Eric R Christian

Eric R Christian

  • SUPV RSCH AST, FIELDS AND PARTICLES
  • 301.286.2919 | 301.286.7194
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 672
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Eric Christian is a Senior Research Scientist and Associate Lab Chief in the Heliospheric Laboratory (Code 672) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the lead scientist for the Energetic Particle Laboratory. He is the Deputy Principal Investigator for the Integrated Scientific Investigation of the Sun (IS0IS) instrument suite on the Solar Probe Plus mission, and also Deputy Principal Investigator for the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) mission. He is Mission Scientist for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and Project Scientist for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). He is an Instrument Scientist for the CRIS and SIS instruments on ACE and the lead Co-I for the HET instrument on STEREO, which is part of the IMPACT suite.

    Between 2002 and 2008, Dr. Christian worked at NASA Headquarters as the Program Scientist for a number of missions, including the two Voyager spacecraft.

    He has been active in NASA Education and Public Outreach for his entire career. Dr. Christian has a BA in Physics and Astronomy from the University of Pennsylvania (1982) and a PhD in Physics from the California Institute of Technology (1989).

    Research Interests

    Acceleration of Energetic Particles

    Eric Christian's scientific interests are the origin of energetic particles (galactic cosmic rays, anomalous cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and energetic neutral atoms) and the design, construction, integration and test, and data analysis of particle detectors. 

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Cohen, C. M., E. R. Christian, A. C. Cummings, et al. A. J. Davis, M. I. Desai, J. Giacalone, M. E. Hill, C. J. Joyce, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Leske, W. H. Matthaeus, D. J. McComas, R. L. McNutt, R. A. Mewaldt, D. G. Mitchell, J. S. Rankin, E. C. Roelof, N. A. Schwadron, E. C. Stone, J. R. Szalay, M. E. Wiedenbeck, R. C. Allen, G. C. Ho, L. K. Jian, D. Lario, D. Odstrcil, S. D. Bale, S. T. Badman, M. Pulupa, R. J. MacDowall, J. C. Kasper, A. W. Case, K. E. Korreck, D. E. Larson, R. Livi, M. L. Stevens, and P. Whittlesey. 2020. "Energetic Particle Increases Associated with Stream Interaction Regions." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 246 (2): 20 [10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c38]

    Allen, R. C., D. Lario, D. Odstrcil, et al. G. C. Ho, L. K. Jian, C. M. Cohen, S. T. Badman, S. I. Jones, C. N. Arge, M. L. Mays, G. M. Mason, S. D. Bale, J. W. Bonnell, A. W. Case, E. R. Christian, T. D. de Wit, K. Goetz, P. R. Harvey, C. J. Henney, M. E. Hill, J. C. Kasper, K. E. Korreck, D. Larson, R. Livi, R. J. MacDowall, D. M. Malaspina, D. J. McComas, R. McNutt, D. G. Mitchell, M. Pulupa, N. Raouafi, N. Schwadron, M. L. Stevens, P. L. Whittlesey, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2020. "Solar Wind Streams and Stream Interaction Regions Observed by the Parker Solar Probe with Corresponding Observations at 1 au." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 246 (2): 36 [10.3847/1538-4365/ab578f]

    De Nolfo, G. A., A. Bruno, J. M. Ryan, et al. S. Dalla, J. Giacalone, I. G. Richardson, E. R. Christian, S. J. Stochaj, G. A. Bazilevskaya, M. Boezio, M. Martucci, V. V. Mikhailov, and R. Munini. 2019. "Comparing Long-duration Gamma-Ray Flares and High-energy Solar Energetic Particles." The Astrophysical Journal, 879 (2): 90 [Full Text (Link)] [https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab258f]

    Cohen, I. J., S. J. Schwartz, K. A. Goodrich, et al. N. Ahmadi, R. E. Ergun, S. A. Fuselier, M. I. Desai, E. R. Christian, D. J. McComas, G. P. Zank, J. R. Shuster, S. K. Vines, B. H. Mauk, R. B. Decker, B. J. Anderson, J. H. Westlake, O. Le Contel, H. Breuillard, B. L. Giles, R. B. Torbert, and J. L. Burch. 2019. "High-resolution measurements of the cross-shock potential, ion reflection, and electron heating at an interplanetary shock by MMS." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, (Accepted) [10.1029/2018ja026197]

    Bruno, A., E. R. Christian, G. A. de Nolfo, I. G. Richardson, and J. M. Ryan. 2019. "Spectral Analysis of the September 2017 Solar Energetic Particle Events." Space Weather, [10.1029/2018sw002085]

    Bruno, A., G. A. Bazilevskaya, M. Boezio, et al. E. R. Christian, G. A. Nolfo, M. Martucci, M. Merge’, V. V. Mikhailov, R. Munini, I. G. Richardson, J. M. Ryan, S. Stochaj, O. Adriani, G. C. Barbarino, R. Bellotti, E. A. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, C. D. Santis, V. D. Felice, A. M. Galper, A. V. Karelin, S. V. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Y. Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, A. G. Mayorov, W. Menn, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, G. Osteria, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. B. Ricciarini, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, Y. I. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. I. Vasilyev, S. A. Voronov, Y. T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2018. "Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission." The Astrophysical Journal, 862 (2): 97 [10.3847/1538-4357/aacc26]

    Bruno, A., O. Adriani, G. Barbarino, et al. G. Bazilevskaya, R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, E. Christian, C. De Donato, G. de Nolfo, C. De Santis, N. De Simone, V. Di Felice, A. Galper, A. Karelin, S. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Krutkov, A. Kvashnin, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, M. Martucci, A. Mayorov, W. Menn, M. Mergè, V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, R. Munini, G. Osteria, F. Palma, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. Ricciarini, J. Ryan, R. Sarkar, V. Scotti, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, S. Stochaj, Y. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. Vasilyev, S. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2017. "Geomagnetically trapped, albedo and solar energetic particles: trajectory analysis and flux reconstruction with PAMELA." Advances in Space Research, 60 (4): 788-795 [10.1016/j.asr.2016.06.042]

    Adriani, O., G. C. Barbarino, G. A. Bazilevskaya, et al. R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. A. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, U. Bravar, A. Bruno, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, R. Carbone, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, E. R. Christian, C. D. Donato, G. A. Nolfo, C. D. Santis, N. D. Simone, V. D. Felice, V. Formato, A. M. Galper, A. V. Karelin, S. V. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Y. Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, M. Lee, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, M. Martucci, A. G. Mayorov, W. Menn, M. Mergé, V. V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, R. Munini, G. Osteria, F. Palma, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. B. Ricciarini, J. M. Ryan, R. Sarkar, V. Scotti, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, S. Stochaj, Y. I. Stozhkov, N. Thakur, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. I. Vasilyev, S. A. Voronov, Y. T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2015. "PAMELA’S MEASUREMENTS OF MAGNETOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON HIGH-ENERGY SOLAR PARTICLES." The Astrophysical Journal, 801 (1): L3 [10.1088/2041-8205/801/1/l3]

    Gruesbeck, J. R., S. T. Lepri, T. H. Zurbuchen, and E. R. Christian. 2015. "EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS." The Astrophysical Journal, 799 (1): 57 [10.1088/0004-637x/799/1/57]

    Randol, B. M., and E. R. Christian. 2014. "Simulations of plasma obeying Coulomb's law and the formation of suprathermal ion tails in the solar wind." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, 119: [10.1002/2014JA020095]

    Richardson, I. G., T. T. von Rosenvinge, H. V. Cane, et al. E. R. Christian, C. M. Cohen, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Leske, R. A. Mewaldt, M. E. Wiedenbeck, and E. C. Stone. 2014. "> 25 MeV Proton Events Observed by the High Energy Telescopes on the STEREO A and B Spacecraft and/or at Earth During the First similar to aEuro parts per thousand Seven Years of the STEREO Mission." SOLAR PHYSICS, 289: 3059-3107 [10.1007/s11207-014-0524-8]

    Schwadron, N. A., F. C. Adams, E. R. Christian, et al. P. Desiati, P. Frisch, H. O. Funsten, J. R. Jokipii, D. J. McComas, E. Moebius, and G. P. Zank. 2014. "Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX." SCIENCE, 343: 988-990 [10.1126/science.1245026]

    Schwadron, N. A., E. Moebius, S. A. Fuselier, et al. D. J. McComas, H. O. Funsten, P. Janzen, D. Reisenfeld, H. Kucharek, M. A. Lee, K. Fairchild, F. Allegrini, M. Dayeh, G. Livadiotis, M. Reno, M. Bzowski, J. M. Sokol, M. A. Kubiak, E. R. Christian, R. DeMajistre, P. Frisch, A. Galli, P. Wurz, and M. Gruntman. 2014. "SEPARATION OF THE RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX USING THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF IBEX OBSERVATIONS." ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES, 215: [10.1088/0067-0049/215/1/13]

    Summerlin, E. J., A. F. Vinas, T. E. Moore, E. R. Christian, and J. F. Cooper. 2014. "ON THE STABILITY OF PICK-UP ION RING DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE OUTER HELIOSHEATH." ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 793: [10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/93]

    Posner, A., D. Odstrcil, P. MacNeice, et al. L. Rastaetter, C. Zeitlin, B. Heber, H. Elliott, R. A. Frahm, J. J. Hayes, T. T. von Rosenvinge, E. R. Christian, J. P. Andrews, R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, D. E. Brinza, M. A. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, M. Epperly, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M. H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. M. Garcia, R. Mueller-Mellin, K. Neal, S. C. Rafkin, G. Reitz, L. Seimetz, K. D. Smith, Y. Tyler, E. Weigle, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber. 2013. "The Hohmann-Parker effect measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars: Consequences and opportunities." PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE, 89: 127-139 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.013]

    Posner, A., D. Odstrcil, P. MacNeice, et al. L. Rastaetter, C. Zeitlin, B. Heber, H. Elliott, R. A. Frahm, J. J. Hayes, T. T. von Rosenvinge, E. R. Christian, J. P. Andrews, R. Beaujean, S. Bottcher, D. E. Brinza, M. A. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, M. Epperly, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Kohler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin Garcia, R. Muller-Mellin, K. Neal, S. C. Rafkin, G. Reitz, L. Seimetz, K. D. Smith, Y. Tyler, E. Weigle, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber. 2013. "The Hohmann–Parker effect measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars: Consequences and opportunities." Planetary and Space Science, 89: 127-139 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.013]

    Sittler, E. C., J. F. Cooper, R. E. Hartle, et al. W. R. Paterson, E. R. Christian, A. S. Lipatov, P. R. Mahaffy, N. P. Paschalidis, M. A. Coplan, T. A. Cassidy, J. D. Richardson, B. Fegley, and N. Andre. 2013. "Plasma ion composition measurements for Europa." Planetary and Space Science, 88: 26-41 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.01.013]

    Barbier, S. B., L. Bartolone, E. Christian, et al. J. Thieman, T. Eastman, and E. Lewis. 2011. "Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles." Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach, 443: 211-.

    Sittler, E., J. Cooper, R. Hartle, et al. W. Paterson, E. Christian, A. Lipatov, P. Mahaffy, N. Paschalidis, M. Sarantos, M. Coplan, T. Cassidy, and P. Wurz. 2011. "Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System." EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 1747-:

    Schwadron, N. A., F. Allegrini, M. Bzowski, et al. E. R. Christian, G. B. Crew, M. Dayeh, R. DeMajistre, P. Frisch, H. O. Funsten, S. A. Fuselier, K. Goodrich, M. Gruntman, P. Janzen, H. Kucharek, G. Livadiotis, D. J. McComas, E. Moebius, C. Prested, D. Reisenfeld, M. Reno, E. Roelof, J. Siegel, and R. Vanderspek. 2011. "Separation of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon from Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux." The Astrophysical Journal, 731: 56 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/56]

    Binns, W., E. Christian, A. Cummings, et al. G. deNolfo, M. Israel, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, T. von Rosenvinge, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2010. "Evidence for the OB Association Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 42: 705-.

    Kaiser, M. L., T. A. Kucera, J. M. Davila, et al. O. C. StCyr, M. Guhathakurta, and E. Christian. 2008. "The STEREO Mission: An Introduction." Space Science Reviews, 136: 5-16 [10.1007/s11214-007-9277-0]

    Barbier, L. M., R. Smith, S. Murphy, et al. E. R. Christian, R. Farley, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, R. E. Streitmatter, E. C. Loh, and S. Stochaj. 2005. "NIGHTGLOW: an instrument to measure the Earth’s nighttime ultraviolet glow—results from the first engineering flight." Astroparticle Physics, 22: 439 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.astropartphys.2004.10.002]

    Strazzulla, G., J. F. Cooper, E. R. Christian, and R. E. Johnson. 2003. "Ion irradiation of TNOs: from the fluxes measured in space to the laboratory experiments." Comptes Rendus Physique, 4 (7): 791-801 [10.1016/j.crhy.2003.10.009]

    Cooper, J. F., E. R. Christian, J. D. Richardson, and C. Wang. 2003. "Proton Irradiation of Centaur, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud Objects at Plasma to Cosmic Ray Energy." Earth, Moon, and Planets, 92 (1-4): 261-277 [10.1023/b:moon.0000031944.41883.80]

    Cohen, C., E. Christian, A. Cummings, et al. R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, T. von Rosenvinge, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Variability of spectra in large solar energetic particle events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 34:

    Cooper, J., E. Christian, and R. Johnson. 2002. "Space Weathering of Comets in the Outer Heliosphere and Beyond." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 34:

    vonRosenvinge, T., C. Cohen, E. Christian, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Time Variations in Elemental Abundances Observed in Solar Energetic Particle Events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 34: -.

    Leske, R., R. Mewaldt, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, E. Stone, M. Wiedenbeck, E. Christian, and T. von Rosenvinge. 2002. "Isotopic Fractionation in Large Solar Particle Events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 34: -.

    vonRosenvinge, T., C. Cohen, E. Christian, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, P. Slocum, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Time Variations in Elemental Abundances in Solar Energetic Particle Events." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A10-:

    Adriani, O., M. Ambriola, G. Barbarino, et al. L. M. Barbier, S. Bartalucci, G. Bazilevskaja, R. Bellotti, S. Bertazzoni, V. Bidoli, M. Boezio, E. Bogomolov, L. Bonechi, V. Bonvicini, M. Boscherini, U. Bravar, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, M. Castellano, G. Castellini, E. R. Christian, F. Ciacio, M. Circella, R. D'Alessandro, C. N. De Marzo, M. P. De Pascale, N. Finetti, G. Furano, A. Gabbanini, A. M. Galper, N. Giglietto, M. Grandi, A. Grigorjeva, F. Guarino, M. Hof, S. V. Koldashov, M. G. Korotkov, J. F. Krizmanic, S. Krutkov, J. Lund, B. Marangelli, L. Marino, W. Menn, V. V. Mikhailov, N. Mirizzi, J. W. Mitchell, E. Mocchiutti, A. A. Moiseev, A. Morselli, R. Mukhametshin, J. F. Ormes, G. Osteria, J. V. Ozerov, P. Papini, M. Pearce, A. Perego, S. Piccardi, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, A. Salsano, P. Schiavon, G. Scian, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, B. Spataro, P. Spillantini, P. Spinelli, S. A. Stephens, S. J. Stochaj, Y. Stozhkov, S. Straulino, R. E. Streitmatter, F. Taccetti, M. Tesi, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. Vasiljev, V. Vignoli, S. A. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2002. "The PAMELA experiment on satellite and its capability in cosmic rays measurements." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, 478: 114 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/S0168-9002(01)01726-0]

    Wiedenbeck, M., E. Christian, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, P. Slocum, E. Stone, and T. von Rosenvinge. 2001. "Variability of Energetic 3He in the Inner Heliosphere." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, 62-:

    Christian, E., W. Binn, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, J. George, P. Hink, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, T. von Rosenvinge, M. Wiedenbeck, and N. Yanaska. 2001. "Modulation of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays (Oral papers and posters which were given at the conference, but for which no manuscripts were submitted)." The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers, 228-:

    Bonvicini, V., G. Barbiellini, M. Boezio, et al. E. Mocchiutti, P. Schiavon, G. Scian, A. Vacchi, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, D. Bergström, P. Carlson, T. Francke, J. Lund, M. Pearce, M. Hof, W. Menn, M. Simon, S. A. Stephens, M. Ambriola, R. Bellotti, F. Cafagna, F. Ciacio, M. Circella, C. De Marzo, N. Giglietto, B. Marangelli, N. Mirizzi, P. Spinelli, O. Adriani, M. Boscherini, R. D'Alessandro, N. Finetti, M. Grandi, P. Papini, A. Perego, S. Piccardi, P. Spillantini, E. Vannuccini, S. Bartalucci, L. Marino, M. Ricci, B. Spataro, V. Bidoli, M. Casolino, M. P. De Pascale, G. Furano, A. Morselli, P. Picozza, R. Sparvoli, L. M. Barbier, E. R. Christian, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, J. F. Ormes, R. E. Streitmatter, U. Bravar, S. J. Stochaj, S. Bertazzoni, A. Salsano, G. Bazilevskaja, A. Grigorjeva, R. Mukhametshin, Y. Stozhokov, E. Bogomolv, S. Krutkov, G. Vasiljev, A. M. Galper, S. V. Koldashov, M. G. Korotkov, V. V. Mikhailov, A. A. Moissev, J. V. Ozerov, S. A. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Castellini, A. Gabbanini, F. Taccetti, M. Tesi, and V. Vignoli. 2001. "The PAMELA experiment in space." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A, 461: 262 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/S0168-9002(00)01221-3]

    Menn, W., M. Hof, O. Reimer, et al. M. Simon, A. J. Davis, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Mewaldt, S. M. Schindler, L. M. Barbier, E. R. Christian, K. E. Krombel, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, J. F. Ormes, R. E. Streitmatter, R. L. Golden, S. J. Stochaj, W. R. Webber, and I. L. Rasmussen. 2000. "The Absolute Flux of Protons and Helium at the Top of the Atmosphere Using IMAX." The Astrophysical Journal, 533: 281 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/308645]

    Cooper, J., E. Christian, and R. Johnson. 1998. "Heliospheric cosmic ray irradiation of Kuiper Belt comets." Advances in Space Research, 21 (11): 1611-1614 [10.1016/s0273-1177(97)00956-3]

    Christian, E. R., and J. F. Cooper. 1995. "Polar rain entry of galactic electrons into the inner heliosphere?" Space Science Reviews, 72 (1-2): 415-418 [10.1007/bf00768814]

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Eric Christian is a Senior Research Scientist and Associate Lab Chief in the Heliospheric Laboratory (Code 672) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the lead scientist for the Energetic Particle Laboratory. He is the Deputy Principal Investigator for the Integrated Scientific Investigation of the Sun (IS0IS) instrument suite on the Solar Probe Plus mission, and also Deputy Principal Investigator for the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) mission. He is Mission Scientist for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) and Project Scientist for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). He is an Instrument Scientist for the CRIS and SIS instruments on ACE and the lead Co-I for the HET instrument on STEREO, which is part of the IMPACT suite.

    Between 2002 and 2008, Dr. Christian worked at NASA Headquarters as the Program Scientist for a number of missions, including the two Voyager spacecraft.

    He has been active in NASA Education and Public Outreach for his entire career. Dr. Christian has a BA in Physics and Astronomy from the University of Pennsylvania (1982) and a PhD in Physics from the California Institute of Technology (1989).

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Cohen, C. M., E. R. Christian, A. C. Cummings, et al. A. J. Davis, M. I. Desai, J. Giacalone, M. E. Hill, C. J. Joyce, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Leske, W. H. Matthaeus, D. J. McComas, R. L. McNutt, R. A. Mewaldt, D. G. Mitchell, J. S. Rankin, E. C. Roelof, N. A. Schwadron, E. C. Stone, J. R. Szalay, M. E. Wiedenbeck, R. C. Allen, G. C. Ho, L. K. Jian, D. Lario, D. Odstrcil, S. D. Bale, S. T. Badman, M. Pulupa, R. J. MacDowall, J. C. Kasper, A. W. Case, K. E. Korreck, D. E. Larson, R. Livi, M. L. Stevens, and P. Whittlesey. 2020. "Energetic Particle Increases Associated with Stream Interaction Regions." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 246 (2): 20 [10.3847/1538-4365/ab4c38]

    Allen, R. C., D. Lario, D. Odstrcil, et al. G. C. Ho, L. K. Jian, C. M. Cohen, S. T. Badman, S. I. Jones, C. N. Arge, M. L. Mays, G. M. Mason, S. D. Bale, J. W. Bonnell, A. W. Case, E. R. Christian, T. D. de Wit, K. Goetz, P. R. Harvey, C. J. Henney, M. E. Hill, J. C. Kasper, K. E. Korreck, D. Larson, R. Livi, R. J. MacDowall, D. M. Malaspina, D. J. McComas, R. McNutt, D. G. Mitchell, M. Pulupa, N. Raouafi, N. Schwadron, M. L. Stevens, P. L. Whittlesey, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2020. "Solar Wind Streams and Stream Interaction Regions Observed by the Parker Solar Probe with Corresponding Observations at 1 au." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 246 (2): 36 [10.3847/1538-4365/ab578f]

    De Nolfo, G. A., A. Bruno, J. M. Ryan, et al. S. Dalla, J. Giacalone, I. G. Richardson, E. R. Christian, S. J. Stochaj, G. A. Bazilevskaya, M. Boezio, M. Martucci, V. V. Mikhailov, and R. Munini. 2019. "Comparing Long-duration Gamma-Ray Flares and High-energy Solar Energetic Particles." The Astrophysical Journal 879 (2): 90 [Full Text (Link)] [https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab258f]

    Cohen, I. J., S. J. Schwartz, K. A. Goodrich, et al. N. Ahmadi, R. E. Ergun, S. A. Fuselier, M. I. Desai, E. R. Christian, D. J. McComas, G. P. Zank, J. R. Shuster, S. K. Vines, B. H. Mauk, R. B. Decker, B. J. Anderson, J. H. Westlake, O. Le Contel, H. Breuillard, B. L. Giles, R. B. Torbert, and J. L. Burch. 2019. "High-resolution measurements of the cross-shock potential, ion reflection, and electron heating at an interplanetary shock by MMS." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (Accepted) [10.1029/2018ja026197]

    Bruno, A., E. R. Christian, G. A. de Nolfo, I. G. Richardson, and J. M. Ryan. 2019. "Spectral Analysis of the September 2017 Solar Energetic Particle Events." Space Weather [10.1029/2018sw002085]

    Bruno, A., G. A. Bazilevskaya, M. Boezio, et al. E. R. Christian, G. A. Nolfo, M. Martucci, M. Merge’, V. V. Mikhailov, R. Munini, I. G. Richardson, J. M. Ryan, S. Stochaj, O. Adriani, G. C. Barbarino, R. Bellotti, E. A. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, C. D. Santis, V. D. Felice, A. M. Galper, A. V. Karelin, S. V. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Y. Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, A. G. Mayorov, W. Menn, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, G. Osteria, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. B. Ricciarini, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, Y. I. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. I. Vasilyev, S. A. Voronov, Y. T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2018. "Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by the PAMELA Mission." The Astrophysical Journal 862 (2): 97 [10.3847/1538-4357/aacc26]

    Bruno, A., O. Adriani, G. Barbarino, et al. G. Bazilevskaya, R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, E. Christian, C. De Donato, G. de Nolfo, C. De Santis, N. De Simone, V. Di Felice, A. Galper, A. Karelin, S. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Krutkov, A. Kvashnin, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, M. Martucci, A. Mayorov, W. Menn, M. Mergè, V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, R. Munini, G. Osteria, F. Palma, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. Ricciarini, J. Ryan, R. Sarkar, V. Scotti, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, S. Stochaj, Y. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. Vasilyev, S. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2017. "Geomagnetically trapped, albedo and solar energetic particles: trajectory analysis and flux reconstruction with PAMELA." Advances in Space Research 60 (4): 788-795 [10.1016/j.asr.2016.06.042]

    Adriani, O., G. C. Barbarino, G. A. Bazilevskaya, et al. R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. A. Bogomolov, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, U. Bravar, A. Bruno, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, R. Carbone, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, E. R. Christian, C. D. Donato, G. A. Nolfo, C. D. Santis, N. D. Simone, V. D. Felice, V. Formato, A. M. Galper, A. V. Karelin, S. V. Koldashov, S. Koldobskiy, S. Y. Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, M. Lee, A. Leonov, V. Malakhov, L. Marcelli, M. Martucci, A. G. Mayorov, W. Menn, M. Mergé, V. V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, A. Monaco, N. Mori, R. Munini, G. Osteria, F. Palma, B. Panico, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. B. Ricciarini, J. M. Ryan, R. Sarkar, V. Scotti, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, S. Stochaj, Y. I. Stozhkov, N. Thakur, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. I. Vasilyev, S. A. Voronov, Y. T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2015. "PAMELA’S MEASUREMENTS OF MAGNETOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON HIGH-ENERGY SOLAR PARTICLES." The Astrophysical Journal 801 (1): L3 [10.1088/2041-8205/801/1/l3]

    Gruesbeck, J. R., S. T. Lepri, T. H. Zurbuchen, and E. R. Christian. 2015. "EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS." The Astrophysical Journal 799 (1): 57 [10.1088/0004-637x/799/1/57]

    Randol, B. M., and E. R. Christian. 2014. "Simulations of plasma obeying Coulomb's law and the formation of suprathermal ion tails in the solar wind." JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS 119 [10.1002/2014JA020095]

    Richardson, I. G., T. T. von Rosenvinge, H. V. Cane, et al. E. R. Christian, C. M. Cohen, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Leske, R. A. Mewaldt, M. E. Wiedenbeck, and E. C. Stone. 2014. "> 25 MeV Proton Events Observed by the High Energy Telescopes on the STEREO A and B Spacecraft and/or at Earth During the First similar to aEuro parts per thousand Seven Years of the STEREO Mission." SOLAR PHYSICS 289 3059-3107 [10.1007/s11207-014-0524-8]

    Schwadron, N. A., F. C. Adams, E. R. Christian, et al. P. Desiati, P. Frisch, H. O. Funsten, J. R. Jokipii, D. J. McComas, E. Moebius, and G. P. Zank. 2014. "Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX." SCIENCE 343 988-990 [10.1126/science.1245026]

    Schwadron, N. A., E. Moebius, S. A. Fuselier, et al. D. J. McComas, H. O. Funsten, P. Janzen, D. Reisenfeld, H. Kucharek, M. A. Lee, K. Fairchild, F. Allegrini, M. Dayeh, G. Livadiotis, M. Reno, M. Bzowski, J. M. Sokol, M. A. Kubiak, E. R. Christian, R. DeMajistre, P. Frisch, A. Galli, P. Wurz, and M. Gruntman. 2014. "SEPARATION OF THE RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX USING THE FIRST FIVE YEARS OF IBEX OBSERVATIONS." ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT SERIES 215 [10.1088/0067-0049/215/1/13]

    Summerlin, E. J., A. F. Vinas, T. E. Moore, E. R. Christian, and J. F. Cooper. 2014. "ON THE STABILITY OF PICK-UP ION RING DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE OUTER HELIOSHEATH." ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 793 [10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/93]

    Posner, A., D. Odstrcil, P. MacNeice, et al. L. Rastaetter, C. Zeitlin, B. Heber, H. Elliott, R. A. Frahm, J. J. Hayes, T. T. von Rosenvinge, E. R. Christian, J. P. Andrews, R. Beaujean, S. Boettcher, D. E. Brinza, M. A. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, M. Epperly, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M. H. Kim, J. Koehler, O. Kortmann, C. M. Garcia, R. Mueller-Mellin, K. Neal, S. C. Rafkin, G. Reitz, L. Seimetz, K. D. Smith, Y. Tyler, E. Weigle, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber. 2013. "The Hohmann-Parker effect measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars: Consequences and opportunities." PLANETARY AND SPACE SCIENCE 89 127-139 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.013]

    Posner, A., D. Odstrcil, P. MacNeice, et al. L. Rastaetter, C. Zeitlin, B. Heber, H. Elliott, R. A. Frahm, J. J. Hayes, T. T. von Rosenvinge, E. R. Christian, J. P. Andrews, R. Beaujean, S. Bottcher, D. E. Brinza, M. A. Bullock, S. Burmeister, F. A. Cucinotta, B. Ehresmann, M. Epperly, D. Grinspoon, J. Guo, D. M. Hassler, M.-H. Kim, J. Kohler, O. Kortmann, C. Martin Garcia, R. Muller-Mellin, K. Neal, S. C. Rafkin, G. Reitz, L. Seimetz, K. D. Smith, Y. Tyler, E. Weigle, and R. F. Wimmer-Schweingruber. 2013. "The Hohmann–Parker effect measured by the Mars Science Laboratory on the transfer from Earth to Mars: Consequences and opportunities." Planetary and Space Science 89 127-139 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.09.013]

    Sittler, E. C., J. F. Cooper, R. E. Hartle, et al. W. R. Paterson, E. R. Christian, A. S. Lipatov, P. R. Mahaffy, N. P. Paschalidis, M. A. Coplan, T. A. Cassidy, J. D. Richardson, B. Fegley, and N. Andre. 2013. "Plasma ion composition measurements for Europa." Planetary and Space Science 88 26-41 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.01.013]

    Barbier, S. B., L. Bartolone, E. Christian, et al. J. Thieman, T. Eastman, and E. Lewis. 2011. "Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles." Earth and Space Science: Making Connections in Education and Public Outreach 443 211-

    Sittler, E., J. Cooper, R. Hartle, et al. W. Paterson, E. Christian, A. Lipatov, P. Mahaffy, N. Paschalidis, M. Sarantos, M. Coplan, T. Cassidy, and P. Wurz. 2011. "Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa, Ganymede, and the Jovian System." EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 1747-

    Schwadron, N. A., F. Allegrini, M. Bzowski, et al. E. R. Christian, G. B. Crew, M. Dayeh, R. DeMajistre, P. Frisch, H. O. Funsten, S. A. Fuselier, K. Goodrich, M. Gruntman, P. Janzen, H. Kucharek, G. Livadiotis, D. J. McComas, E. Moebius, C. Prested, D. Reisenfeld, M. Reno, E. Roelof, J. Siegel, and R. Vanderspek. 2011. "Separation of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon from Globally Distributed Energetic Neutral Atom Flux." The Astrophysical Journal 731 56 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/56]

    Binns, W., E. Christian, A. Cummings, et al. G. deNolfo, M. Israel, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, T. von Rosenvinge, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2010. "Evidence for the OB Association Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays." Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 42 705-

    Kaiser, M. L., T. A. Kucera, J. M. Davila, et al. O. C. StCyr, M. Guhathakurta, and E. Christian. 2008. "The STEREO Mission: An Introduction." Space Science Reviews 136 5-16 [10.1007/s11214-007-9277-0]

    Barbier, L. M., R. Smith, S. Murphy, et al. E. R. Christian, R. Farley, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, R. E. Streitmatter, E. C. Loh, and S. Stochaj. 2005. "NIGHTGLOW: an instrument to measure the Earth’s nighttime ultraviolet glow—results from the first engineering flight." Astroparticle Physics 22 439 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.astropartphys.2004.10.002]

    Strazzulla, G., J. F. Cooper, E. R. Christian, and R. E. Johnson. 2003. "Ion irradiation of TNOs: from the fluxes measured in space to the laboratory experiments." Comptes Rendus Physique 4 (7): 791-801 [10.1016/j.crhy.2003.10.009]

    Cooper, J. F., E. R. Christian, J. D. Richardson, and C. Wang. 2003. "Proton Irradiation of Centaur, Kuiper Belt, and Oort Cloud Objects at Plasma to Cosmic Ray Energy." Earth, Moon, and Planets 92 (1-4): 261-277 [10.1023/b:moon.0000031944.41883.80]

    Cohen, C., E. Christian, A. Cummings, et al. R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, T. von Rosenvinge, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Variability of spectra in large solar energetic particle events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 34

    Cooper, J., E. Christian, and R. Johnson. 2002. "Space Weathering of Comets in the Outer Heliosphere and Beyond." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 34

    vonRosenvinge, T., C. Cohen, E. Christian, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Time Variations in Elemental Abundances Observed in Solar Energetic Particle Events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 34 -

    Leske, R., R. Mewaldt, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, E. Stone, M. Wiedenbeck, E. Christian, and T. von Rosenvinge. 2002. "Isotopic Fractionation in Large Solar Particle Events." 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 34 -

    vonRosenvinge, T., C. Cohen, E. Christian, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, P. Slocum, E. Stone, and M. Wiedenbeck. 2002. "Time Variations in Elemental Abundances in Solar Energetic Particle Events." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts A10-

    Adriani, O., M. Ambriola, G. Barbarino, et al. L. M. Barbier, S. Bartalucci, G. Bazilevskaja, R. Bellotti, S. Bertazzoni, V. Bidoli, M. Boezio, E. Bogomolov, L. Bonechi, V. Bonvicini, M. Boscherini, U. Bravar, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, M. Castellano, G. Castellini, E. R. Christian, F. Ciacio, M. Circella, R. D'Alessandro, C. N. De Marzo, M. P. De Pascale, N. Finetti, G. Furano, A. Gabbanini, A. M. Galper, N. Giglietto, M. Grandi, A. Grigorjeva, F. Guarino, M. Hof, S. V. Koldashov, M. G. Korotkov, J. F. Krizmanic, S. Krutkov, J. Lund, B. Marangelli, L. Marino, W. Menn, V. V. Mikhailov, N. Mirizzi, J. W. Mitchell, E. Mocchiutti, A. A. Moiseev, A. Morselli, R. Mukhametshin, J. F. Ormes, G. Osteria, J. V. Ozerov, P. Papini, M. Pearce, A. Perego, S. Piccardi, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, A. Salsano, P. Schiavon, G. Scian, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, B. Spataro, P. Spillantini, P. Spinelli, S. A. Stephens, S. J. Stochaj, Y. Stozhkov, S. Straulino, R. E. Streitmatter, F. Taccetti, M. Tesi, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. Vasiljev, V. Vignoli, S. A. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Zampa, and N. Zampa. 2002. "The PAMELA experiment on satellite and its capability in cosmic rays measurements." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 478 114 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/S0168-9002(01)01726-0]

    Wiedenbeck, M., E. Christian, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, P. Slocum, E. Stone, and T. von Rosenvinge. 2001. "Variability of Energetic 3He in the Inner Heliosphere." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts 62-

    Christian, E., W. Binn, C. Cohen, et al. A. Cummings, J. George, P. Hink, R. Leske, R. Mewaldt, E. Stone, T. von Rosenvinge, M. Wiedenbeck, and N. Yanaska. 2001. "Modulation of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays (Oral papers and posters which were given at the conference, but for which no manuscripts were submitted)." The Outer Heliosphere: The Next Frontiers 228-

    Bonvicini, V., G. Barbiellini, M. Boezio, et al. E. Mocchiutti, P. Schiavon, G. Scian, A. Vacchi, G. Zampa, N. Zampa, D. Bergström, P. Carlson, T. Francke, J. Lund, M. Pearce, M. Hof, W. Menn, M. Simon, S. A. Stephens, M. Ambriola, R. Bellotti, F. Cafagna, F. Ciacio, M. Circella, C. De Marzo, N. Giglietto, B. Marangelli, N. Mirizzi, P. Spinelli, O. Adriani, M. Boscherini, R. D'Alessandro, N. Finetti, M. Grandi, P. Papini, A. Perego, S. Piccardi, P. Spillantini, E. Vannuccini, S. Bartalucci, L. Marino, M. Ricci, B. Spataro, V. Bidoli, M. Casolino, M. P. De Pascale, G. Furano, A. Morselli, P. Picozza, R. Sparvoli, L. M. Barbier, E. R. Christian, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, J. F. Ormes, R. E. Streitmatter, U. Bravar, S. J. Stochaj, S. Bertazzoni, A. Salsano, G. Bazilevskaja, A. Grigorjeva, R. Mukhametshin, Y. Stozhokov, E. Bogomolv, S. Krutkov, G. Vasiljev, A. M. Galper, S. V. Koldashov, M. G. Korotkov, V. V. Mikhailov, A. A. Moissev, J. V. Ozerov, S. A. Voronov, Y. Yurkin, G. Castellini, A. Gabbanini, F. Taccetti, M. Tesi, and V. Vignoli. 2001. "The PAMELA experiment in space." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 461 262 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/S0168-9002(00)01221-3]

    Menn, W., M. Hof, O. Reimer, et al. M. Simon, A. J. Davis, A. W. Labrador, R. A. Mewaldt, S. M. Schindler, L. M. Barbier, E. R. Christian, K. E. Krombel, J. F. Krizmanic, J. W. Mitchell, J. F. Ormes, R. E. Streitmatter, R. L. Golden, S. J. Stochaj, W. R. Webber, and I. L. Rasmussen. 2000. "The Absolute Flux of Protons and Helium at the Top of the Atmosphere Using IMAX." The Astrophysical Journal 533 281 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/308645]

    Cooper, J., E. Christian, and R. Johnson. 1998. "Heliospheric cosmic ray irradiation of Kuiper Belt comets." Advances in Space Research 21 (11): 1611-1614 [10.1016/s0273-1177(97)00956-3]

    Christian, E. R., and J. F. Cooper. 1995. "Polar rain entry of galactic electrons into the inner heliosphere?" Space Science Reviews 72 (1-2): 415-418 [10.1007/bf00768814]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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