Gavin A. Schmidt

Gavin A. Schmidt

  • CHIEF, GODDARD INST FOR SPACE STD
  • 212.678.5627
  • NASA GISS
  • 2880 Broadway
  • New York , NY 10025
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

    Research Interests

    Coupled climate modeling

    Development, application and evaluation of coupled ocean-atmosphere-composition climate models.

    Paleoclimate

    Investigation of changes in past climate and what they can reveal about model skill and future changes.

    Detection and attribution of Climate change

    Exploring the fingerprints of forced and internal changes in the climate record and in models to better understand why climate changed in the past, why it is changing now and how it might change in the future. 

    Current Projects

    GISS ModelE development

    Construction, expansion and evaluation of the GISS ModelE coupled GCM.

    Education

    B.A. (Hons) Mathematics, Oxford University, 1988
    PhD in Applied Mathematics, University College London, 1994

    Awards

    AGU Climate Communications Prize (2011)
    EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year (2011)

    Publications

    Refereed

    Jungclaus, J. H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, et al. P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L. P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G. C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J. O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A. N. LeGrande, S. J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, A. C. Maycock, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, R. Muscheler, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, B. I. Otto-Bliesner, S. J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G. A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A. Schurer, A. I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, J. E. Smerdon, S. K. Solanki, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I. G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-J. Wu, K. L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita. 2017. "The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 <i>past1000</i> simulations." Geoscientific Model Development, 10 (11): 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017]

    Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and L. S. Nazarenko. 2016. "Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings." Nature Climate Change, 6 (4): 386–389 [10.1038/nclimate2888]

    Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, D. Shindell, et al. C. Bonfils, A. N. LeGrande, L. Nazarenko, and K. Tsigaridis. 2015. "Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?" Environ. Res. Lett., 10 (10): 104010 [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104010]

    Tremblay, L. B., G. A. Schmidt, S. Pfirman, R. Newton, and P. DeRepentigny. 2015. "Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover?" Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 373 (2052): - [doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0168]

    Marvel, K. D., G. A. Schmidt, K. Tsigaridis, and B. I. Cook. 2015. "Sensitivity to factors underlying the hiatus." US CLIVAR Variations, 13 (3): 25-29 [Full Text (Link)]

    Schmidt, G. A., and S. Sherwood. 2015. "A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling." Eur. J. Phil. Sci., 5 (2): 149-169 [doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9]

    Nazarenko, L., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. N. L. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2015. "Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2015. "What should climate scientists advocate for?" Bull. Atom. Sci., 71 (1): 70-74 [doi:10.1177/0096340214563677]

    Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Lean. 2014. "The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678]

    Field, R. D., D. Kim, A. N. LeGrande, et al. J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES." Geophys. Res. Lett., 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, G. A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2014. "Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961]

    Fischer, R. P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)." Geosci. Model Dev., 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. D. Annan, P. J. Bartlein, et al. B. I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J. C. Hargreaves, S. P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A. N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M. E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou. 2014. "Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5." Clim. Past, 10 (1): 221-250 [10.5194/cp-10-221-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis. 2014. "Reconciling warming trends." Nature Geosci, 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105]

    Santer, B. D., C. Bonfils, J. F. Painter, et al. M. D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G. A. Schmidt, J. C. Fyfe, J. N. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K. E. Taylor, and F. J. Wentz. 2014. "Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature." Nature Geosci, 7 (3): 185-189 [10.1038/ngeo2098]

    Santer, B. D., J. F. Painter, C. Bonfils, et al. C. A. Mears, S. Solomon, T. M. Wigley, P. J. Gleckler, G. A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N. P. Gillett, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, and F. J. Wentz. 2013. "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (43): 17235-17240 [10.1073/pnas.1305332110]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade. 2013. "Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning." Computing in Science & Engineering, 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2013. "Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (2): 243-262 [10.1029/2012JD017804]

    Romanou, A., W. W. Gregg, J. Romanski, et al. M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev. 2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling, 66: 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008]

    Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, et al. K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G. A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy. 2013. "Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions." Nature Climate change, 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835]

    Shindell, D. T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, et al. G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, W. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt. 2013. "Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (5): 2653-2689 [10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013]

    Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, et al. G. A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E. U. Noble, and Z. Li. 2012. "A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies." Future Internet, 4 (4): 1069-1085 [10.3390/fi4041069]

    Field, R. D., C. Risi, G. A. Schmidt, et al. J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A. N. LeGrande, A. H. Sobel, and R. J. Healy. 2012. "A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H₂O retrieval simulator for climate models." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (21): 10485-10504 [10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012]

    Vieira, L. E., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, et al. M. Kretzschmar, G. A. Schmidt, and M. C. Cheung. 2012. "How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance." Geophys Res Lett, 39 (16): L16104 [10.1029/2012GL052950]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2012. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)." Geosci. Model Dev., 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, H. J. Dowsett, and C. A. Loptson. 2012. "On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification." Earth Planet Sci Lett, 321-322: 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042]

    Tierney, J. E., S. C. Lewis, B. I. Cook, A. N. LeGrande, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period." Earth Planet Sci Lett, 307 (1-2): 103-112 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund. 2011. "Tracking climate models." Statistical Analy Data Mining, 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126]

    Legrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy." Paleoceanography, 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043]

    Lewis, S. C., M. K. Gagan, L. K. Ayliffe, et al. J. Zhao, W. S. Hantoro, P. C. Treble, J. C. Hellstrom, A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt, and B. W. Suwargadi. 2011. "High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048]

    Koch, D., S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, et al. G. S. Faluvegi, J. R. McConnell, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, D. Rind, R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2011. "Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry–Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses." J Climate, 24 (11): 2693-2714 [10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1]

    Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, et al. G. A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama. 2011. "Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation." J Geophys Res, 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209]

    Carozza, D. A., L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event." Geophys Res Lett, 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038]

    Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, et al. K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. N. Legrande, J. L. Li, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann. 2011. "Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2011. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)." Geosci. Model Dev., 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, R. L. Miller, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res, 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287]

    Lacis, A. A., G. A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R. A. Ruedy. 2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science, 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events." Climate of the Past, 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, and H. J. Dowsett. 2010. "Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data." Nature Geosci, 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2010. "Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change." J. Quaternary Sci., 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314]

    Field, R. D., G. W. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region." Geophys Res Lett, 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408]

    Usoskin, I. G., C. V. Field, G. A. Schmidt, et al. A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R. K. Ungar. 2009. "Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, D. M. Koch, et al. G. A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S. E. Bauer. 2009. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions." Science, 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760]

    Mann, M. E., G. A. Schmidt, S. K. Miller, and A. N. LeGrande. 2009. "Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information." Geophysical Research Letters, 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354]

    Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, et al. J. M. Lough, T. D. van Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki. 2009. "High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects." The Holocene, 19 (1): 3-49 [10.1177/0959683608098952]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives." Climate of the Past, 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009]

    Field, C. V., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2009. "Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578]

    Koch, D. M., S. Menon, A. D. Del Genio, et al. R. A. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century." J Climate, 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2009. "Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity." Int. J. Climatol., 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831]

    Wright, J. S., A. H. Sobel, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM." Geophys Res Lett, 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091]

    Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Solar trends and global warming." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639]

    Santer, B. D., P. W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, et al. K. E. Taylor, T. M. Wigley, J. R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P. J. Gleckler, P. D. Jones, T. R. Karl, S. A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G. A. Schmidt, S. C. Sherwood, and F. J. Wentz. 2008. "Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere." Int. J. Climatol., 28 (13): 1703-1722 [10.1002/joc.1756]

    Masson-Delmotte, V., S. Hou, A. Ekaykin, et al. J. Jouzel, A. Aristarain, R. T. Bernardo, D. Bromwich, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, S. Falourd, M. Frezzotti, H. Gallée, L. Genoni, E. Isaksson, A. Landais, M. M. Helsen, G. Hoffmann, J. Lopez, V. Morgan, H. Motoyama, D. Noone, H. Oerter, J. R. Petit, A. Royer, R. Uemura, G. A. Schmidt, E. Schlosser, J. C. Simöes, E. J. Steig, B. Stenni, M. Stievenard, M. R. van den Broeke, R. S. van de Wal, W. J. van de Berg, F. Vimeux, and J. W. White. 2008. "A Review of Antarctic Surface Snow Isotopic Composition: Observations, Atmospheric Circulation, and Isotopic Modeling." J. Climate, 21 (13): 3359-3387 [10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2008. "Ensemble, water isotope-enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2 ka event." Paleoceanography, 23 (3): PA3207 [10.1029/2008PA001610]

    Carlson, A. E., A. N. Legrande, D. W. Oppo, et al. R. E. Came, G. A. Schmidt, F. S. Anslow, J. M. Licciardi, and E. A. Obbink. 2008. "Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet." Nature Geosci, 1 (9): 620-624 [10.1038/ngeo285]

    Sud, Y. C., G. K. Walker, Y. Zhou, et al. G. A. Schmidt, W. K. Lau, and R. F. Cahalan. 2008. "Effects of doubled CO2 on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences." Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (12): L12707 [10.1029/2008GL033872]

    Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, V. I. Zakharov, et al. Y. Kasai, A. Kagawa, M. Murayama, R. Imasu, G. A. Schmidt, G. Hoffmann, and J. Jouzel. 2007. "Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra." Atmos Ocean Opt J, 20 (3): 224-228.

    Schmidt, G. A. 2007. "The physics of climate modeling." Phys Today, 60 (1): 72-73.

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, S. E. Bauer, et al. D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and D. G. Streets. 2007. "Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model." J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D20): D20103 [10.1029/2007JD008753]

    Little, C. M., M. Oppenheimer, R. B. Alley, et al. V. Balaji, G. K. Clarke, T. L. Delworth, R. Hallberg, D. M. Holland, C. L. Hulbe, S. Jacobs, J. V. Johnson, H. Levy, W. H. Lipscomb, S. J. Marshall, B. R. Parizek, A. J. Payne, G. A. Schmidt, R. J. Stouffer, D. G. Vaughan, and M. Winton. 2007. "Toward a New Generation of Ice Sheet Models." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 88 (52): 578-579 [10.1029/2007EO520002]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Harder, S. L., D. T. Shindell, G. A. Schmidt, and E. J. Brook. 2007. "A global climate model study of CH 4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data." Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21 (1): GB1011 [10.1029/2005GB002680]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn, 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Romanou, A., B. Liepert, G. A. Schmidt, et al. W. B. Rossow, R. A. Ruedy, and Y. C. Zhang. 2007. "20th century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations." Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (5): L05713 [10.1029/2006GL028356]

    Schmidt, G. A., A. N. Legrande, and G. Hoffmann. 2007. "Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model." J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D10): D10103 [10.1029/2006JD007781]

    Oppo, D. W., G. A. Schmidt, and A. N. Legrande. 2007. "Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene." Geophys Res Lett, 34 (13): L13701 [10.1029/2007GL030017]

    Tremblay, L. B., M. M. Holland, I. V. Gorodetskaya, and G. A. Schmidt. 2007. "An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science." Comput Sci Eng, 9 (3): 65-74 [10.1109/MCSE.2007.45]

    Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, and V. I. Zakharov. 2006. "Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data." Atmos Ocean Opt J, 19: 787-791.

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate, 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, et al. E. Aguilar, G. A. Schmidt, D. M. Koch, S. E. Bauer, and R. L. Miller. 2006. "Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6 (12): 4427-4459 [10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006]

    Miller, R. L., R. V. Cakmur, I. V. Geogdzhayev, et al. P. Ginoux, K. E. Kohfeld, D. Koch, C. Prigent, R. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and I. Tegen. 2006. "Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D6): D06208 [10.1029/2005JD005796]

    Koch, D., G. A. Schmidt, and C. V. Field. 2006. "Sulfur, sea salt, and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D6): D06206 [10.1029/2004JD005550]

    LeGrande, A. N., G. A. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, et al. C. V. Field, R. L. Miller, D. M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann. 2006. "Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (4): 837-842 [10.1073/pnas.0510095103]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk. 2006. "Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D15): D15107 [10.1029/2005JD006410]

    Henderson-Sellers, A., M. Fischer, I. Aleinov, et al. K. McGuffie, W. J. Riley, G. A. Schmidt, K. Sturm, K. Yoshimura, and O. Irannejad. 2006. "Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1." Global and Planetary Change, 51 (1-2): 34-58 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003]

    Aleinov, I., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. "Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme." Global and Planetary Change, 51 (1-2): 108-120 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. "Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater." Geophys Res Lett, 33 (12): L12604 [10.1029/2006GL026011]

    Shindell, D. T., G. S. Faluvegi, R. L. Miller, et al. G. A. Schmidt, J. E. Hansen, and S. Sun. 2006. "Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology." Geophys Res Lett, 33 (24): L24706 [10.1029/2006GL027468]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2006. "Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D18): D18101 [10.1029/2005JD006323]

    Santer, B. D., T. M. Wigley, C. Mears, et al. F. J. Wentz, S. A. Klein, D. J. Seidel, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, P. J. Gleckler, J. S. Boyle, W. D. Collins, K. W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J. E. Hansen, G. S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. "Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere." Science, 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867]

    Schmidt, G. A., G. Hoffmann, D. T. Shindell, and Y. Hu. 2005. "Modeling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D21): D21314 [10.1029/2005JD005790]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. "An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone." Geophys Res Lett, 32 (4): L04803 [10.1029/2004GL021900]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, et al. I. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, U. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev. 2005. "Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications." Science, 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252]

    Oman, L., A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G. A. Schmidt, and R. A. Ruedy. 2005. "Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D13): D13103 [10.1029/2004JD005487]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, and G. Faluvegi. 2004. "Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600." J Geophys Res, 109 (D5): D05104 [10.1029/2003JD004151]

    Schmidt, G. A., C. M. Bitz, U. Mikolajewicz, and L. Tremblay. 2004. "Ice–ocean boundary conditions for coupled models." Ocean Model, 7 (1-2): 59-74 [10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and S. Harder. 2004. "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation." Geophys Res Lett, 31: L23206 [10.1029/2004GL021083]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, R. L. Miller, M. E. Mann, and D. Rind. 2004. "General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability." Quaternary Science Reviews, 23 (20-22): 2167-2181 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005]

    Shindell, D. T., and G. A. Schmidt. 2004. "Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases." Geophys Res Lett, 31 (18): L18209 [10.1029/2004GL020724]

    Rahmstorf, S., D. Archer, D. S. Ebel, et al. O. Eugster, J. Jouzel, D. Maraun, U. Neu, G. A. Schmidt, J. Sever-Inghaus, A. J. Weaver, and J. Zachos. 2004. "Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate." Eos Trans AGU, 85 (4): 38–41 [10.1029/2004EO040002]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and M. E. Mann. 2003. "Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era." J Climate, 16: 4094-4107.

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. T. Shindell. 2003. "Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates." Paleoceanography, 18 (1): 1004 [10.1029/2002PA000757]

    Santer, B. D., R. Sausen, T. M. Wigley, et al. J. S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J. E. Hansen, G. A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K. E. Taylor. 2003. "Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes." J Geophys Res, 108 (D1): 4002 [10.1029/2002JD002258]

    Liu, J., G. A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, et al. D. H. Rind, G. L. Russell, and X. Yuan. 2003. "Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model." J Geophys Res, 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167]

    Mann, M. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2003. "Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions." Geophys Res Lett, 30 (12): 1607 [10.1029/2003GL017170]

    Schmidt, G. A., and S. Mulitza. 2002. "Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18." Mar Micropalaentol, 44 (3-4): 125-140 [10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X]

    Gillett, N. P., M. R. Allen, R. E. McDonald, et al. C. A. Senior, D. T. Shindell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2002. "How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases?" J. Geophys. Res., 107 (D3): 4022 [10.1029/2001JD000589]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and D. Rind. 2001. "Northern hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing." J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D7): 7193-7210 [10.1029/2000JD900547]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple. 2001. "Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum." Science, 294 (5549): 2149-2152 [10.1126/science.1064363]

    Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G. L. Russell, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Teller. 2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response." J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070]

    Rind, D., G. L. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller. 2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production." J Geophys Res, 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954]

    Juillet-Leclerc, A., and G. Schmidt. 2001. "A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from porites." Geophys Res Lett, 28 (21): 4135-4138 [10.1029/2000GL012538]

    Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, D. Rind, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth. 2000. "Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years." J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156]

    Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo. 1999. "Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing." Nature, 399 (6735): 452-455 [10.1038/20905]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1999. "Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations." Paleoceanography, 14 (3): 422-429 [10.1029/1999PA900008]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1999. "Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model." Paleoceanography, 14 (4): 482-497 [10.1029/1999PA900025]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1998. "Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model." Geophys Res Lett, 25 (8): 1201-1204 [10.1029/98GL50866]

    Schmidt, G. A., and E. R. Johnson. 1997. "The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges." Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dynam, 84: 29-52.

    Non-Refereed

    Schmidt, G. A. 2014. "On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming." Science 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819]

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. Archer. 2009. "Climate change: Too much of a bad thing." Nature 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a]

    Schmidt, G. A., and A. N. Legrande. 2005. "The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event." Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1109-1110 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015]

    Selected Public Outreach

    TED talk 2 / 2014 - 2 / 2014
    The Emergent Patterns of Climate Change

    Brief Bio

    Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Jungclaus, J. H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, et al. P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L. P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G. C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J. O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A. N. LeGrande, S. J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, A. C. Maycock, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, R. Muscheler, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, B. I. Otto-Bliesner, S. J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G. A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A. Schurer, A. I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, J. E. Smerdon, S. K. Solanki, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I. G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-J. Wu, K. L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita. 2017. "The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 <i>past1000</i> simulations." Geoscientific Model Development 10 (11): 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017]

    Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and L. S. Nazarenko. 2016. "Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings." Nature Climate Change 6 (4): 386–389 [10.1038/nclimate2888]

    Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, D. Shindell, et al. C. Bonfils, A. N. LeGrande, L. Nazarenko, and K. Tsigaridis. 2015. "Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?" Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (10): 104010 [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104010]

    Tremblay, L. B., G. A. Schmidt, S. Pfirman, R. Newton, and P. DeRepentigny. 2015. "Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover?" Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 373 (2052): - [doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0168]

    Marvel, K. D., G. A. Schmidt, K. Tsigaridis, and B. I. Cook. 2015. "Sensitivity to factors underlying the hiatus." US CLIVAR Variations 13 (3): 25-29 [Full Text (Link)]

    Schmidt, G. A., and S. Sherwood. 2015. "A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling." Eur. J. Phil. Sci. 5 (2): 149-169 [doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9]

    Nazarenko, L., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. N. L. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2015. "Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2015. "What should climate scientists advocate for?" Bull. Atom. Sci. 71 (1): 70-74 [doi:10.1177/0096340214563677]

    Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Lean. 2014. "The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678]

    Field, R. D., D. Kim, A. N. LeGrande, et al. J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES." Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, G. A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2014. "Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961]

    Fischer, R. P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)." Geosci. Model Dev. 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. D. Annan, P. J. Bartlein, et al. B. I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J. C. Hargreaves, S. P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A. N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M. E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou. 2014. "Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5." Clim. Past 10 (1): 221-250 [10.5194/cp-10-221-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis. 2014. "Reconciling warming trends." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105]

    Santer, B. D., C. Bonfils, J. F. Painter, et al. M. D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G. A. Schmidt, J. C. Fyfe, J. N. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K. E. Taylor, and F. J. Wentz. 2014. "Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 185-189 [10.1038/ngeo2098]

    Santer, B. D., J. F. Painter, C. Bonfils, et al. C. A. Mears, S. Solomon, T. M. Wigley, P. J. Gleckler, G. A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N. P. Gillett, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, and F. J. Wentz. 2013. "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (43): 17235-17240 [10.1073/pnas.1305332110]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade. 2013. "Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning." Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2013. "Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (2): 243-262 [10.1029/2012JD017804]

    Romanou, A., W. W. Gregg, J. Romanski, et al. M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev. 2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling 66 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008]

    Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, et al. K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G. A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy. 2013. "Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions." Nature Climate change 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835]

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    Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, et al. G. A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E. U. Noble, and Z. Li. 2012. "A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies." Future Internet 4 (4): 1069-1085 [10.3390/fi4041069]

    Field, R. D., C. Risi, G. A. Schmidt, et al. J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A. N. LeGrande, A. H. Sobel, and R. J. Healy. 2012. "A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H₂O retrieval simulator for climate models." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (21): 10485-10504 [10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012]

    Vieira, L. E., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, et al. M. Kretzschmar, G. A. Schmidt, and M. C. Cheung. 2012. "How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance." Geophys Res Lett 39 (16): L16104 [10.1029/2012GL052950]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2012. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)." Geosci. Model Dev. 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, H. J. Dowsett, and C. A. Loptson. 2012. "On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification." Earth Planet Sci Lett 321-322 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042]

    Tierney, J. E., S. C. Lewis, B. I. Cook, A. N. LeGrande, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period." Earth Planet Sci Lett 307 (1-2): 103-112 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund. 2011. "Tracking climate models." Statistical Analy Data Mining 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126]

    Legrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy." Paleoceanography 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043]

    Lewis, S. C., M. K. Gagan, L. K. Ayliffe, et al. J. Zhao, W. S. Hantoro, P. C. Treble, J. C. Hellstrom, A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt, and B. W. Suwargadi. 2011. "High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048]

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    Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, et al. G. A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama. 2011. "Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation." J Geophys Res 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209]

    Carozza, D. A., L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event." Geophys Res Lett 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038]

    Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, et al. K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. N. Legrande, J. L. Li, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann. 2011. "Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2011. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)." Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, R. L. Miller, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287]

    Lacis, A. A., G. A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R. A. Ruedy. 2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events." Climate of the Past 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, and H. J. Dowsett. 2010. "Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data." Nature Geosci 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2010. "Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change." J. Quaternary Sci. 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314]

    Field, R. D., G. W. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region." Geophys Res Lett 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408]

    Usoskin, I. G., C. V. Field, G. A. Schmidt, et al. A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R. K. Ungar. 2009. "Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, D. M. Koch, et al. G. A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S. E. Bauer. 2009. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions." Science 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760]

    Mann, M. E., G. A. Schmidt, S. K. Miller, and A. N. LeGrande. 2009. "Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information." Geophysical Research Letters 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354]

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    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives." Climate of the Past 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009]

    Field, C. V., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2009. "Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578]

    Koch, D. M., S. Menon, A. D. Del Genio, et al. R. A. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century." J Climate 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2009. "Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity." Int. J. Climatol. 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831]

    Wright, J. S., A. H. Sobel, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM." Geophys Res Lett 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091]

    Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Solar trends and global warming." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639]

    Santer, B. D., P. W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, et al. K. E. Taylor, T. M. Wigley, J. R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P. J. Gleckler, P. D. Jones, T. R. Karl, S. A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G. A. Schmidt, S. C. Sherwood, and F. J. Wentz. 2008. "Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere." Int. J. Climatol. 28 (13): 1703-1722 [10.1002/joc.1756]

    Masson-Delmotte, V., S. Hou, A. Ekaykin, et al. J. Jouzel, A. Aristarain, R. T. Bernardo, D. Bromwich, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, S. Falourd, M. Frezzotti, H. Gallée, L. Genoni, E. Isaksson, A. Landais, M. M. Helsen, G. Hoffmann, J. Lopez, V. Morgan, H. Motoyama, D. Noone, H. Oerter, J. R. Petit, A. Royer, R. Uemura, G. A. Schmidt, E. Schlosser, J. C. Simöes, E. J. Steig, B. Stenni, M. Stievenard, M. R. van den Broeke, R. S. van de Wal, W. J. van de Berg, F. Vimeux, and J. W. White. 2008. "A Review of Antarctic Surface Snow Isotopic Composition: Observations, Atmospheric Circulation, and Isotopic Modeling." J. Climate 21 (13): 3359-3387 [10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2008. "Ensemble, water isotope-enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2 ka event." Paleoceanography 23 (3): PA3207 [10.1029/2008PA001610]

    Carlson, A. E., A. N. Legrande, D. W. Oppo, et al. R. E. Came, G. A. Schmidt, F. S. Anslow, J. M. Licciardi, and E. A. Obbink. 2008. "Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet." Nature Geosci 1 (9): 620-624 [10.1038/ngeo285]

    Sud, Y. C., G. K. Walker, Y. Zhou, et al. G. A. Schmidt, W. K. Lau, and R. F. Cahalan. 2008. "Effects of doubled CO2 on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences." Geophysical Research Letters 35 (12): L12707 [10.1029/2008GL033872]

    Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, V. I. Zakharov, et al. Y. Kasai, A. Kagawa, M. Murayama, R. Imasu, G. A. Schmidt, G. Hoffmann, and J. Jouzel. 2007. "Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra." Atmos Ocean Opt J 20 (3): 224-228

    Schmidt, G. A. 2007. "The physics of climate modeling." Phys Today 60 (1): 72-73.

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, S. E. Bauer, et al. D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and D. G. Streets. 2007. "Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D20): D20103 [10.1029/2007JD008753]

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    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Harder, S. L., D. T. Shindell, G. A. Schmidt, and E. J. Brook. 2007. "A global climate model study of CH 4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data." Global Biogeochem. Cycles 21 (1): GB1011 [10.1029/2005GB002680]

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    Romanou, A., B. Liepert, G. A. Schmidt, et al. W. B. Rossow, R. A. Ruedy, and Y. C. Zhang. 2007. "20th century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations." Geophysical Research Letters 34 (5): L05713 [10.1029/2006GL028356]

    Schmidt, G. A., A. N. Legrande, and G. Hoffmann. 2007. "Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D10): D10103 [10.1029/2006JD007781]

    Oppo, D. W., G. A. Schmidt, and A. N. Legrande. 2007. "Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene." Geophys Res Lett 34 (13): L13701 [10.1029/2007GL030017]

    Tremblay, L. B., M. M. Holland, I. V. Gorodetskaya, and G. A. Schmidt. 2007. "An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science." Comput Sci Eng 9 (3): 65-74 [10.1109/MCSE.2007.45]

    Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, and V. I. Zakharov. 2006. "Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data." Atmos Ocean Opt J 19 787-791.

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, et al. E. Aguilar, G. A. Schmidt, D. M. Koch, S. E. Bauer, and R. L. Miller. 2006. "Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 (12): 4427-4459 [10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006]

    Miller, R. L., R. V. Cakmur, I. V. Geogdzhayev, et al. P. Ginoux, K. E. Kohfeld, D. Koch, C. Prigent, R. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and I. Tegen. 2006. "Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06208 [10.1029/2005JD005796]

    Koch, D., G. A. Schmidt, and C. V. Field. 2006. "Sulfur, sea salt, and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06206 [10.1029/2004JD005550]

    LeGrande, A. N., G. A. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, et al. C. V. Field, R. L. Miller, D. M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann. 2006. "Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 837-842 [10.1073/pnas.0510095103]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk. 2006. "Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D15): D15107 [10.1029/2005JD006410]

    Henderson-Sellers, A., M. Fischer, I. Aleinov, et al. K. McGuffie, W. J. Riley, G. A. Schmidt, K. Sturm, K. Yoshimura, and O. Irannejad. 2006. "Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1." Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 34-58 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003]

    Aleinov, I., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. "Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme." Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 108-120 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. "Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater." Geophys Res Lett 33 (12): L12604 [10.1029/2006GL026011]

    Shindell, D. T., G. S. Faluvegi, R. L. Miller, et al. G. A. Schmidt, J. E. Hansen, and S. Sun. 2006. "Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology." Geophys Res Lett 33 (24): L24706 [10.1029/2006GL027468]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2006. "Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D18): D18101 [10.1029/2005JD006323]

    Santer, B. D., T. M. Wigley, C. Mears, et al. F. J. Wentz, S. A. Klein, D. J. Seidel, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, P. J. Gleckler, J. S. Boyle, W. D. Collins, K. W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J. E. Hansen, G. S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. "Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere." Science 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867]

    Schmidt, G. A., G. Hoffmann, D. T. Shindell, and Y. Hu. 2005. "Modeling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D21): D21314 [10.1029/2005JD005790]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. "An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone." Geophys Res Lett 32 (4): L04803 [10.1029/2004GL021900]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, et al. I. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, U. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev. 2005. "Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications." Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252]

    Oman, L., A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G. A. Schmidt, and R. A. Ruedy. 2005. "Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D13): D13103 [10.1029/2004JD005487]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, and G. Faluvegi. 2004. "Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600." J Geophys Res 109 (D5): D05104 [10.1029/2003JD004151]

    Schmidt, G. A., C. M. Bitz, U. Mikolajewicz, and L. Tremblay. 2004. "Ice–ocean boundary conditions for coupled models." Ocean Model 7 (1-2): 59-74 [10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and S. Harder. 2004. "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation." Geophys Res Lett 31 L23206 [10.1029/2004GL021083]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, R. L. Miller, M. E. Mann, and D. Rind. 2004. "General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability." Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (20-22): 2167-2181 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005]

    Shindell, D. T., and G. A. Schmidt. 2004. "Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases." Geophys Res Lett 31 (18): L18209 [10.1029/2004GL020724]

    Rahmstorf, S., D. Archer, D. S. Ebel, et al. O. Eugster, J. Jouzel, D. Maraun, U. Neu, G. A. Schmidt, J. Sever-Inghaus, A. J. Weaver, and J. Zachos. 2004. "Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate." Eos Trans AGU 85 (4): 38–41 [10.1029/2004EO040002]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and M. E. Mann. 2003. "Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era." J Climate 16 4094-4107.

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. T. Shindell. 2003. "Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates." Paleoceanography 18 (1): 1004 [10.1029/2002PA000757]

    Santer, B. D., R. Sausen, T. M. Wigley, et al. J. S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J. E. Hansen, G. A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K. E. Taylor. 2003. "Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes." J Geophys Res 108 (D1): 4002 [10.1029/2002JD002258]

    Liu, J., G. A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, et al. D. H. Rind, G. L. Russell, and X. Yuan. 2003. "Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model." J Geophys Res 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167]

    Mann, M. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2003. "Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions." Geophys Res Lett 30 (12): 1607 [10.1029/2003GL017170]

    Schmidt, G. A., and S. Mulitza. 2002. "Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18." Mar Micropalaentol 44 (3-4): 125-140 [10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X]

    Gillett, N. P., M. R. Allen, R. E. McDonald, et al. C. A. Senior, D. T. Shindell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2002. "How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases?" J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D3): 4022 [10.1029/2001JD000589]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and D. Rind. 2001. "Northern hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D7): 7193-7210 [10.1029/2000JD900547]

    Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple. 2001. "Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum." Science 294 (5549): 2149-2152 [10.1126/science.1064363]

    Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G. L. Russell, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Teller. 2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070]

    Rind, D., G. L. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller. 2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production." J Geophys Res 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954]

    Juillet-Leclerc, A., and G. Schmidt. 2001. "A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from porites." Geophys Res Lett 28 (21): 4135-4138 [10.1029/2000GL012538]

    Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, D. Rind, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth. 2000. "Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156]

    Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo. 1999. "Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing." Nature 399 (6735): 452-455 [10.1038/20905]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1999. "Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations." Paleoceanography 14 (3): 422-429 [10.1029/1999PA900008]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1999. "Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model." Paleoceanography 14 (4): 482-497 [10.1029/1999PA900025]

    Schmidt, G. A. 1998. "Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model." Geophys Res Lett 25 (8): 1201-1204 [10.1029/98GL50866]

    Schmidt, G. A., and E. R. Johnson. 1997. "The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges." Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dynam 84 29-52

    Non-Refereed

    Schmidt, G. A. 2014. "On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming." Science 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819]

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. Archer. 2009. "Climate change: Too much of a bad thing." Nature 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a]

    Schmidt, G. A., and A. N. Legrande. 2005. "The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event." Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1109-1110 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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