near Shore Water Profiles Derived from the High Altitude, Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)." Journal of Coastal Research 44-55 [10.2112/SI76-005 ]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, J. M. Amundson, et al. J. L. Kavanaugh, M. S. Moussavi, K. M. Walsh, W. B. Cook, and T. Markus. 2016. "MABEL photon-counting laser altimetry data in Alaska for ICESat-2 simulations and development." The Cryosphere 10 (4): 1707-1719 [10.5194/tc-10-1707-2016]

    Brunt, K. M., and J. A. Macgregor. 2015. "What Instruments are Available for Polar Studies?" Eos 96 [10.1029/2015EO026855]

    Farrell, S. L., K. M. Brunt, J. M. Kuhn, L. N. Connor, and K. M. Walsh. 2015. "Sea ice freeboard retrieval using digital photon-counting laser altimetry." Annals of Glaciology 56 (69): 167-174 [10.3189/2015AoG69A686]

    Borsa, A. A., G. Moholdt, H. A. Fricker, and K. M. Brunt. 2014. "A range correction for ICESat and its potential impact on ice-sheet mass balance studies." The Cryosphere 8 (2): 345-357 [10.5194/tc-8-345-2014]

    Walker, R. T., B. R. Parizek, R. B. Alley, K. M. Brunt, and S. Anandakrishnan. 2014. "Ice-shelf flexure and tidal forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 395 184-193 [10.1016/j.epsl.2014.03.049]

    Brunt, K. M., T. A. Neumann, K. M. Walsh, and T. Markus. 2014. "Determination of Local Slope on the Greenland Ice Sheet Using a Multibeam Photon-Counting Lidar in Preparation for the ICESat-2 Mission." IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett. 11 (5): 935-939 [10.1109/LGRS.2013.2282217]

    Kwok, R., T. Markus, J. Morison, et al. S. P. Palm, T. A. Neumann, K. M. Brunt, W. B. Cook, D. W. Hancock, and G. F. Cunningham. 2014. "Profiling Sea Ice with a Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL)." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 31 (5): 1151-1168 [10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00120.1]

    Hurford, T. A., and K. M. Brunt. 2014. "Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 401 275-283 [10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.015]

    Brunt, K. M., and D. R. MacAyeal. 2014. "Tidal modulation of ice-shelf flow: a viscous model of the Ross Ice Shelf." Journal of Glaciology 60 (221): 500-508 [10.3189/2014JoG13J203]

    Brunt, K. M., H. Fricker, and L. Padman. 2011. "Analysis of ice plains of Filchner/Ronne Ice Shelf Antarctica using ICESat laser altimetry." Journal of Glaciolog 57 (205): 965-975 [10.3189/002214311798043753]

    Bindschadler, R. A., H. Choi, A. Wichlacz, et al. R. Bingham, J. Bohlander, K. M. Brunt, H. Corr, R. Drews, H. Fricker, M. Hall, R. Hindmarsh, J. Kohler, L. Padman, W. Rack, G. Rotschky, S. Urbini, P. L. Vornberger, and N. Young. 2011. "Getting around Antarctica: new high-resolution mappings of the grounded and freely-floating boundaries of the Antarctic ice sheet created for the International Polar Year." The Cryosphere 5 (3): 569-588 [10.5194/tc-5-569-2011]

    Brunt, K. M., E. A. Okal, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2011. "Antarctic ice-shelf calving triggered by the Honshu (Japan) earthquake and tsunami, March 2011." Journal of Glaciology 57 (205): 785-788 [10.3189/002214311798043681]

    Brunt, K. M., H. Fricker, L. Padman, T. Scambos, and S. O'Neel. 2010. "Mapping the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using ICESat laser altimetry." Annals of Glaciology 51 (55): 71-79 [10.3189/172756410791392790]

    Brunt, K. M., M. King, H. A. Fricker, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2010. "Flow of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, is modulated by the ocean tide." Journal of Glaciology 56 (195): 157-161 [10.3189/002214310791190875]

    Fricker, H. A., R. Coleman, L. Padman, et al. T. A. Scambos, J. Bohlander, and K. M. Brunt. 2009. "Mapping the grounding zone of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica using InSAR, MODIS and ICESat." Antarctic Science 21 (5): 515-532 [10.1017/S095410200999023X]

    MacAyeal, D. R., M. H. Okal, J. E. Thom, et al. K. M. Brunt, Y. J. Kim, and A. K. Bliss. 2008. "Tabular iceberg collisions within the coastal regime." Journal of Glaciology 54 (185): 371-386 [10.3189/002214308784886180]

    MacAyeal, D. R., E. A. Okal, R. C. Aster, et al. J. N. Bassis, K. M. Brunt, L. M. Cathles, R. Drucker, H. A. Fricker, Y. J. Kim, S. Martin, M. H. Okal, O. V. Sergienko, M. P. Sponsler, and J. E. Thom. 2006. "Transoceanic wave propagation links iceberg calving margins of Antarctica with storms in tropics and Northern Hemisphere." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (17): L17502 [10.1029/2006GL027235]

    Brunt, K. M., O. Sergienko, and D. R. MacAyeal. 2006. "Observations of unusual fast-ice conditions in the southwest Ross Sea, Antarctica: preliminary analysis of iceberg and storminess effects." Annals of Glaciology 44 (1): 183-187 [10.3189/172756406781811754]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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