Dr. Gordon Chin

Dr. Gordon Chin

  • (AST, PLANETARY STUDIES)
  • 301.286.8649 | 301.286.0212
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 693
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Gordon Chin has served as Project Scientist for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. He is currently a Co-Investigator for the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND). He was the Principal Investigator for Vesper, submitted as a Discovery-class Planetary Mission to Venus. He is PI for the MATISSE project Submillimeter Enceladus Life Fundamentals Instrument (SELFI), PI for the Radical Innovation Initiative Wideband Imaging Submillimeter Heterodyne Spectrometer (WISHeS) a Radical Innovation Initiative IRAD, and CoI on Submillimeter Solar Observation Lunar Volatiles Experiment (SSOLVE) a DALI maturation project.

    Research Interests

    SELFI: Submillimeter Enceladus Life Fundamentals Instrument, a 3-Year MatISSE Program to mature submillimeter heterodyne spectrometer technology for the remote sensing of Enceladus water plumes that sample its subsurface ocean

    SELFI Science Objectives: SELFI observes simultaneously 14 molecular species that are important in the context of life and habitability (five of CHNOPS elements necessary for life) of the Enceladus’ subsurface ocean.

    • Assess plume spatial/temporal compositional variability;
    • H2O, HDO, and H218O, and H217O evidence of ocean evolution;
    • H2O2, and O3 oxidation state of the sub surface ocean;
    • CO, NH3, CH3OH, HCN and HNC are biologically relevant species;
    • SO2 and H2S links to pre-biotic molecules and volcanoes;
    • NaCl provides salinity level of the subsurface ocean and the source of salt in the Saturn ring system.
    • Continuum observations measure surface temperature from 30 - 250 K with 0.1 K resolution.
    • Correlation of plume activity with surface temperature.

    Technical Objectives:

    • Advance the TRL of RF Low Noise Amplifier (RF LNA)
    • Advance TRL of Mixer & LO Assembly (MLA)
    • Design, build and test Microwave Assembly (MWA)
    • Design, build and test Digital Spectrometer Assembly (DSA)
    • Raise TRL to 6 of SELFI RF-to-Digital Spectrometer through functional and environmental testing
    • Reduce risk of flight instrument development

    WISHeS: Wideband Imaging Submillimeter Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System Exploration and Earth Science Atmospheric Studies - a cross-cutting GSFC 3-year IRAD program for Radical Innovation Initiative

    Project Motivation: Submillimeter spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing tool to study numerous Solar System targets including Earth. The spectral regions in the submillimeter are rich in molecular transitions that probe chemistry and dynamics of planetary atmospheres
    ⟶ e.g., for Venus: H2O, H218O, H217O, H2O2, NH3, H2S, HDO, SO, SO2 , OCS, 12CO, 13CO, ClO, HCl

    Three Year Objectives:

    1. Design, integrate, and test a ≥2-pixel 530 – 600 GHz system with broadband IF output as a demonstration of a full receiver array (~8 pixels);
    2. Design, integrate, and test noise source diodes across 530 – 600 GHz;
    3. Demonstrate a 32 GHz integrated digital spectrometer with 500 kHz spectral resolution using COTS parts with path to space, e.g. Pacific Microchip ASIC, Omnisys, Xilinx RFSOC;
    4. Conduct studies and laboratory demonstrations using photonic integrated circuits for up/down conversion to split the IF into sub bands compatible with a bandlimited digital spectrometer;
    5. Develop AI smart-sensor system simulator;
    6. Antenna design and modeling for array detectors;
    7. Support NASA’s investment in imaging spectroscopy through presentations, publications, and partnering with industry and academia.
       

    SSOLVE: Submillimeter Observation of Lunar Volatile Experiment -A DALI program to develop and advance lunar instruments.

    ScienceObjective:

    • Settle the matter of water vapor abundance in the lunar atmosphere
    • Compare water vapor with its photolysis product, OH radical
    • Diurnal variability of H2O/OH
    • Stretch goal: evaluate D/H ratio
    • Technology applicable to other species, other landed missions, e.g., Mars, Europa, Enceladus.

    Platform: Lander; adaptable to Orbiter

    Measurement Scxheme:

    • Heliostat to track Sun.
    • Measure spectral absorption of water species against Sun.
    • Calibrate internal water by measuring against calibration source.
    • Calibrate local water against nearby surface.
       

    Positions/Employment

    2019 - Present

    CoI on Submillimeter Solar Observation Lunar Volatiles Experiment (SSOLVE)

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2018 - Present

    PI Wideband Imaging Submillimeter Heterodyne Spectrometer (WISHeS)

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2017 - Present

    PI Submillimeter Enceladus Life Fundamentals Instrument (SELFI)

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2013 - 2016

    Science member of GSFC System Review Team for the OSIRIS-Rex Mission.

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2012 - 2015

    Executive Council Member of NASA Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2008 - Present

    Co-I, Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument on LRO

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2008 - 2012

    LRO Associate Project Scientist

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2005 - 2008

    LRO Project Scientist

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    1998 - 2009

    Member, NSF ALMA Management Advisory Committee; Chair, 2003–2004

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    1994 - 1995

    Program Scientist, Small Explorer Program, detailed to NASA HQ

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    1989 - 2005

    Project Scientist, Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS)

    GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

    Education

    1995 - Goddard Leadership Educational Series (GLES)
    1977 - Ph.D. - Physics, Columbia University
    1974 - M. Phil. - Physics, Columbia University
    1972 - M.A. - Physics, Columbia University
    1970 - B.A. - Physics, Columbia College

    Awards

    2013 Robert H. Goddard Exceptional Achievement – NASA Transit of Venus Outreach
    2013 Robert H. Goddard Exceptional Achievement – LRO Science Mission Team
    2011 NASA Group Achievement Award – LRO Mission Operations Team
    2011 NASA Group Achievement Award – LRO Instrument Team
    2010 NASA Group Achievement Award – LRO Mission Team
    2010 NASA Group Achievement Award – LRO Public Outreach Team
    2009 Robert H. Goddard Exceptional Achievement – LRO Mission Team
    2004 NASA Group Achievement Award – SWAS Team
    1995 Goddard Special Act Group Award – SWAS I&T Team
    1994 NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal
     

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Livengood, T., I. Mitrofanov, G. Chin, et al. W. Boynton, J. Bodnarik, L. Evans, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. McClanahan, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, and J. Su. 2018. "Background and lunar neutron populations detected by LEND and average concentration of near-surface hydrogen near the Moon's poles." Planetary and Space Science, 162: 89–104 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.12.004]

    Starr, R. D., M. L. Litvak, N. E. Petro, et al. I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, G. Chin, T. A. Livengood, T. P. McClanahan, A. B. Sanin, R. Z. Sagdeev, and J. J. Su. 2018. "Crater age and hydrogen content in lunar regolith from LEND neutron data." Planetary and Space Science, 162: 105–112 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.08.001]

    Su, J. J., T. P. Mcclanahan, A. M. Parsons, et al. R. Sagdeev, W. Boynton, G. Chin, T. A. Livengood, R. D. Starr, and D. Hamara. 2018. "Calibration and Validation of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Observations for the Study of the Moon's Volatiles." Space Science Reviews, (Submitted)

    Sanin, A., I. Mitrofanov, M. Litvak, et al. B. Bakhtin, J. Bodnarik, W. Boynton, G. Chin, L. Evans, K. Harshman, F. Fedosov, D. Golovin, A. Kozyrev, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, T. McClanahan, M. Mokrousov, R. Starr, R. Sagdeev, V. Tret'yakov, and A. Vostrukhin. 2017. "Hydrogen distribution in the lunar polar regions." Icarus, 283: 20-30 [10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.002]

    Litvak, M., I. Mitrofanov, A. Sanin, et al. B. Bakhtin, J. Bodnarik, W. Boynton, G. Chin, L. Evans, K. Harshman, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, M. Mokrousov, Т. McClanahan, R. Sagdeev, and R. Starr. 2016. "The variations of neutron component of lunar radiation background from LEND/LRO observations." Planetary and Space Science, 122: 53-65 [10.1016/j.pss.2016.01.006]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    McClanahan, T., I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Livengood, T., G. Chin, R. Sagdeev, et al. I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, L. Evans, M. Litvak, T. McClanahan, A. Sanin, R. Starr, and J. Su. 2015. "Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)." Icarus, 255: 100-115 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.04.004]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Litvak, M., I. R. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, G. Droege, L. Evans, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. McClanahan, A. Malakhov, M. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. A. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, D. Smith, R. Starr, and M. T. Zuber. 2012. "Global Maps of Lunar Neutron Flux from LEND Instrument." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, JE003949: 18 [10.1029/2011JE003949]

    Sanin, A., I. Mitrofanov, M. Litvak, et al. A. Malakhov, W. Boynton, G. Chin, G. Droege, L. Evans, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. McClanahan, M. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. A. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, D. Smith, R. Starr, and M. Zuber. 2012. "Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 117: E00H26 [ 10.1029/2011JE003971]

    Vondrak, R., J. Keller, G. Chin, and J. Garvin. 2010. "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science." Space Science Reviews, 150: 7 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-010-9631-5]

    Mitrofanov, I. G., A. Bartels, Y. I. Bobrovnitsky, et al. W. Boynton, G. Chin, H. Enos, L. Evans, S. Floyd, J. Garvin, D. V. Golovin, A. S. Grebennikov, K. Harshman, L. L. Kazakov, J. Keller, A. A. Konovalov, A. S. Kozyrev, A. R. Krylov, M. L. Litvak, A. V. Malakhov, T. McClanahan, G. M. Milikh, M. I. Mokrousov, S. Ponomareva, R. Z. Sagdeev, A. B. Sanin, V. V. Shevchenko, V. N. Shvetsov, R. Starr, G. N. Timoshenko, T. M. Tomilina, V. I. Tretyakov, J. Trombka, V. S. Troshin, V. N. Uvarov, A. B. Varennikov, and A. A. Vostrukhin. 2010. "Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector for the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter." Space Science Reviews, 150: 183 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-009-9608-4]

    Mitrofanov, I., A. Sanin, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, L. G. Evans, K. Harshman, A. Kozyrev, M. Litvak, A. Malakhov, E. M. Mazarico, T. P. Mcclanahan, G. Milikh, M. Mokrousov, G. Nandikotkur, G. A. Neumann, I. Nuzhdin, R. Sagdeev, V. Shevchenko, V. Shvetsov, D. E. Smith, R. D. Starr, V. Tretyakov, J. I. Trombka, D. Usikov, A. Varenikov, A. Vostrukhin, and M. T. Zuber. 2010. "Hydrogen Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Using the LRO Neutron Detector Experiment LEND." Science, 330: 483 [10.1126/science.1185696]

    Mitrofanov, I. G., A. B. Sanin, D. V. Golovin, et al. M. L. Litvak, A. A. Konovalov, A. A. Kozyrev, A. V. Malakhov, M. I. Mokrousov, V. I. Tretyakov, V. S. Troshin, V. N. Uvarov, A. B. Varenikov, A. A. Vostrukhin, V. V. Shevchenko, V. N. Shvetsov, A. R. Krylov, G. N. Timoshenko, Y. I. Bobrovnitsky, T. M. Tomilina, A. S. Grebennikov, L. L. Kazakov, R. Z. Sagdeev, G. N. Milikh, A. Bartels, G. Chin, S. Floyd, J. Garvin, J. Keller, T. McClanahan, J. Trombka, W. Boynton, K. Harshman, R. Starr, and L. Evans. 2008. "Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for High-Resolution Mapping of Neutron Emission of the Moon." Astrobiology, 8: 793 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1089/ast.2007.0158]

    Chin, G., S. Brylow, M. Foote, et al. J. Garvin, J. Kasper, J. Keller, M. Litvak, I. Mitrofanov, D. Paige, K. Raney, M. Robinson, A. Sanin, D. Smith, H. Spence, P. Spudis, S. A. Stern, and M. Zuber. 2007. "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission." Space Science Reviews, 129: 391 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-007-9153-y]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, G. Chin, and T. Tanaka. 2003. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, 4437-:

    Mumma, M. J., T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, and D. Zipoy. 1982. "Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy." Optical Engineering, 21: 313.

    Mumma, M. J., T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, D. Deming, and G. Chin. 1981. "Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy." Infrared Astronomy- Scientific/Military Thrusts and Instrumentation, SPIE 280: 111.

    Mumma, M. J., D. Buhl, G. Chin, et al. L. D. Deming, F. Espenak, T. Kostiuk, and D. Zipoy. 1981. "Discovery of Natural Gain Amplification in the 10-Micrometer Carbon Dioxide Laser Bands on Mars: A Natural Laser." Science, 212: 45.

    Buhl, D., G. Chin, D. A. Glenar, et al. J. J. Hillman, T. Kostiuk, J. C. Mather, M. J. Mumma, F. O. Clark, L. E. Snyder, F. J. Lovas, D. F. Dickinson, and A. C. Dinger. 1980. "Vibrationally Excited Silicon Monoxide Masers." Proc. of the IAU Symposium No. 87, 537-538.

    Buhl, D., G. Chin, J. Faris, et al. T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, and D. Zipoy. 1980. "A 10 Micron Heterodyne Receiver for Ultra-High Resolution Astronomical Spectroscopy." Proc. of the IAU Symposium, 87: 633-638.

    Kostiuk, T., M. J. Mumma, G. Chin, D. Buhl, and M. M. Abbas. 1979. "Temperature Sounding the Atmosphere of Venus by Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy of 12C16O2." EOS, 60: 868.

    Brief Bio

    Gordon Chin has served as Project Scientist for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. He is currently a Co-Investigator for the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND). He was the Principal Investigator for Vesper, submitted as a Discovery-class Planetary Mission to Venus. He is PI for the MATISSE project Submillimeter Enceladus Life Fundamentals Instrument (SELFI), PI for the Radical Innovation Initiative Wideband Imaging Submillimeter Heterodyne Spectrometer (WISHeS) a Radical Innovation Initiative IRAD, and CoI on Submillimeter Solar Observation Lunar Volatiles Experiment (SSOLVE) a DALI maturation project.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Livengood, T., I. Mitrofanov, G. Chin, et al. W. Boynton, J. Bodnarik, L. Evans, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. McClanahan, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, and J. Su. 2018. "Background and lunar neutron populations detected by LEND and average concentration of near-surface hydrogen near the Moon's poles." Planetary and Space Science 162 89–104 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.12.004]

    Starr, R. D., M. L. Litvak, N. E. Petro, et al. I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, G. Chin, T. A. Livengood, T. P. McClanahan, A. B. Sanin, R. Z. Sagdeev, and J. J. Su. 2018. "Crater age and hydrogen content in lunar regolith from LEND neutron data." Planetary and Space Science 162 105–112 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.08.001]

    Su, J. J., T. P. Mcclanahan, A. M. Parsons, et al. R. Sagdeev, W. Boynton, G. Chin, T. A. Livengood, R. D. Starr, and D. Hamara. 2018. "Calibration and Validation of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) Observations for the Study of the Moon's Volatiles." Space Science Reviews (Submitted)

    Sanin, A., I. Mitrofanov, M. Litvak, et al. B. Bakhtin, J. Bodnarik, W. Boynton, G. Chin, L. Evans, K. Harshman, F. Fedosov, D. Golovin, A. Kozyrev, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, T. McClanahan, M. Mokrousov, R. Starr, R. Sagdeev, V. Tret'yakov, and A. Vostrukhin. 2017. "Hydrogen distribution in the lunar polar regions." Icarus 283 20-30 [10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.002]

    Litvak, M., I. Mitrofanov, A. Sanin, et al. B. Bakhtin, J. Bodnarik, W. Boynton, G. Chin, L. Evans, K. Harshman, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, M. Mokrousov, Т. McClanahan, R. Sagdeev, and R. Starr. 2016. "The variations of neutron component of lunar radiation background from LEND/LRO observations." Planetary and Space Science 122 53-65 [10.1016/j.pss.2016.01.006]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    McClanahan, T., I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Livengood, T., G. Chin, R. Sagdeev, et al. I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, L. Evans, M. Litvak, T. McClanahan, A. Sanin, R. Starr, and J. Su. 2015. "Moonshine: Diurnally varying hydration through natural distillation on the Moon, detected by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND)." Icarus 255 100-115 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.04.004]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Litvak, M., I. R. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, G. Droege, L. Evans, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. McClanahan, A. Malakhov, M. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. A. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, D. Smith, R. Starr, and M. T. Zuber. 2012. "Global Maps of Lunar Neutron Flux from LEND Instrument." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH JE003949 18 [10.1029/2011JE003949]

    Sanin, A., I. Mitrofanov, M. Litvak, et al. A. Malakhov, W. Boynton, G. Chin, G. Droege, L. Evans, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. McClanahan, M. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. A. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, D. Smith, R. Starr, and M. Zuber. 2012. "Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH 117 E00H26 [ 10.1029/2011JE003971]

    Vondrak, R., J. Keller, G. Chin, and J. Garvin. 2010. "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO): Observations for Lunar Exploration and Science." Space Science Reviews 150 7 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-010-9631-5]

    Mitrofanov, I. G., A. Bartels, Y. I. Bobrovnitsky, et al. W. Boynton, G. Chin, H. Enos, L. Evans, S. Floyd, J. Garvin, D. V. Golovin, A. S. Grebennikov, K. Harshman, L. L. Kazakov, J. Keller, A. A. Konovalov, A. S. Kozyrev, A. R. Krylov, M. L. Litvak, A. V. Malakhov, T. McClanahan, G. M. Milikh, M. I. Mokrousov, S. Ponomareva, R. Z. Sagdeev, A. B. Sanin, V. V. Shevchenko, V. N. Shvetsov, R. Starr, G. N. Timoshenko, T. M. Tomilina, V. I. Tretyakov, J. Trombka, V. S. Troshin, V. N. Uvarov, A. B. Varennikov, and A. A. Vostrukhin. 2010. "Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector for the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter." Space Science Reviews 150 183 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-009-9608-4]

    Mitrofanov, I., A. Sanin, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Garvin, D. Golovin, L. G. Evans, K. Harshman, A. Kozyrev, M. Litvak, A. Malakhov, E. M. Mazarico, T. P. Mcclanahan, G. Milikh, M. Mokrousov, G. Nandikotkur, G. A. Neumann, I. Nuzhdin, R. Sagdeev, V. Shevchenko, V. Shvetsov, D. E. Smith, R. D. Starr, V. Tretyakov, J. I. Trombka, D. Usikov, A. Varenikov, A. Vostrukhin, and M. T. Zuber. 2010. "Hydrogen Mapping of the Lunar South Pole Using the LRO Neutron Detector Experiment LEND." Science 330 483 [10.1126/science.1185696]

    Mitrofanov, I. G., A. B. Sanin, D. V. Golovin, et al. M. L. Litvak, A. A. Konovalov, A. A. Kozyrev, A. V. Malakhov, M. I. Mokrousov, V. I. Tretyakov, V. S. Troshin, V. N. Uvarov, A. B. Varenikov, A. A. Vostrukhin, V. V. Shevchenko, V. N. Shvetsov, A. R. Krylov, G. N. Timoshenko, Y. I. Bobrovnitsky, T. M. Tomilina, A. S. Grebennikov, L. L. Kazakov, R. Z. Sagdeev, G. N. Milikh, A. Bartels, G. Chin, S. Floyd, J. Garvin, J. Keller, T. McClanahan, J. Trombka, W. Boynton, K. Harshman, R. Starr, and L. Evans. 2008. "Experiment LEND of the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for High-Resolution Mapping of Neutron Emission of the Moon." Astrobiology 8 793 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1089/ast.2007.0158]

    Chin, G., S. Brylow, M. Foote, et al. J. Garvin, J. Kasper, J. Keller, M. Litvak, I. Mitrofanov, D. Paige, K. Raney, M. Robinson, A. Sanin, D. Smith, H. Spence, P. Spudis, S. A. Stern, and M. Zuber. 2007. "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission." Space Science Reviews 129 391 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-007-9153-y]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, G. Chin, and T. Tanaka. 2003. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly 4437-

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