Dr. George J Huffman

Dr. George J Huffman

  • RESEARCH AST, METEOROLOGICAL STUDIES
  • 301.614.6308
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 612
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. George J. Huffman is a Research Meteorologist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. After completing a B.S. in Physics at The Ohio State University (1976) and a Ph.D. in Meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1982), he was an Assistant Professor at University of Maryland, College Park before moving to GSFC in 1988, where he consulted under General Sciences Corp., Universities Space Research Association, and Science Systems and Applications, Inc. before joining NASA in 2012. Dr. Huffman focuses on the design, implementation, and extension of combined estimates of global precipitation, seeking to incorporate all available precipitation-relevant satellite and global surface data. The resulting data sets include the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly and daily products (carried out as a contribution to the World Climate Research Program, WCRP); the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, computed in both real and post-real time; and similar products for the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) mission. Allied work includes estimating RMS error in such data sets and evaluating extreme precipitation event statistics for both the combined data sets and validation data. He has PI and Co-I funding for this work, which has resulted in 102 publications, 14 as first author, and numerous presentations. Dr. Huffman has served as the Deputy Project Scientist for GPM since mid-2014, is a past Co-Chair of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG), and is the Precipitation Subtask Lead for the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). In 2014 he received a NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Award for Science Achievement.  In 2015 he received a NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal.
     

    Research Interests

    Satellite Precipitation

    Precipitation retrievals from satellite and other sensors, including retrieval combinations and error estimation

    Mesoscale/Synoptic Meteorology

    Observational and theoretical mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, including cumulus convection and forecasting

    Current Projects

    Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    A key goal for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission (GPM) is to assemble data from the international constellation of precipitation-relevant satellites, intercalibrate them to the standard provided by the GPM Core Observatory, and combine them in an optimal way that provides stable, global, fine-scale precipitation maps for the entire TRMM-GPM era.  The algorithms to do this are considered national (versus "project" for the Core Observatory products).  IMERG is the U.S. National product, representing a code-level merger of legacy algorithms from NASA, NOAA, and Univ. of Calif. Irvine.  IMERG data fields are computed on a 0.1°x0.1° grid, initially covering the latitude band 60°N-S and later covering the entire globe.  The data are computed on 30-minute and monthly intervals.  The Early, Late, and Final Runs are computed with latencies of 5 hours, 14 hours, and 2.5 months, with the last including precipitation gauge data.  Data start 1 April 2015, 18 March 2015, and 10 March 2014, respectively, with a reprocessing to the start of GPM taking place in Summer 2016, and to the start of TRMM in Winter 2018.

    Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) is a successor to a microwave-calibrated Infrared global precipitation product that was initially computed in TRMM.  In the mid-2000's this experimental product was introduced, which assembled data from the international constellation of precipitation-relevant satellites, intercalibrated them to the standard provided by the TRMM satellite, and combined them in an optimal way that provides stable, quasi-global, fine-scale precipitation maps.  TMPA is currently in Version 7. TMPA data fields are computed on a 0.25°x0.25° grid, covering the latitude band 50°N-S. The data are computed on 3-hour and monthly intervals for the period 1998-present.Two  runs are computed, with latencies of 8 hours and 2 months, with the last including precipitation gauge data.  TMPA is the most-used TRMM product, and is available in several different formats and services.  For continuity, it is planned to continue computing TMPA with climatological coefficients (since TRMM has ended) until the new IMERG is retrospectively processed to the start of TRMM, likely ending in mid-2018.

    Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX; now Global Energy and Water Exchange project) to provide climate-scale, fully global precipitation products as an international community effort involving data providers and precipitation scientists.  The precipitation research group at Goddard develops and computes the monthly Satellite-Gauge (SG) and One-Degree Daily (1DD) products for GPCP.  Respectively, these fully global products are computed on a 2.5°x2.5° monthly grid for 1979-present in Version 2.3 and 1°x1° daily grid for October 1996-present in Version 2.3.  [A pentad product is computed at NOAA.]  A group at Univ. of Maryland College Park is leading Version 2.3 as a formal Climate Data Record (CDR) in NOAA.  The Goddard precipitation research group is leading development of the Version 3 GPCP datasets to provide finer time/space-scale products that continue to be consistent among the data sets.  The GPCP data sets are highly cited in the scientific literature.

    Education

    Ph.D., Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982
    Thesis: “A Cumulus Cloud Ensemble Model with Simple Mesoscale Structure

    B.S., Summa cum laude and with distinction in Physics, with honors in the Liberal Arts, The Ohio State University, 1976
    Senior Honors Thesis: “A Test for Limitations on a Computer-Assisted Spectrum Analysis


    Positions/Employment

    9/2012 - Present

    Research Meteorologist

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Produce, revise, analyze GPCP Satellite-Gauge and One-Degree Daily data sets; develop, revise, analyze TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis data sets in real (3B42RT) and post-real (3B42, 3B43) time; leading IMERG, the U.S. GPM Day-1 multi-satellite algorithm; Deputy Project Scientist for GPM. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.
    8/1993 - 8/2012

    Chief Research Scientist (starting 2006), Technical Area Manager (to 2006)

    Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Lanham, MD (on-site at GSFC) Managed Severe Storms Research Program, later Mesoscale Atmospheric Research Support, later Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch Support (up to 26 employees), then several small science support contracts, all at NASA/GSFC; designed and implemented SGM global rainfall estimation; estimate RMS error; produced GPCP and Pathfinder data sets using SGM concepts for 1979 to (delayed) present; developed, revised TRMM algorithms 3B42 and 3B43; developed GPCP One-Degree Daily data set for 1997 to (delayed) present; developed near-real-time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, extended to Version 6 and then Version 7 of 3B42, 3B43; began leading GPM Day-1 multi-satellite algorithm. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.
    3/1989 - 8/1993

    Visiting Research Scientist

    Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (on-site at GSFC) Led overall planning, design, direction, and implementation for NASA/GSFC Severe Storms Branch computing and AOIPS image processing system (1989-1991). Held prime responsibility for implementation of Goddard Scattering Algorithm, Version 2, and Adjusted Geosynchronous Precipitation Index; designed and implemented SGM global rainfall estimation (1991-1993).
    9/1988 - 5/1990

    Lecturer

    Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD Taught undergraduate and graduate classes in synoptic meteorology.
    7/1988 - 3/1989

    Senior Meteorologist

    General Sciences Corporation, Laurel, MD (on-site at GSFC) Provided high-level planning, design, and programming on GEMPAK; assisted university GEMPAK sites with implementation of new features.
    2/1988 - 6/1992

    Acting State Climatologist

    Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD Coordinated, planned, and supervised routine activities, such as data collection and filling user data requests for Maryland climatological data.
    7/1987 - 6/1988

    Visiting Scientist

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO Focused and coordinated user-related aspects of planning for USSDM alpha and beta testing; tested TAE user interface for use with Unidata software.
    1/1982 - 6/1988

    Assistant Professor

    Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD Developed and led synoptic meteorology research, instruction, and activities. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.

    Teaching Experience

    Developed and taught undergraduate and graduate courses in synoptic, mesoscale, and dynamic meteorology, including weather forecasting.  Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park, Jan. 1982-May 1990.

    Professional Societies

    American Meteorological Society, 1976 - Present
    American Geophysical Society, 1994 - Present
    European Geophysical Union, 2008 - Present
    Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society, 2012 - Present

    Professional Service

    Invited panelist on “Observations, Modeling, Predictability, and Prediction of the Region” in the U.S. CLIVAR Observing and Modeling Climate Variability in the Intra-Americas Seas and Impacts on the Continental Americas and the Caribbean, 9-11 September 2015, Virtual Workshop.

    GSFC Scientific Colloquium Committee, 2015-present.

    Program committee for the User GPM Data Workshop, 8-9 June 2015, Hyattsville, MD, organized by the Applied Sciences Program in the Earth Science Division at NASA HQ.

    Deputy Project Scientist for Global Precipitation Measurement mission, 2014-present.

    Co-Convenor (with R.F. Adler [ESSIC]) for Session 1.8 of 7th Internat. Sci. Conf. on the Global Water and Energy Cycle, 14-17 July 2014, The Hague, The Netherlands.

    Program committee for the User GPM Data Workshop, 28-29 October 2013, College Park, MD, organized by the Applied Sciences Program in the Earth Science Division at NASA HQ.

    Chair, Working Group on Algorithm Development at the 3rd NOAA User Workshop on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Proving Ground, 2-4 April 2013, College Park, MD.

    Co-convenor for the AGU Chapman Conf. on Rem. Sens. of the Terr. Water Cycle, 19-23 February 2012, Waikoloa, HI; assoc. ed. for resulting monograph.

    Invited session chair for Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) Science Symposium, 1-5 August 2011, Melbourne, Australia.

    WMO/CGMS International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG), 2004-present; Co-Chair, 2009-2010.

    Group on Earth Observations (GEO), Co-Leader and Point of Contact (PoC) for Precipitation Task (WA-08-01d), 2009-2011; Integrated Water Cycle Products and Services (WA-01:C1) Co-Chair for Integrated Data Products, 2012-present.

    NASA PMM Science Team, 2007-present.

    NOAA GOES-R Algorithm Working Group, Hydrology Team, 2007-present.

    NASA/USGS Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum project writing team, 2004-2005.

    Associate Editor for AMS Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2003-present.

    NASA International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project II (ISLSCP II) Ad hoc Science Advisory Group, 2000-2006.

    NASA/NOAA/Unidata CONDUIT Steering Committee, 1999-2003.

    Surface Site Coordinator, NASA TRMM Kwajalein Experiment, 1999.

    NASA TSDIS Science Users Group, 1992-1998.

    Planning Committee, NCAR Summer Workshop on Synoptic Meteorology Instruction, 1988.

    Unidata Phase III Implementation Working Group, 1986-1988; LDM Design Subgroup, 1987-1988; CDF Subgroup, 1987-1988; USSDM Task Force, 1988.

    Program Chair, 6th Annual TAE Users’ Conf., 8-10 October 1986, Pasadena, CA.

    Unidata Local Hardware/Software System Working Group, 1984-1985; LOHSS Local Software Shell Committee, 1985.

    DC Chapter of the AMS; President (1986-1988), Vice-President (1985-1986), Treasurer (1984-1985), Corresponding Secretary (1982-1984).

    AMS Board on Meteorology and Oceanographic Education in Universities, 1983-1985.

    Reviewer in last three years for NASA, NOAA, NSF.

    Reviewer in last three years for: Advances in Meteorology, Advances in Water Resources, Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Science Letters, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, The Cryosphere Discussion, Environmental Research Letters, Geophysical Research Letters, Hydrology and Earth System Science, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Journal of Electrical and Computational Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, International Journal of Atmospheric Science, International Journal of Climatology, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, Journal of Climate, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, Journal of Hydrology, Journal of Hydrometeorology, J. Hydrolology Regional Studies, Nature Communications, Nature Geoscience, Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of the Environment, Reviews of Geophysics, Water Resources Research, WIRES Water.

    Selected Public Outreach

    Public Displays 2008 - Present

    Ask-A-Scientist at Explore@NASAGoddard (NASA/GSFC open house, 2015); participated in planning and staffing the GPM table at USAID Frontiers in Development Forum, 18-19 September 2014, Reagan Building, Washington, DC; science expert at GPM booth at Earth Day Celebration, 21 April 2014, Union Station, Washington, DC; science expert at GPM booth at the Second USA Science and Engineering Festival, 27-29 April 2012, Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC; PMM expert at Explore@NASA (NASA/GSFC open house, 2011); LaunchFest Expert at LaunchFest (NASA/GSFC open house, 2008).

    Citizen Science 2008 - 2008
    Member of NASA EOS/Terra Citizen Scientist development group, Precipitation, 2008.
    General Educational Materials 2000 - Present

    Participated in development of popular-level videos and animations:

    • NASA Goddard Media Studios, 2016: Why Do Raindrop Sizes Matter In Storms? http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12182
    • NASA Hyperwall, 2016:El Niño Precipitation Anomaly. http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/30766
    • NASA Sci. Vis. Studio, 2016: Monsoons: Wet, Dry, Repeat… http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4397
    • NASA Sci. Vis. Studio, 2015: Near Real-Time Global Precipitation from the Global Precipitation Measurement Constellation. [Updated every hour about 6 hours after observation time, currently active.] http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4285
       

    Presented general-level introductions to precipitation datasets:

    • Mehta, A.V., G.J. Huffman, 2016: Data Product Updates and Demonstration of Web-tools for Data Search, Analysis, Visualization, and Download. ARSET Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications Webinar Series, 15 March 2016. http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov/disasters/webinars/global-precipitation
    • Huffman, G.J., 2015: Insights on the Day-1 Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) Data Sets. ARSET Webinar, 31 March 2015. http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov /sites/default/files/water/GPM/GPM_week3_March31%20English.pdf

    Developed seasonal diurnal-cycle visualizations of precipitation for the years 1998-2006 for: Laing, A., J.-L. Evans, 2008: Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 1st Edition, Version 1.1.2, COMET, Univ. Corp. Atmos. Res. (available at http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook/index.html), in Section 6.3.7.1: Diurnal Cycle (available at http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook/ ch6/moistprecip_ 6_3_7_1.html).

    Developed/presented non-specialist level lecture, handouts, and lab on “Precipitation Estimates from Remote Sensing” for the AMS Short Course on Remote Sensing Methods and Applications in Air-Sea Interaction, 9 February 2003, Long Beach, CA.

    NASA Earth Observatory Ask-A-Scientist writer, 2000-2006.
     

    Formal Education Materials 1985 - Present

    Participant/organizer for pre-college teacher training activities: Janney, D., G.J. Huffman, 2016: Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Weather. NSTA Web Seminars, 5 May 2016, available at http://learningcenter.nsta.org/resource/?id=10.2505/9/WSNASA15_May5. Science expert (develop/present 2-hr lecture/lab) for Eyes in the Sky II Summer Workshop (19-25 July 2010, Greenbelt, MD), Eyes in the Sky project (2010), Science expert in Citizen Science project (2008-2009). “Job shadowee” for Ann Arundel Public Schools Summer Teacher Institute at GSFC (2007). Presented in the Maryland Science Center TerraLink Teachers’ Thursdays lecture series (2005). Reviewed grade 5-6 Earth Science curriculum modules for the Challenger Center for Space Science Education (2002). Reviewed Summer Teacher Program draft Q&A for selected Earth Science visualizations (2001). Mentor for a teacher in the NASA/GSFC Summer Internship program (1995). Lectured for NASA/U.Md. Teacher Ambassador program (1994-95). Reviewed training and lesson-plan manuals for MAPS-NET (1994-1995). Organized a 1-day enrichment seminar for Washington County middle school science teachers (1985).

    Mentor 1987 - Present
    Mentor for: a graduate student in the NASA/GSFC Graduate Student Summer Program (2008); undergraduates in the NASA/GSFC Summer Institute for Meteorological and Hydrological Sciences (1993, 1998); high school students in the Howard County Schools Mentor program (1987-1988), NASA/GSFC SHARP (1991), Goddard High School Intern Program (2006). Presented Earth Science visualizations to the DC Public Schools Higher Achievement/Scholar site visit (2001).

    Awards

    NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal, 2015.

    NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the GPM Post-Launch Team, 2015.

    NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Award for Science presented to the GPM Algorithm Team, 2015.

    NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the GPM Team, 2014.

    AGU 2013 Editor’s Citation for Excellence in Refereeing for Journal of Geophysical Research -- Atmospheres, 2014.

    NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Honor Award for Science, 2014.

    NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the MYNASA DATA Team, 2012.

    AGU 2008 Editor’s Citation for Excellence in Refereeing for Journal of Geophysical Research -- Atmospheres, 2009.

    AMS Journal of Hydrometeorology Editor’s Award, 2009.

    NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres Science Research Award, 2007.

    NASA/GSFC Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch, Exceptional Technical Support Award, 2004.

    NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres, Contractor Award for Outstanding Performance in Science, 2002.

    NASA/GSFC Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch, Outstanding Achievement Award, 1996.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Demirdjian, L., Y. Zhou, and G. J. Huffman. 2018. "Statistical Modeling of Extreme Precipitation with TRMM Data." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57 (1): 15-30 [10.1175/jamc-d-17-0023.1]

    Lawford, R., W. Grabs, A. Gutierrez-Magness, et al. G. J. Huffman, C. Ishida, T. Koike, W. Pozzi, D. Toll, S. Unninayar, E. F. Wood, and Y. Zeng. 2017. "Implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy: From Observations to Decisions." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (Submitted)

    Kidd, C., A. Becker, G. J. Huffman, et al. C. L. Muller, P. Joe, G. Skofronick-Jackson, and D. B. Kirschbaum. 2017. "So, how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by rain gauges?" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98 (1): 69-78 [10.1175/bams-d-14-00283.1]

    Wu, H., R. F. Adler, G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Evaluation of Quantitative Precipitation Estimations (QPE) through Hydrological Modelling in IFloodS Focal Basins." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18 (2): 529-553 [10.1175/JHM-D-15-0149.1]

    Stanley, T., D. B. Kirschbaum, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2017. "Approximating Long-Term Statistics Early in the Global Precipitation Measurement Era." Earth Interactions, 21 (3): 1-10 [10.1175/ei-d-16-0025.1]

    Dezfuli, A. K., C. M. Ichoku, K. I. Mohr, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18 (6): 1799-1805 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0068.1]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. S. A. Braun, K. Garrett, E. Jones, A. L. Mcnally, G. S. Jackson, E. F. Stocker, H. Wu, and B. Zaitchik. 2017. "NASA’s Remotely-sensed Precipitation: A Reservoir for Applications Users." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98 (6): 1169-1184 [10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00296.1]

    Adler, R. F., G. Gu, M. Sapiano, J.-J. Wang, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979–2014)." Surveys in Geophysics, 38: 21 pp. [10.1007/s10712-017-9416-4]

    Dezfuli, A. K., C. M. Ichoku, G. J. Huffman, et al. K. I. Mohr, J. S. Selker, N. van de Giesen, R. Hochreutener, and F. O. Annor. 2017. "Validation of IMERG precipitation in Africa." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18 (2017): 2817-2825 [10.1175/JHM-D-17-0139.1]

    Tapiador, F., A. Navarro, V. Levizzani, et al. E. García-Ortega, G. Huffman, C. Kidd, P. Kucera, C. Kummerow, H. Masunaga, W. Petersen, R. Roca, J.-L. Sánchez, W.-K. Tao, and F. Turk. 2017. "Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models." Atmospheric Research, 197: 1-20 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.06.021]

    Skofronick-Jackson, G., W. A. Petersen, W. Berg, et al. C. Kidd, E. F. Stocker, D. B. Kirschbaum, R. Kakar, S. A. Braun, G. J. Huffman, T. Iguchi, P. E. Kirstetter, C. Kummerow, R. Meneghini, R. Oki, W. S. Olson, Y. N. Takayabu, K. Furukawa, and T. Wilheit. 2017. "The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98 (8): 1679-1695 [10.1175/bams-d-15-00306.1]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Long-term changes/trends in surface temperature and precipitation during the satellite era (1979–2012)." Climate Dynamics, 46 (3-4): 1091-1105 [10.1007/s00382-015-2634-x]

    Lien, G.-Y., E. Kalnay, T. Miyoshi, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Statistical Properties of Global Precipitation in the NCEP GFS Model and TMPA Observations for Data Assimilation." Monthly Weather Review, 144 (2): 663-679 [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0150.1]

    Behrangi, A., M. Christensen, M. Richardson, et al. M. Lebsock, G. Stephens, G. J. Huffman, D. Bolvin, R. F. Adler, A. Gardner, B. Lambrigtsen, and E. Fetzer. 2016. "Status of high-latitude precipitation estimates from observations and reanalyses." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121 (9): 4468-4486 [10.1002/2015jd024546]

    Ricko, M., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Climatology and Interannual Variability of Quasi-Global Intense Precipitation Using Satellite Observations." J. Climate, 29 (15): 5447-5468 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0662.1]

    Yong, B., D. Liu, J. Gourley, et al. Y. Tian, G. Huffman, L. Ren, and Y. Hong. 2015. "Global view of real-time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis: implication to its successor Global Precipitation Measurement mission." Bull. Ameri. Meteor. Soc., 96: 283-296 [10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00017.1]

    Matsui, T., W.-K. Tao, S. J. Munchak, M. Grecu, and G. J. Huffman. 2015. "Satellite view of quasi-equilibrium states in tropical convection and precipitation microphysics." Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (6): 1959–1968 [10.1002/2015GL063261]

    Zhou, Y., W. K. Lau, and G. J. Huffman. 2015. "Mapping TRMM TMPA Into Average Recurrence Interval for Monitoring Extreme Precipitation Events." J. Appl. Meteor. & Climatol, 54 (5): 979-995 [10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0269.1]

    Hegerl, G. C., E. Black, R. P. Allan, et al. W. J. Ingram, D. Polson, K. E. Trenberth, R. S. Chadwick, P. A. Arkin, B. B. Sarojini, A. Becker, A. Dai, P. J. Durack, D. Easterling, H. J. Fowler, E. J. Kendon, G. J. Huffman, C. Liu, R. Marsh, M. New, T. J. Osborn, N. Skliris, P. A. Stott, P.-L. Vidale, S. E. Wijffels, L. J. Wilcox, K. M. Willett, and X. Zhang. 2015. "Challenges in Quantifying Changes in the Global Water Cycle." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 (7): 1097-1115 [10.1175/bams-d-13-00212.1]

    Savtchenko, A. K., G. J. Huffman, and B. E. Vollmer. 2015. "Assessment of precipitation anomalies in California using TRMM and MERRA data ." Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres, 120: 8206–8215 [doi:10.1002/2015JD023573]

    Lettenmaier, D. P., D. Alsdor, J. Dozier, et al. G. J. Huffman, M. Pan, and E. F. Wood. 2015. "Inroads of Remote Sensing into Hydrologic Science During the WRR Era." Water Resources Research, 51 (9): 7309–7342 [10.1002/2015WR017616]

    L'Ecuyer, T. S., M. Rodell, W. S. Olson, et al. B. Lin, S. Kato, C. A. Clayson, E. Wood, J. Sheffield, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, M. G. Bosilovich, G. Gu, F. Robertson, P. R. Houser, D. Chambers, J. S. Famiglietti, E. Fetzer, W. T. Liu, X. Gao, C. A. Schlosser, E. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier, and K. Hilburn. 2015. "The Observed State of the Energy Budget in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate, 28 (21): 8319–8346 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00556.1]

    Rodell, M., H. K. Beaudoing, T. S. L’Ecuyer, et al. W. S. Olson, J. S. Famiglietti, P. R. Houser, R. F. Adler, M. G. Bosilovich, C. A. Clayson, D. Chambers, E. Clark, E. J. Fetzer, X. Gao, G. Gu, K. Hilburn, G. J. Huffman, D. P. Lettenmaier, W. T. Liu, F. R. Robertson, C. A. Schlosser, J. Sheffield, and E. F. Wood. 2015. "The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate, 28 (21): 8289–8318 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00555.1]

    Wang, J. R., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and D. T. Bolvin. 2014. "An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation." J. Climate, 27 (1): 273-284 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00331.1]

    Behrangi, A., G. Stephens, R. F. Adler, et al. G. J. Huffman, B. Lambrigtsen, and M. Lebsock. 2014. "An Update on the Oceanic Precipitation Rate and Its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space." J. Climate, 27 (11): 3957-3965 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00679.1]

    Maggioni, V., M. R. Sapiano, R. F. Adler, Y. Tian, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "An Error Model for Uncertainty Quantification in High-Time-Resolution Precipitation Products." J. Hydrometeor., 15 (3): 1274-1292 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0112.1]

    Wu, H., R. Adler, Y. Tian, et al. G. J. Huffman, H. Li, and J. Wang. 2014. "Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model." Water Resour. Res., 50 (3): 2693-2717 [10.1002/2013WR014710]

    Oreopoulos, L., N. Cho, D. Lee, S. Kato, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "An examination of the nature of global MODIS cloud regimes." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119 (13): [10.1002/2013JD021409]

    Zhou, T., B. Nijssen, G. J. Huffman, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2014. "Evaluation of Real-Time Satellite Precipitation Data for Global Drought Monitoring." J. Hydrometeor, 15 (4): 1651-1660 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0128.1]

    Robertson, F. R., M. G. Bosilovich, J. B. Roberts, et al. R. H. Reichle, R. F. Adler, L. Ricciardulli, W. Berg, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations over the Satellite Era." J. Climate, 27 (16): 6135-6154 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00384.1]

    Xue, X., Y. Hong, A. S. Limaye, et al. J. Gourley, G. J. Huffman, S. I. Khan, C. Corji, and S. Chen. 2013. "Statistical and hydrological evaluation of TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis over the Wangchu Basin of Bhutan: Are the latest satellite precipitation products 3B42V7 ready for use in ungauged basins?" J. Hydrol., 499: 91-99 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.06.042]

    Kidd, C., E. Dawkins, and G. J. Huffman. 2013. "Comparison of Precipitation Derived from the ECMWF Operational Forecast Model and Satellite Precipitation Datasets." J. Hydrometeor., 14 (5): 1463-1482 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/JHM-D-12-0182.1]

    Chen, S., Y. Hong, J. J. Gourley, et al. G. J. Huffman, Y. Tian, Q. Cao, P. E. Kirstetter, J. Hu, J. Hardy, X. Xue, and B. Yong. 2013. "Evaluation of the successive V6 and V7 TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis over the Continental United States." Water Resour. Res., 49 (12): 8174-8186 [10.1002/2012WR012795]

    Yong, B., L. Ren, Y. Hong, et al. J. Gourley, Y. Tian, G. J. Huffman, X. Chen, W. Wang, and Y. Wen. 2013. "First evaluation of the climatological calibration algorithm in the real-time TMPA precipitation estimates over two basins at high and low latitudes." Water Resour. Res., 49 (5): 2461-2472 [10.1002/wrcr.20246]

    Tian, Y., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. L. Tang, M. Sapiano, V. Maggioni, and H. Wu. 2013. "Modeling errors in daily precipitation measurements: Additive or multiplicative?" Geophys. Res. Lett., 40 (10): 2060-2065 [10.1002/grl.50320]

    Lee, D., L. Oreopoulos, G. J. Huffman, W. B. Rossow, and I.-S. Kang. 2013. "The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States." J. Climate, 26 (3): 772-788 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00718.1]

    Yong, B., Y. Hong, L. Ren, et al. J. Gourley, G. J. Huffman, X. Chen, W. Wang, and S. I. Khan. 2012. "Assessment of evolving TRMM-based multisatellite real-time precipitation estimation methods and their impacts on hydrologic prediction in a high latitude basin." J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D9): D09108 [10.1029/2011JD017069]

    Tapiador, F. J., F. J. Turk, W. A. Petersen, et al. A. Y. Hou, E. Garcia-Ortega, L. T. Machado, C. F. Angelis, P. Salio, C. Kidd, G. J. Huffman, and M. de Castro. 2012. "Global precipitation measurement: Methods, datasets and applications." Atmos. Res., 104-105: 70-97 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.10.021]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., R. F. Adler, D. Adler, C. D. Peters-Lidard, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years." J. Hydrometeor., 13 (5): 1536-1551 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-02.1]

    Kidd, C., P. Bauer, J. Turk, et al. G. J. Huffman, R. Joyce, K. Hsu, and D. Braithwaite. 2012. "Intercomparison of High-Resolution Precipitation Products Over Northwest Europe." J. Hydrometeor., 13 (1): 67-83 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-042.1]

    Liu, C., R. Allan, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Co-variation of temperature and precipitation in CMIP5 models and satellite observations." Geophys. Res. Lett., 39 (13): L13803 [10.1029/2012GL052093]

    Adler, R. F., G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 51 (1): 84-99 [10.1175/JAMC-D-11-052.1]

    Crow, W. T., M. J. van den Berg, G. J. Huffman, and T. Pellarin. 2011. "Correcting rainfall using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals: The Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART)." Water Resour. Res., 47 (8): W08521 [10.1029/2011WR010576]

    Su, F., H. Gao, G. J. Huffman, and D. Lettenmaier. 2011. "Potential Utility of the Real-Time TMPA-RT Precipitation Estimates in Streamflow Prediction." J. Hydrometeor., 12 (3): 444-455 [10.1175/2010JHM1353.1]

    Knapp, K., S. Ansari, C. Bain, et al. M. Bourassa, M. Dickinson, C. Funk, C. Helms, C. C. Hennon, C. Holmes, G. J. Huffman, J. Kossin, H. Lee, A. Loew, and G. Magnusdottir. 2011. "Globally Gridded Satellite Observations for Climate Studies." BAMS, 92 (7): 893-907 [10.1175/2011BAMS3039.1]

    Liu, Q., R. H. Reichle, R. Bindlish, et al. M. Cosh, W. Crow, R. Jeu, G. J. De Lannoy, G. J. Huffman, and T. Jackson. 2011. "The Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System." J. Hydrometeorology, 12 (5): 750-765 [10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1]

    Kidd, C., and G. J. Huffman. 2011. "Global precipitation measurement." Meteor. Appl., 18 (3): 334-353 [10.1002/met.284]

    Scheel, M. L., M. Rohrer, C. Huggel, D. Villar, and G. J. Huffman. 2011. "Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15 (8): 2649-2663 [10.5194/hess-15-2649-2011]

    Behrangi, A., I. Bisher, H. Kuolin, et al. S. Soroosh, J. Timothy, and G. J. Huffman. 2010. "REFAME: Rain Estimation Using Forward-Adjusted Advection of Microwave Estimates." J. Hydrometeor., 11 (6): 1305-1321 [10.1175/2010JHM1248.1]

    Tang, L., F. Hossain, and G. J. Huffman. 2010. "Transfer of Satellite Rainfall Uncertainty from Gauged to Ungauged Regions at Regional and Seasonal Time Scales." J. Hydrometeor, 11 (6): 1263–1274 [10.1175/2010JHM1296.1]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2010. "The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) (Chapter 1)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology, 3-22, ISBN: 978-90-481-2914-0. [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and H. F. Pierce. 2010. "Applications of TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimation for global runoff simulation: Prototyping a global flood monitoring system (Chapter 15)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology, 245-265, ISBN: 978-90-481-2914-0. [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_15]

    Tian, Y., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. Eylander, et al. R. Joyce, G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, K. Hsu, F.-J. Turk, M. Garcia, and J. Zeng. 2009. "Component analysis of errors in satellite-based precipitation estimates." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2009JD011949]

    Bolvin, D. T., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, E. J. Nelkin, and J. Poutiainen. 2009. "Comparison of GPCP Monthly and Daily Precipitation Estimates with High-Latitude Gauge Observations." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 48 (9): 1843–1857 [10.1175/2009JAMC2147.1]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, and G. Gu. 2009. "Improving the global precipitation record: GPCP Version 2.1." Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 (17): L17808 [10.1029/2009GL040000]

    Crow, W., G. J. Huffman, R. Bindlish, and T. Jackson. 2009. "Improving Satellite-Based Rainfall Accumulation Estimates Using Spaceborne Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals." J. Hydrometeor., 10 (1): 199-212 [10.1175/2008JHM986.1]

    Behrangi, A., B. Imam, K. Hsu, et al. S. Sorooshian, G. J. Huffman, and R. Kuligowski. 2009. "PERSIANN-MSA: A Precipitation Estimation Method from Satellite-Based Multispectral Analysis." J. Hydrometeor., 10 (6): 1414-1429 [10.1175/2009JHM1139.1]

    Adler, R. F., J. J. Wang, G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2009. "A Ten-Year Tropical Rainfall Climatology Based on a Composite of TRMM Products." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 87A: 281-293 [10.2151/jmsj.87A.281]

    Hossain, F., and G. J. Huffman. 2008. "Investigating Error Metrics for Satellite Rainfall Data at Hydrologically Relevant Scales." J. Hydrometeor., 9 (3): 563-575 [10.1175/2007JHM925.1]

    Adler, R., G. Gu, G. J. Huffman, et al. J.-J. Wang, S. Curtis, and D. T. Bolvin. 2008. "Relationships between global precipitation and surface temperature on interannual and longer timescales (1979–2006)." J. Geophys. Res., 113 (D22): D22104 [10.1029/2008JD010536]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2007. "A World of Rain." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, 30-35, ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Curtis, S., A. Salahuddin, R. F. Adler, et al. G. J. Huffman, G. Gu, and Y. Hong. 2007. "Precipitation Extremes Estimated by GPCP and TRMM: ENSO Relationships." J. Hydrometeor., 8 (4): 678-689 [10.1175/JHM601.1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Satellite Remote Sensing for Global Landslide Monitoring." EOS Trans. AGU, 88 (37): 357-358 [10.1029/2007EO370001]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2007. "Tropical Rainfall Variability on Interannual-to-Interdecadal and Longer Time Scales Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product." J. Climate, 20 (15): 4033-4046 [10.1175/JCLI4227.1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, F. Hossain, S. Curtis, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "A first approach to global runoff simulation using satellite rainfall estimation." Water Resour. Res., 43 (8): W08502 [10.1029/2006WR005739]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, et al. G. Gu, E. J. Nelkin, K. Bowman, Y. Hong, E. Stocker, and D. B. Wolff. 2007. "The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales." J. Hydrometeor., 8 (1): 38-55 [10.1175/JHM560.1]

    Hong, Y., R. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "An Experimental Global Prediction System for Rainfall-Triggered Landslides Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geospatial Datasets." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 45 (6): 1671-1680 [10.1109/TGRS.2006.888436]

    Huffman, G. J., R. Adler, S. Curtis, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2007. "Chapter 23: Global Rainfall Analyses at Monthly and 3-hr Time Scales." Measuring Precipitation from Space: EURAINSAT and the Future, Netherlands: 291-306, ISBN: 978-1-4020-5834-9. [10.1007/978-1-4020-5835-6_23]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Use of satellite remote sensing data in the mapping of global landslide susceptibility." Nat Hazards, 43 (2): 245-256 [10.1007/s11069-006-9104-z]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, A. J. Negri, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Flood and landslide applications of near real-time satellite rainfall products." Nat Hazards, 43 (2): 285-294 [10.1007/s11069-006-9106-x]

    Smith, T., P. Arkin, J. Bates, and G. J. Huffman. 2006. "Estimating Bias of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates." J. Hydrometeor., 7 (5): 841-856 [10.1175/JHM524.1]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, et al. G. Gu, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2006. "Comments on “El Niño: Catastrophe or Opportunity”." J. Climate, 19 (24): 6439-6442 [10.1175/JCLI4009.1]

    Hall, F. G., E. C. Brown de colstoun, G. J. Collatz, et al. D. R. Landis, P. Dirmeyer, A. Betts, G. J. Huffman, L. Bounoua, and B. W. Meeson. 2006. "ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land-atmosphere studies." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D22): D22S01 [10.1029/2006JD007366]

    Koster, R. D., B. Fekete, G. J. Huffman, and P. Stackhouse. 2006. "Revisiting a hydrological analysis framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 rainfall, net radiation, and runoff fields." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D22): D22S05 [10.1029/2006JD007182]

    Hong, Y., R. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2006. "Evaluation of the potential of NASA multi-satellite precipitation analysis in global landslide hazard assessment." Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (22): L22402 [10.1029/2006GL028010]

    Gebremichael, M., W. Krajewski, M. Morrissey, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2005. "A Detailed Evaluation of GPCP 1° Daily Rainfall Estimates over the Mississippi River Basin." J. Appl. Meteor., 44 (5): 665-681 [10.1175/JAM2233.1]

    Negri, A., N. Burkardt, J. Golden, et al. J. Halverson, G. J. Huffman, M. Larsen, J. McGinley, R. Updike, J. Verdin, and G. Wieczorek. 2005. "The Hurricane–Flood–Landslide Continuum." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 86 (9): 1241-1247 [10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1241]

    Huffman, G. J. 2005. "Satellite-Based Estimation of Precipitation Using Microwave Sensors (Chapter 64)." Encycl. of Hydrological Sci., 5 (64): 965-980, ISBN: 978-0-471-49103-3. [10.1002/0470848944.hsa055]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2004. "African easterly waves and their association with precipitation." J. Geophys. Res., 109 (D4): D04101 [10.1029/2003JD003967]

    Katsanos, D., K. Lagouvardos, V. Kotroni, and G. J. Huffman. 2004. "Statistical evaluation of MPA-RT high-resolution precipitation estimates from satellite platforms over the central and eastern Mediterranean." Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 (6): L06116 [10.1029/2003GL019142]

    Curtis, S., R. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and G. Gu. 2004. "Westerly wind events and precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean as predictors for El Niño: Climatology and case study for the 2002–2003 El Niño." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 109 (D20): D20104 [10.1029/2004JD004663]

    Gebremichael, M., W. F. Krajewski, M. Morrissey, et al. D. Langerud, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2003. "Error Uncertainty Analysis of GPCP Monthly Rainfall Products: A Data-Based Simulation Study." J. Appl. Meteor., 42 (12): 1837-1848 [10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1837:EUAOGM>2.0.CO;2]

    Xie, P., J. Janowiak, P. Arkin, et al. R. F. Adler, A. Gruber, R. Ferraro, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2003. "GPCP Pentad Precipitation Analyses: An Experimental Dataset Based on Gauge Observations and Satellite Estimates." J. Climate, 16 (13): 2197-2214 [10.1175/2769.1]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2003. "Summer synoptic-scale waves over West Africa observed by TRMM." Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (14): 1729 [10.1029/2003GL017402]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, A. Chang, et al. R. Ferraro, P. Xie, J. Janowiak, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, S. Curtis, D. T. Bolvin, A. Gruber, J. Susskind, P. Arkin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2003. "The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)." J. Hydrometeor, 4 (6): 1147-1167 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2002. "Precipitation anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and their relation to the initiation of El Niño." Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10): 1441 [10.1029/2001GL013399]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, E. J. Nelkin, and D. T. Bolvin. 2001. "Evolution of tropical and extratropical precipitation anomalies during the 1997-1999 ENSO cycle." Int. J. Climatol., 21 (8): 961-971 [10.1002/joc.643]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, M. Morrissey, et al. D. T. Bolvin, S. Curtis, R. Joyce, B. McGavock, and J. Susskind. 2001. "Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multi-Satellite Observations." J. Hydrometeor., 2 (1): 36-50.

    Joyce, R., J. Janowiak, and G. J. Huffman. 2001. "Latitudinally and Seasonally Dependent Zenith-Angle Corrections for Geostationary Satellite IR Brightness Temperatures." J. Appl. Meteor., 40 (4): 689-703 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0689:LASDZA>2.0.CO;2]

    Hou, A. Y., D. Ledvina, A. M. Da Silva, et al. S. Zhang, J. Joiner, R. Atlas, G. J. Huffman, and C. Kummerow. 2000. "Assimilation of SSM/I-Derived Surface Rainfall and Total Precipitable Water for Improving the GEOS Analysis for Climate Studies." Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 (3): 509-537 [10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0509:AOSIDS>2.0.CO;2]

    Kummerow, C., J. Simpson, O. Thiele, et al. W. Barnes, A. T. Chang, E. Stocker, R. F. Adler, A. Y. Hou, R. Kakar, F. Wentz, P. Ashcroft, T. Kozu, Y. Hong, K. Okamoto, T. Iguchi, H. Kuroiwa, E. Im, Z. Hadda, G. J. Huffman, T. Krishnamurti, B. Ferrier, W. S. Olson, E. Zipser, E. C. Smith, T. Wilheit, G. North, and K. Nakamura. 2000. "The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after Two Years in Orbit." J. Appl. Meteor., 39 (12): 1965-1982 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1965:TSOTTR>2.0.CO;2]

    Simpson, J., C. Kummerow, R. Meneghini, et al. A. Y. Hou, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, B. Barkstrom, B. Wielicki, S. Goodman, H. Christian, T. Kozu, T. Krishnamurti, S. Yang, and B. Ferrier. 2000. "The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)." Earth Obs. and Remote Sensing, 4: 71-90.

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, D. T. Bolvin, S. Curtis, and E. J. Nelkin. 2000. "Tropical Rainfall Distributions Determined Using TRMM Combined with Other Satellite and Rain Gauge Information." J. Appl. Meteor., 39 (12): 2007-2023 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2007:TRDDUT>2.0.CO;2]

    Ferraro, R. R., E. A. Smith, W. Berg, and G. J. Huffman. 1998. "A Screening Methodology for Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms." J. Atmos. Sci., 55 (9): 1583-1600 [10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<1583:ASMFPM>2.0.CO;2]

    Janowiak, J. E., A. Gruber, C. R. Kondragunta, R. Livzey, and G. J. Huffman. 1998. "A Comparison of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Precipitation and the GPCP Raingauge-Satellite Combined Data Set with Observational Error Considerations." J. Climate, 11 (11): 2960-2979 [10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2960:ACOTNN>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J. 1997. "Estimates of Root-Mean-Square Random Error for Finite Samples of Estimated Precipitation." J. Appl. Meteor., 36 (9): 1191-1201 [10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<1191:EORMSR>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, P. Arkin, et al. A. Chang, R. Ferraro, A. Gruber, J. Janowiak, A. McNab, B. Rudolf, and U. Schneider. 1997. "The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset." BAMS, 78 (1): 5-20 (incl. cover) [10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0005:TGPCPG>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, and P. R. Keehn. 1995. "Global Precipitation Estimates Based on a Technique for Combining Satellite-Based Estimates, Rain Gauge Analysis, and NWP Model Precipitation Information." J. Climate, 8 (5): 1284-1295 [10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1284:GPEBOA>2.0.CO;2]

    Negri, A. J., E. J. Nelkin, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and C. Kummerow. 1995. "Evaluation of Passive Microwave Precipitation Algorithms in Wintertime Midlatitude Situations." J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 12 (1): 20-32 [10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0020:EOPMPA>2.0.CO;2]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and P. R. Keehn. 1994. "Global tropical rain estimates from microwave‐adjusted geosynchronous IR data." Remote Sensing Reviews, 11 (1-4): 125-152 [10.1080/02757259409532262]

    Negri, A. J., R. F. Adler, E. J. Nelkin, and G. J. Huffman. 1994. "Regional Rainfall Climatologies Derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Data." BAMS, 75 (7): 1165-1182 [10.1175/1520-0477(1994)075<1165:RRCDFS>2.0.CO;2]

    Ryan, W. F., R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, and W. T. Luke. 1992. "Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States. 1. Meteorology." J. Geophys. Res., 97 (D16): 17963-17984 [10.1029/92JD01375]

    Huffman, G. J., and J. N. Cooper. 1989. "Design Issues in Nearly Real-Time Meteorological-Data Systems at Local Sites." J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 6 (2): 353-358 [10.1175/1520-0426(1989)006<0353:DIINRT>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., and G. A. Norman Jr. 1988. "The Supercooled Warm Rain Process and the Specification of Freezing Precipitation." Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 (11): 2172-2182 [10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2172:TSWRPA>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J. 1988. "Modern Meteorological Computing Resources—the Maryland Experience." BAMS, 69 (7): 736-742 [10.1175/1520-0477(1988)069<0736:MMCRME>2.0.CO;2]

    Pickering, K. E., R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, J. F. Boatman, and A. Schanot. 1988. "Trace gas transport in the vicinity of frontal convective clouds." J. Geophys. Res., 93 (D1): 759-773 [10.1029/JD093iD01p00759]

    Dickerson, R. R., G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, et al. L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, and D. H. Stedman. 1987. "Thunderstorms: An Important Mechanism in the Transport of Air Pollutants." Science, 235 (4787): 460-465.

    Huffman, G. J. 1984. "Revising PoP's with Current Observations." National Wea. Digest, 9 (3): 11-14.

    Randall, D. A., and G. J. Huffman. 1982. "Entrainment and Detrainment in a Simple Cumulus Cloud Model." J. Atmos. Sci., 39 (12): 2793-2806 [10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2793:EADIAS>2.0.CO;2]

    Randall, D. A., and G. J. Huffman. 1980. "A Stochastic Model of Cumulus Clumping." J. Atmos. Sci., 37 (9): 2068-2078 [10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2068:ASMOCC>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Huffman, G. J. 2012. "Synthesis: Statistics in Precipitation Studies ." Proceedings of the WIRADA Science Symposium, 1-5 August 2011, Melbourne, Australia 316-322 [Full Text (Link)]

    Barrett, E. C., G. J. Huffman, J. Janowiak, et al. T. Kurino, R. Meneghini, W. S. Olson, R. A. Scofield, and J. Turk. 1999. "Chapter 3: Satellite Rainfall Estimation: Principles and Benchmark Techniques, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Technical Document (WMO/TD No 975)." Tropical Cyclone Programme (Estimating the Amoun): Report No TCP-42.

    Gruber, A., E. C. Barrett, E. Ebert, et al. R. R. Ferraro, G. J. Huffman, S. Huntrakul, E. Rodgers, and P. Xie. 1999. "Chapter 4: Results of the Application of Satellite Techniques to the Estimation of Tropical Rainfall." World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Technical Document (WMO/TD No 975) Tropical Cyclone Programme (Estimating the Amoun): Report No TCP-42.

    Huffman, G. J. 1997. "The Global Precipitation Climatology Project Monthly Mean Precipitation Data Set." WMO/TD No. 808: 37 pp.

    Other Professional Information

    CURRENT DATA SETS
    Huffman, G.J., D.T. Bolvin, D. Braithwaite, K. Hsu, R. Joyce, E.J. Nelkin, P. Xie , 2015: GPM Version 03D IMERG Data Sets. NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD. See http://pmm.nasa.gov/data-access/downloads/gpm for status and half-hourly (IMERGHH) and monthly (3IMERGM; Final Run only) data. The Early, Late, and Final Runs start 1 April 2015, 7 March 2015, and mid-March 2014, respectively. The site hot-links to the 44 pp. documentation.

    Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), R.F. Adler, D.T. Bolvin, E.J. Nelkin, 2012, last updated 2015: TRMM Version 7 3B42 and 3B43 Data Sets. NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD. See http://pmm.nasa.gov/data-access/downloads/trmm for status and 3-hourly (3B42) and monthly (3B43) fields with associated fields for 1 January 1998-delayed present and 44 pp. documentation.
    • Secondary (reformatted) archive for the 3-hourly at http://esgf.nccs.nasa.gov/esgf-web-fe/metadataview/obs4MIPs.NASA-GSFC.TRMM.atmos.3hr.v20140703|esgdata1.nccs.nasa.gov.html with 11 pp. documentation.
    • Secondary (reformatted) archive for the monthly at http://esgf.nccs.nasa.gov/esgf-web-f/metadataview/ obs4MIPs.NASA-GSFC.TRMM.atmos.mon.v20140703|esgdata1.nccs.nasa.gov.html with 11 pp. documentation.
    Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), E.F. Stocker, R.F. Adler, D.T. Bolvin, E.J. Nelkin, 2012, last updated 2015: TRMM Version 7 Real-Time Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis Data Set. NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD. See http://pmm.nasa.gov/data-access/downloads/trmm or http://precip.gsfc.nasa.gov/ for status, 1 hourly and 2 three-hourly fields with associated fields for 1 March 2000-present and 47 pp. documentation, 5 programming examples.

    Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, R.F. Adler, 2012, last updated 2015: GPCP Version 1.2 1-Degree Daily (1DD) Precipitation Data Set. WDC-A, NCDC, Asheville, NC. See http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wmo/wdcamet-ncdc.html or http://precip.gsfc.nasa.gov , 1 daily field in month files for 1997-delayed present and 27 pp. documentation, 6 programming examples.
    • Secondary (reformatted) archive at http://esgf.nccs.nasa.gov/esgf-web-fe/metadataview/obs4MIPs.NASA-GSFC.GPCP.atmos.day.v20121003|esgdata1.nccs.nasa.gov.html and 8 pp. documentation.
    Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, R.F. Adler, 2012, last updated 2015: GPCP Version 2.2 Combined Precipitation Data Set. WDC-A, NCDC, Asheville, NC. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/wmo/wdcamet-ncdc.html or http://precip.gsfc.nasa.gov/, 24 monthly fields in yearly files 1979-delayed present and 40 pp. documentation, 7 programming examples.
    • Secondary (reformatted) archive at http://esgf.nccs.nasa.gov/esgf-web-fe/metadataview/obs4MIPs.NASA-GSFC.GPCP.atmos.mon.v20130401|esgdata1.nccs.nasa.gov.html and 10 pp. documentation.

    Brief Bio

    Dr. George J. Huffman is a Research Meteorologist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. After completing a B.S. in Physics at The Ohio State University (1976) and a Ph.D. in Meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1982), he was an Assistant Professor at University of Maryland, College Park before moving to GSFC in 1988, where he consulted under General Sciences Corp., Universities Space Research Association, and Science Systems and Applications, Inc. before joining NASA in 2012. Dr. Huffman focuses on the design, implementation, and extension of combined estimates of global precipitation, seeking to incorporate all available precipitation-relevant satellite and global surface data. The resulting data sets include the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly and daily products (carried out as a contribution to the World Climate Research Program, WCRP); the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, computed in both real and post-real time; and similar products for the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) mission. Allied work includes estimating RMS error in such data sets and evaluating extreme precipitation event statistics for both the combined data sets and validation data. He has PI and Co-I funding for this work, which has resulted in 102 publications, 14 as first author, and numerous presentations. Dr. Huffman has served as the Deputy Project Scientist for GPM since mid-2014, is a past Co-Chair of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG), and is the Precipitation Subtask Lead for the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). In 2014 he received a NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Award for Science Achievement.  In 2015 he received a NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal.
     

    Publications

    Refereed

    Demirdjian, L., Y. Zhou, and G. J. Huffman. 2018. "Statistical Modeling of Extreme Precipitation with TRMM Data." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 57 (1): 15-30 [10.1175/jamc-d-17-0023.1]

    Lawford, R., W. Grabs, A. Gutierrez-Magness, et al. G. J. Huffman, C. Ishida, T. Koike, W. Pozzi, D. Toll, S. Unninayar, E. F. Wood, and Y. Zeng. 2017. "Implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy: From Observations to Decisions." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Submitted)

    Kidd, C., A. Becker, G. J. Huffman, et al. C. L. Muller, P. Joe, G. Skofronick-Jackson, and D. B. Kirschbaum. 2017. "So, how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by rain gauges?" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (1): 69-78 [10.1175/bams-d-14-00283.1]

    Wu, H., R. F. Adler, G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Evaluation of Quantitative Precipitation Estimations (QPE) through Hydrological Modelling in IFloodS Focal Basins." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (2): 529-553 [10.1175/JHM-D-15-0149.1]

    Stanley, T., D. B. Kirschbaum, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2017. "Approximating Long-Term Statistics Early in the Global Precipitation Measurement Era." Earth Interactions 21 (3): 1-10 [10.1175/ei-d-16-0025.1]

    Dezfuli, A. K., C. M. Ichoku, K. I. Mohr, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (6): 1799-1805 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0068.1]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. S. A. Braun, K. Garrett, E. Jones, A. L. Mcnally, G. S. Jackson, E. F. Stocker, H. Wu, and B. Zaitchik. 2017. "NASA’s Remotely-sensed Precipitation: A Reservoir for Applications Users." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (6): 1169-1184 [10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00296.1]

    Adler, R. F., G. Gu, M. Sapiano, J.-J. Wang, and G. J. Huffman. 2017. "Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979–2014)." Surveys in Geophysics 38 21 pp. [10.1007/s10712-017-9416-4]

    Dezfuli, A. K., C. M. Ichoku, G. J. Huffman, et al. K. I. Mohr, J. S. Selker, N. van de Giesen, R. Hochreutener, and F. O. Annor. 2017. "Validation of IMERG precipitation in Africa." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (2017): 2817-2825 [10.1175/JHM-D-17-0139.1]

    Tapiador, F., A. Navarro, V. Levizzani, et al. E. García-Ortega, G. Huffman, C. Kidd, P. Kucera, C. Kummerow, H. Masunaga, W. Petersen, R. Roca, J.-L. Sánchez, W.-K. Tao, and F. Turk. 2017. "Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models." Atmospheric Research 197 1-20 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.06.021]

    Skofronick-Jackson, G., W. A. Petersen, W. Berg, et al. C. Kidd, E. F. Stocker, D. B. Kirschbaum, R. Kakar, S. A. Braun, G. J. Huffman, T. Iguchi, P. E. Kirstetter, C. Kummerow, R. Meneghini, R. Oki, W. S. Olson, Y. N. Takayabu, K. Furukawa, and T. Wilheit. 2017. "The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (8): 1679-1695 [10.1175/bams-d-15-00306.1]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Long-term changes/trends in surface temperature and precipitation during the satellite era (1979–2012)." Climate Dynamics 46 (3-4): 1091-1105 [10.1007/s00382-015-2634-x]

    Lien, G.-Y., E. Kalnay, T. Miyoshi, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Statistical Properties of Global Precipitation in the NCEP GFS Model and TMPA Observations for Data Assimilation." Monthly Weather Review 144 (2): 663-679 [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0150.1]

    Behrangi, A., M. Christensen, M. Richardson, et al. M. Lebsock, G. Stephens, G. J. Huffman, D. Bolvin, R. F. Adler, A. Gardner, B. Lambrigtsen, and E. Fetzer. 2016. "Status of high-latitude precipitation estimates from observations and reanalyses." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121 (9): 4468-4486 [10.1002/2015jd024546]

    Ricko, M., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2016. "Climatology and Interannual Variability of Quasi-Global Intense Precipitation Using Satellite Observations." J. Climate 29 (15): 5447-5468 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0662.1]

    Yong, B., D. Liu, J. Gourley, et al. Y. Tian, G. Huffman, L. Ren, and Y. Hong. 2015. "Global view of real-time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis: implication to its successor Global Precipitation Measurement mission." Bull. Ameri. Meteor. Soc. 96 283-296 [10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00017.1]

    Matsui, T., W.-K. Tao, S. J. Munchak, M. Grecu, and G. J. Huffman. 2015. "Satellite view of quasi-equilibrium states in tropical convection and precipitation microphysics." Geophysical Research Letters 42 (6): 1959–1968 [10.1002/2015GL063261]

    Zhou, Y., W. K. Lau, and G. J. Huffman. 2015. "Mapping TRMM TMPA Into Average Recurrence Interval for Monitoring Extreme Precipitation Events." J. Appl. Meteor. & Climatol 54 (5): 979-995 [10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0269.1]

    Hegerl, G. C., E. Black, R. P. Allan, et al. W. J. Ingram, D. Polson, K. E. Trenberth, R. S. Chadwick, P. A. Arkin, B. B. Sarojini, A. Becker, A. Dai, P. J. Durack, D. Easterling, H. J. Fowler, E. J. Kendon, G. J. Huffman, C. Liu, R. Marsh, M. New, T. J. Osborn, N. Skliris, P. A. Stott, P.-L. Vidale, S. E. Wijffels, L. J. Wilcox, K. M. Willett, and X. Zhang. 2015. "Challenges in Quantifying Changes in the Global Water Cycle." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 (7): 1097-1115 [10.1175/bams-d-13-00212.1]

    Savtchenko, A. K., G. J. Huffman, and B. E. Vollmer. 2015. "Assessment of precipitation anomalies in California using TRMM and MERRA data ." Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres 120 8206–8215 [doi:10.1002/2015JD023573]

    Lettenmaier, D. P., D. Alsdor, J. Dozier, et al. G. J. Huffman, M. Pan, and E. F. Wood. 2015. "Inroads of Remote Sensing into Hydrologic Science During the WRR Era." Water Resources Research 51 (9): 7309–7342 [10.1002/2015WR017616]

    L'Ecuyer, T. S., M. Rodell, W. S. Olson, et al. B. Lin, S. Kato, C. A. Clayson, E. Wood, J. Sheffield, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, M. G. Bosilovich, G. Gu, F. Robertson, P. R. Houser, D. Chambers, J. S. Famiglietti, E. Fetzer, W. T. Liu, X. Gao, C. A. Schlosser, E. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier, and K. Hilburn. 2015. "The Observed State of the Energy Budget in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate 28 (21): 8319–8346 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00556.1]

    Rodell, M., H. K. Beaudoing, T. S. L’Ecuyer, et al. W. S. Olson, J. S. Famiglietti, P. R. Houser, R. F. Adler, M. G. Bosilovich, C. A. Clayson, D. Chambers, E. Clark, E. J. Fetzer, X. Gao, G. Gu, K. Hilburn, G. J. Huffman, D. P. Lettenmaier, W. T. Liu, F. R. Robertson, C. A. Schlosser, J. Sheffield, and E. F. Wood. 2015. "The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate 28 (21): 8289–8318 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00555.1]

    Wang, J. R., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and D. T. Bolvin. 2014. "An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation." J. Climate 27 (1): 273-284 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00331.1]

    Behrangi, A., G. Stephens, R. F. Adler, et al. G. J. Huffman, B. Lambrigtsen, and M. Lebsock. 2014. "An Update on the Oceanic Precipitation Rate and Its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space." J. Climate 27 (11): 3957-3965 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00679.1]

    Maggioni, V., M. R. Sapiano, R. F. Adler, Y. Tian, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "An Error Model for Uncertainty Quantification in High-Time-Resolution Precipitation Products." J. Hydrometeor. 15 (3): 1274-1292 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0112.1]

    Wu, H., R. Adler, Y. Tian, et al. G. J. Huffman, H. Li, and J. Wang. 2014. "Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model." Water Resour. Res. 50 (3): 2693-2717 [10.1002/2013WR014710]

    Oreopoulos, L., N. Cho, D. Lee, S. Kato, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "An examination of the nature of global MODIS cloud regimes." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 119 (13): [10.1002/2013JD021409]

    Zhou, T., B. Nijssen, G. J. Huffman, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2014. "Evaluation of Real-Time Satellite Precipitation Data for Global Drought Monitoring." J. Hydrometeor 15 (4): 1651-1660 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0128.1]

    Robertson, F. R., M. G. Bosilovich, J. B. Roberts, et al. R. H. Reichle, R. F. Adler, L. Ricciardulli, W. Berg, and G. J. Huffman. 2014. "Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations over the Satellite Era." J. Climate 27 (16): 6135-6154 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00384.1]

    Xue, X., Y. Hong, A. S. Limaye, et al. J. Gourley, G. J. Huffman, S. I. Khan, C. Corji, and S. Chen. 2013. "Statistical and hydrological evaluation of TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis over the Wangchu Basin of Bhutan: Are the latest satellite precipitation products 3B42V7 ready for use in ungauged basins?" J. Hydrol. 499 91-99 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.06.042]

    Kidd, C., E. Dawkins, and G. J. Huffman. 2013. "Comparison of Precipitation Derived from the ECMWF Operational Forecast Model and Satellite Precipitation Datasets." J. Hydrometeor. 14 (5): 1463-1482 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/JHM-D-12-0182.1]

    Chen, S., Y. Hong, J. J. Gourley, et al. G. J. Huffman, Y. Tian, Q. Cao, P. E. Kirstetter, J. Hu, J. Hardy, X. Xue, and B. Yong. 2013. "Evaluation of the successive V6 and V7 TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis over the Continental United States." Water Resour. Res. 49 (12): 8174-8186 [10.1002/2012WR012795]

    Yong, B., L. Ren, Y. Hong, et al. J. Gourley, Y. Tian, G. J. Huffman, X. Chen, W. Wang, and Y. Wen. 2013. "First evaluation of the climatological calibration algorithm in the real-time TMPA precipitation estimates over two basins at high and low latitudes." Water Resour. Res. 49 (5): 2461-2472 [10.1002/wrcr.20246]

    Tian, Y., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. L. Tang, M. Sapiano, V. Maggioni, and H. Wu. 2013. "Modeling errors in daily precipitation measurements: Additive or multiplicative?" Geophys. Res. Lett. 40 (10): 2060-2065 [10.1002/grl.50320]

    Lee, D., L. Oreopoulos, G. J. Huffman, W. B. Rossow, and I.-S. Kang. 2013. "The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States." J. Climate 26 (3): 772-788 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00718.1]

    Yong, B., Y. Hong, L. Ren, et al. J. Gourley, G. J. Huffman, X. Chen, W. Wang, and S. I. Khan. 2012. "Assessment of evolving TRMM-based multisatellite real-time precipitation estimation methods and their impacts on hydrologic prediction in a high latitude basin." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D9): D09108 [10.1029/2011JD017069]

    Tapiador, F. J., F. J. Turk, W. A. Petersen, et al. A. Y. Hou, E. Garcia-Ortega, L. T. Machado, C. F. Angelis, P. Salio, C. Kidd, G. J. Huffman, and M. de Castro. 2012. "Global precipitation measurement: Methods, datasets and applications." Atmos. Res. 104-105 70-97 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.10.021]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., R. F. Adler, D. Adler, C. D. Peters-Lidard, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years." J. Hydrometeor. 13 (5): 1536-1551 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-02.1]

    Kidd, C., P. Bauer, J. Turk, et al. G. J. Huffman, R. Joyce, K. Hsu, and D. Braithwaite. 2012. "Intercomparison of High-Resolution Precipitation Products Over Northwest Europe." J. Hydrometeor. 13 (1): 67-83 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-042.1]

    Liu, C., R. Allan, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Co-variation of temperature and precipitation in CMIP5 models and satellite observations." Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 (13): L13803 [10.1029/2012GL052093]

    Adler, R. F., G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2012. "Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51 (1): 84-99 [10.1175/JAMC-D-11-052.1]

    Crow, W. T., M. J. van den Berg, G. J. Huffman, and T. Pellarin. 2011. "Correcting rainfall using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals: The Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART)." Water Resour. Res. 47 (8): W08521 [10.1029/2011WR010576]

    Su, F., H. Gao, G. J. Huffman, and D. Lettenmaier. 2011. "Potential Utility of the Real-Time TMPA-RT Precipitation Estimates in Streamflow Prediction." J. Hydrometeor. 12 (3): 444-455 [10.1175/2010JHM1353.1]

    Knapp, K., S. Ansari, C. Bain, et al. M. Bourassa, M. Dickinson, C. Funk, C. Helms, C. C. Hennon, C. Holmes, G. J. Huffman, J. Kossin, H. Lee, A. Loew, and G. Magnusdottir. 2011. "Globally Gridded Satellite Observations for Climate Studies." BAMS 92 (7): 893-907 [10.1175/2011BAMS3039.1]

    Liu, Q., R. H. Reichle, R. Bindlish, et al. M. Cosh, W. Crow, R. Jeu, G. J. De Lannoy, G. J. Huffman, and T. Jackson. 2011. "The Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System." J. Hydrometeorology 12 (5): 750-765 [10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1]

    Kidd, C., and G. J. Huffman. 2011. "Global precipitation measurement." Meteor. Appl. 18 (3): 334-353 [10.1002/met.284]

    Scheel, M. L., M. Rohrer, C. Huggel, D. Villar, and G. J. Huffman. 2011. "Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (8): 2649-2663 [10.5194/hess-15-2649-2011]

    Behrangi, A., I. Bisher, H. Kuolin, et al. S. Soroosh, J. Timothy, and G. J. Huffman. 2010. "REFAME: Rain Estimation Using Forward-Adjusted Advection of Microwave Estimates." J. Hydrometeor. 11 (6): 1305-1321 [10.1175/2010JHM1248.1]

    Tang, L., F. Hossain, and G. J. Huffman. 2010. "Transfer of Satellite Rainfall Uncertainty from Gauged to Ungauged Regions at Regional and Seasonal Time Scales." J. Hydrometeor 11 (6): 1263–1274 [10.1175/2010JHM1296.1]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2010. "The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) (Chapter 1)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology 3-22 [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and H. F. Pierce. 2010. "Applications of TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimation for global runoff simulation: Prototyping a global flood monitoring system (Chapter 15)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology 245-265 [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_15]

    Tian, Y., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. Eylander, et al. R. Joyce, G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, K. Hsu, F.-J. Turk, M. Garcia, and J. Zeng. 2009. "Component analysis of errors in satellite-based precipitation estimates." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2009JD011949]

    Bolvin, D. T., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, E. J. Nelkin, and J. Poutiainen. 2009. "Comparison of GPCP Monthly and Daily Precipitation Estimates with High-Latitude Gauge Observations." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 48 (9): 1843–1857 [10.1175/2009JAMC2147.1]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, and G. Gu. 2009. "Improving the global precipitation record: GPCP Version 2.1." Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (17): L17808 [10.1029/2009GL040000]

    Crow, W., G. J. Huffman, R. Bindlish, and T. Jackson. 2009. "Improving Satellite-Based Rainfall Accumulation Estimates Using Spaceborne Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals." J. Hydrometeor. 10 (1): 199-212 [10.1175/2008JHM986.1]

    Behrangi, A., B. Imam, K. Hsu, et al. S. Sorooshian, G. J. Huffman, and R. Kuligowski. 2009. "PERSIANN-MSA: A Precipitation Estimation Method from Satellite-Based Multispectral Analysis." J. Hydrometeor. 10 (6): 1414-1429 [10.1175/2009JHM1139.1]

    Adler, R. F., J. J. Wang, G. Gu, and G. J. Huffman. 2009. "A Ten-Year Tropical Rainfall Climatology Based on a Composite of TRMM Products." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 87A 281-293 [10.2151/jmsj.87A.281]

    Hossain, F., and G. J. Huffman. 2008. "Investigating Error Metrics for Satellite Rainfall Data at Hydrologically Relevant Scales." J. Hydrometeor. 9 (3): 563-575 [10.1175/2007JHM925.1]

    Adler, R., G. Gu, G. J. Huffman, et al. J.-J. Wang, S. Curtis, and D. T. Bolvin. 2008. "Relationships between global precipitation and surface temperature on interannual and longer timescales (1979–2006)." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D22): D22104 [10.1029/2008JD010536]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2007. "A World of Rain." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 30-35

    Curtis, S., A. Salahuddin, R. F. Adler, et al. G. J. Huffman, G. Gu, and Y. Hong. 2007. "Precipitation Extremes Estimated by GPCP and TRMM: ENSO Relationships." J. Hydrometeor. 8 (4): 678-689 [10.1175/JHM601.1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Satellite Remote Sensing for Global Landslide Monitoring." EOS Trans. AGU 88 (37): 357-358 [10.1029/2007EO370001]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2007. "Tropical Rainfall Variability on Interannual-to-Interdecadal and Longer Time Scales Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product." J. Climate 20 (15): 4033-4046 [10.1175/JCLI4227.1]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, F. Hossain, S. Curtis, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "A first approach to global runoff simulation using satellite rainfall estimation." Water Resour. Res. 43 (8): W08502 [10.1029/2006WR005739]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin, et al. G. Gu, E. J. Nelkin, K. Bowman, Y. Hong, E. Stocker, and D. B. Wolff. 2007. "The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales." J. Hydrometeor. 8 (1): 38-55 [10.1175/JHM560.1]

    Hong, Y., R. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "An Experimental Global Prediction System for Rainfall-Triggered Landslides Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geospatial Datasets." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 45 (6): 1671-1680 [10.1109/TGRS.2006.888436]

    Huffman, G. J., R. Adler, S. Curtis, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2007. "Chapter 23: Global Rainfall Analyses at Monthly and 3-hr Time Scales." Measuring Precipitation from Space: EURAINSAT and the Future 291-306 [10.1007/978-1-4020-5835-6_23]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Use of satellite remote sensing data in the mapping of global landslide susceptibility." Nat Hazards 43 (2): 245-256 [10.1007/s11069-006-9104-z]

    Hong, Y., R. F. Adler, A. J. Negri, and G. J. Huffman. 2007. "Flood and landslide applications of near real-time satellite rainfall products." Nat Hazards 43 (2): 285-294 [10.1007/s11069-006-9106-x]

    Smith, T., P. Arkin, J. Bates, and G. J. Huffman. 2006. "Estimating Bias of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates." J. Hydrometeor. 7 (5): 841-856 [10.1175/JHM524.1]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, et al. G. Gu, D. T. Bolvin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2006. "Comments on “El Niño: Catastrophe or Opportunity”." J. Climate 19 (24): 6439-6442 [10.1175/JCLI4009.1]

    Hall, F. G., E. C. Brown de colstoun, G. J. Collatz, et al. D. R. Landis, P. Dirmeyer, A. Betts, G. J. Huffman, L. Bounoua, and B. W. Meeson. 2006. "ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land-atmosphere studies." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D22): D22S01 [10.1029/2006JD007366]

    Koster, R. D., B. Fekete, G. J. Huffman, and P. Stackhouse. 2006. "Revisiting a hydrological analysis framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 rainfall, net radiation, and runoff fields." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D22): D22S05 [10.1029/2006JD007182]

    Hong, Y., R. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2006. "Evaluation of the potential of NASA multi-satellite precipitation analysis in global landslide hazard assessment." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (22): L22402 [10.1029/2006GL028010]

    Gebremichael, M., W. Krajewski, M. Morrissey, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2005. "A Detailed Evaluation of GPCP 1° Daily Rainfall Estimates over the Mississippi River Basin." J. Appl. Meteor. 44 (5): 665-681 [10.1175/JAM2233.1]

    Negri, A., N. Burkardt, J. Golden, et al. J. Halverson, G. J. Huffman, M. Larsen, J. McGinley, R. Updike, J. Verdin, and G. Wieczorek. 2005. "The Hurricane–Flood–Landslide Continuum." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86 (9): 1241-1247 [10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1241]

    Huffman, G. J. 2005. "Satellite-Based Estimation of Precipitation Using Microwave Sensors (Chapter 64)." Encycl. of Hydrological Sci. 5 (64): 965-980 [10.1002/0470848944.hsa055]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2004. "African easterly waves and their association with precipitation." J. Geophys. Res. 109 (D4): D04101 [10.1029/2003JD003967]

    Katsanos, D., K. Lagouvardos, V. Kotroni, and G. J. Huffman. 2004. "Statistical evaluation of MPA-RT high-resolution precipitation estimates from satellite platforms over the central and eastern Mediterranean." Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (6): L06116 [10.1029/2003GL019142]

    Curtis, S., R. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and G. Gu. 2004. "Westerly wind events and precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean as predictors for El Niño: Climatology and case study for the 2002–2003 El Niño." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 109 (D20): D20104 [10.1029/2004JD004663]

    Gebremichael, M., W. F. Krajewski, M. Morrissey, et al. D. Langerud, G. J. Huffman, and R. F. Adler. 2003. "Error Uncertainty Analysis of GPCP Monthly Rainfall Products: A Data-Based Simulation Study." J. Appl. Meteor. 42 (12): 1837-1848 [10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1837:EUAOGM>2.0.CO;2]

    Xie, P., J. Janowiak, P. Arkin, et al. R. F. Adler, A. Gruber, R. Ferraro, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2003. "GPCP Pentad Precipitation Analyses: An Experimental Dataset Based on Gauge Observations and Satellite Estimates." J. Climate 16 (13): 2197-2214 [10.1175/2769.1]

    Gu, G., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis. 2003. "Summer synoptic-scale waves over West Africa observed by TRMM." Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (14): 1729 [10.1029/2003GL017402]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, A. Chang, et al. R. Ferraro, P. Xie, J. Janowiak, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, S. Curtis, D. T. Bolvin, A. Gruber, J. Susskind, P. Arkin, and E. J. Nelkin. 2003. "The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)." J. Hydrometeor 4 (6): 1147-1167 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, and G. J. Huffman. 2002. "Precipitation anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and their relation to the initiation of El Niño." Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (10): 1441 [10.1029/2001GL013399]

    Curtis, S., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, E. J. Nelkin, and D. T. Bolvin. 2001. "Evolution of tropical and extratropical precipitation anomalies during the 1997-1999 ENSO cycle." Int. J. Climatol. 21 (8): 961-971 [10.1002/joc.643]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, M. Morrissey, et al. D. T. Bolvin, S. Curtis, R. Joyce, B. McGavock, and J. Susskind. 2001. "Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multi-Satellite Observations." J. Hydrometeor. 2 (1): 36-50

    Joyce, R., J. Janowiak, and G. J. Huffman. 2001. "Latitudinally and Seasonally Dependent Zenith-Angle Corrections for Geostationary Satellite IR Brightness Temperatures." J. Appl. Meteor. 40 (4): 689-703 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0689:LASDZA>2.0.CO;2]

    Hou, A. Y., D. Ledvina, A. M. Da Silva, et al. S. Zhang, J. Joiner, R. Atlas, G. J. Huffman, and C. Kummerow. 2000. "Assimilation of SSM/I-Derived Surface Rainfall and Total Precipitable Water for Improving the GEOS Analysis for Climate Studies." Mon. Wea. Rev. 128 (3): 509-537 [10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0509:AOSIDS>2.0.CO;2]

    Kummerow, C., J. Simpson, O. Thiele, et al. W. Barnes, A. T. Chang, E. Stocker, R. F. Adler, A. Y. Hou, R. Kakar, F. Wentz, P. Ashcroft, T. Kozu, Y. Hong, K. Okamoto, T. Iguchi, H. Kuroiwa, E. Im, Z. Hadda, G. J. Huffman, T. Krishnamurti, B. Ferrier, W. S. Olson, E. Zipser, E. C. Smith, T. Wilheit, G. North, and K. Nakamura. 2000. "The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after Two Years in Orbit." J. Appl. Meteor. 39 (12): 1965-1982 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1965:TSOTTR>2.0.CO;2]

    Simpson, J., C. Kummerow, R. Meneghini, et al. A. Y. Hou, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, B. Barkstrom, B. Wielicki, S. Goodman, H. Christian, T. Kozu, T. Krishnamurti, S. Yang, and B. Ferrier. 2000. "The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)." Earth Obs. and Remote Sensing 4 71-90

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, D. T. Bolvin, S. Curtis, and E. J. Nelkin. 2000. "Tropical Rainfall Distributions Determined Using TRMM Combined with Other Satellite and Rain Gauge Information." J. Appl. Meteor. 39 (12): 2007-2023 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2007:TRDDUT>2.0.CO;2]

    Ferraro, R. R., E. A. Smith, W. Berg, and G. J. Huffman. 1998. "A Screening Methodology for Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms." J. Atmos. Sci. 55 (9): 1583-1600 [10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<1583:ASMFPM>2.0.CO;2]

    Janowiak, J. E., A. Gruber, C. R. Kondragunta, R. Livzey, and G. J. Huffman. 1998. "A Comparison of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Precipitation and the GPCP Raingauge-Satellite Combined Data Set with Observational Error Considerations." J. Climate 11 (11): 2960-2979 [10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2960:ACOTNN>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J. 1997. "Estimates of Root-Mean-Square Random Error for Finite Samples of Estimated Precipitation." J. Appl. Meteor. 36 (9): 1191-1201 [10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<1191:EORMSR>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, P. Arkin, et al. A. Chang, R. Ferraro, A. Gruber, J. Janowiak, A. McNab, B. Rudolf, and U. Schneider. 1997. "The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset." BAMS 78 (1): 5-20 (incl. cover) [10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0005:TGPCPG>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., R. F. Adler, B. Rudolf, U. Schneider, and P. R. Keehn. 1995. "Global Precipitation Estimates Based on a Technique for Combining Satellite-Based Estimates, Rain Gauge Analysis, and NWP Model Precipitation Information." J. Climate 8 (5): 1284-1295 [10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1284:GPEBOA>2.0.CO;2]

    Negri, A. J., E. J. Nelkin, R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and C. Kummerow. 1995. "Evaluation of Passive Microwave Precipitation Algorithms in Wintertime Midlatitude Situations." J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12 (1): 20-32 [10.1175/1520-0426(1995)012<0020:EOPMPA>2.0.CO;2]

    Adler, R. F., G. J. Huffman, and P. R. Keehn. 1994. "Global tropical rain estimates from microwave‐adjusted geosynchronous IR data." Remote Sensing Reviews 11 (1-4): 125-152 [10.1080/02757259409532262]

    Negri, A. J., R. F. Adler, E. J. Nelkin, and G. J. Huffman. 1994. "Regional Rainfall Climatologies Derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Data." BAMS 75 (7): 1165-1182 [10.1175/1520-0477(1994)075<1165:RRCDFS>2.0.CO;2]

    Ryan, W. F., R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, and W. T. Luke. 1992. "Tropospheric chemistry over the lower Great Plains of the United States. 1. Meteorology." J. Geophys. Res. 97 (D16): 17963-17984 [10.1029/92JD01375]

    Huffman, G. J., and J. N. Cooper. 1989. "Design Issues in Nearly Real-Time Meteorological-Data Systems at Local Sites." J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6 (2): 353-358 [10.1175/1520-0426(1989)006<0353:DIINRT>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J., and G. A. Norman Jr. 1988. "The Supercooled Warm Rain Process and the Specification of Freezing Precipitation." Mon. Wea. Rev. 116 (11): 2172-2182 [10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2172:TSWRPA>2.0.CO;2]

    Huffman, G. J. 1988. "Modern Meteorological Computing Resources—the Maryland Experience." BAMS 69 (7): 736-742 [10.1175/1520-0477(1988)069<0736:MMCRME>2.0.CO;2]

    Pickering, K. E., R. R. Dickerson, G. J. Huffman, J. F. Boatman, and A. Schanot. 1988. "Trace gas transport in the vicinity of frontal convective clouds." J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D1): 759-773 [10.1029/JD093iD01p00759]

    Dickerson, R. R., G. J. Huffman, W. T. Luke, et al. L. J. Nunnermacker, K. E. Pickering, A. C. Leslie, C. G. Lindsey, W. G. Slinn, T. J. Kelly, P. H. Daum, A. C. Delany, J. P. Greenberg, P. R. Zimmerman, J. F. Boatman, J. D. Ray, and D. H. Stedman. 1987. "Thunderstorms: An Important Mechanism in the Transport of Air Pollutants." Science 235 (4787): 460-465

    Huffman, G. J. 1984. "Revising PoP's with Current Observations." National Wea. Digest 9 (3): 11-14

    Randall, D. A., and G. J. Huffman. 1982. "Entrainment and Detrainment in a Simple Cumulus Cloud Model." J. Atmos. Sci. 39 (12): 2793-2806 [10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<2793:EADIAS>2.0.CO;2]

    Randall, D. A., and G. J. Huffman. 1980. "A Stochastic Model of Cumulus Clumping." J. Atmos. Sci. 37 (9): 2068-2078 [10.1175/1520-0469(1980)037<2068:ASMOCC>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Huffman, G. J. 2012. "Synthesis: Statistics in Precipitation Studies ." Proceedings of the WIRADA Science Symposium, 1-5 August 2011, Melbourne, Australia 316-322 [Full Text (Link)]

    Barrett, E. C., G. J. Huffman, J. Janowiak, et al. T. Kurino, R. Meneghini, W. S. Olson, R. A. Scofield, and J. Turk. 1999. "Chapter 3: Satellite Rainfall Estimation: Principles and Benchmark Techniques, World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Technical Document (WMO/TD No 975)." Tropical Cyclone Programme Report No TCP-42

    Gruber, A., E. C. Barrett, E. Ebert, et al. R. R. Ferraro, G. J. Huffman, S. Huntrakul, E. Rodgers, and P. Xie. 1999. "Chapter 4: Results of the Application of Satellite Techniques to the Estimation of Tropical Rainfall." World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Technical Document (WMO/TD No 975) Tropical Cyclone Programme Report No TCP-42

    Huffman, G. J. 1997. "The Global Precipitation Climatology Project Monthly Mean Precipitation Data Set." WMO/TD No. 808 37 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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