Conor Andrew Nixon

Conor Andrew Nixon

  • SUPV RESEARCH AST, PLANETARY STUDIES
  • 301.286.6757
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 693
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    I am space scientist working in the Planetary Systems Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. I have worked at NASA since 2000 when I joined the Cassini mission team at GSFC. Previously, I studied science in the UK at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, after growing up and attending school in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

    Research Interests

    Remote sensing of Titan's Atmosphere with Cassini CIRS

    Titan, largest moon of Saturn, is a truly enigmatic body: the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Titan's atmosphere is also a chemical factory, where sunlight splits apart basic molecules - methane (CH4) and nitrogen (N2) - recombining the pieces to make ever more complex compounds. Each molcular species has its own unique infrared signature, and by using the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini we can measure the amounts of each that is present. Titan's complex organic chemistry is thought to be similar now to that of the Earth in the distant past - before the rise of life - and may inform us as to the basic building blocks of life could be formed.

    Composition and Chemistry of Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Using data from Galileo (NIMS), Cassini (CIRS) and other facilities, I model the infrared emissions from the atmosphere to learn about the composition, and distribution of molecules in Jupiter's atmosphere. This informs us about the chemistry and dynamics occuring there.

    Missions to the outer planets

    I have worked on the Cassini mission since graduate school, when I helped to build and test the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument that is carried onboard. Cassini is now in orbit at Saturn, and my work is focused on the scientific analysis of the data. However I continue to be actively involved in developing future instruments - and even whole missions - that may one day get the chance to fly in space and continue NASA's exploration of the outer solar system.

    Current Projects

    Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)

    I am the currently the Deputy PI (Principal Investigator) on Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument team. Cassini (https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/cassini/main/index.html) was a NASA spacecraft orbiting Saturn from 2004 until the mission finale in 2017, that made spectroscopic measurements of the planet, its rings and moons at infrared wavelengths. I am especially interested in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan, which has a complex chemistry, and a meteorological cycle based on methane that leads to clouds and rainstorms, and lakes of hydrocarbons on the surface.

    Solar System Science with ALMA - The Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array

    I use the ALMA Telescope (https://www.almaobservatory.org/en/home/), an array of 66 microwave frequency antennas in Chile, to study the atmospheres of the outer planers, and especially Saturn's moon Titan. Titan is one of the most chemcially rich environments in the solar system, with an active organic chemistry that produces complex molecules. The chemistry in Titan's atmosphere may be similar to the conditions on the early Earth, so by studying Titan we may also learn about the origins of life on Earth.

    NASA Astrobiology Institute - Titan Science

    I am Co-Investigator on the NASA NAI node "Habitability of Hydrocarbon Worlds: Titan and Beyond" that is headed by Rosaly Lopes at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The team has 30 members spread across more than a dozen institutions around the world. The goals of the NAI project, that will run from 2018 to 2022, is to improve our knowledge of the carbon chemistry on Titan, including interactions between the atmosphere, surface and interior. https://nai.nasa.gov/teams/can-8/jpl-titan/

    Europa Analog Fieldwork Science

    I am currently involved in a new project to learn about Europa, through studying 'analog' field sites on Earth that have similarities to Europa, such as Iceland.

    Positions/Employment

    2016 - Present

    Associate Laboratory Chief

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
    2012 - 2016

    Research Space Scientist

    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

    Deputy Principal Investigator of Cassini CIRS. Science and science planning for CIRS. Development of future instruments and missions for exploration of the outer planets.

    2009 - 2012

    Associate Research Scientist

    University of Maryland, College Park, MD Co-Investigator on the Cassini CIRS; science and science planning for Titan.
    2004 - 2009

    Assistant Research Scientist

    University of Maryland, College Park, MD Scientific Analysis of Cassini data; operations of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS).
    2000 - 2004

    Research Associate

    University of Maryland, College Park, MD Analysis of data from the Cassini CIRS spectrometer; including composition and dynamics of Jupiter's stratosphere.
    1998 - 2000

    Post-Doctoral Research Assistant

    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Scientific analysis of Jupiter data from the Galileo NIMS spectrometer; investigation of Jovian water clouds.
    1989 - 1990

    Pre-University Employee (Intern)

    IBM UK Ltd., Warwick, UK Mainframe computer network programming.

    Teaching Experience

    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland College Park:
    Spring 2004 - ASTR330 - The Solar System
    Fall 2006 - ASTR330 - The Solar System

    Education

    1994-1999     University of Oxford           D. Phil.     Planetary Science
    1993-1994     University of Manchester   M. Sc.      Radio Astronomy
    1990-1993     University of Cambridge    B. A.        Natural Sciences
    1982-1989     Methodist College Belfast

    Professional Societies

    American Astronomical Society, Division of Planetary Sciences, 2001 - Present
    Member
    American Geophysical Society, 2001 - Present
    Member
    UK Institute of Physics, 2001 - Present
    Member; Chartered Physicist

    Professional Service


    Funding/grant review panels:

     

    • NASA ROSES Proposal Peer Review Panels - served in various capacities as reviewer/panelist/panel chair on: Outer Planets; Cassini Data Analysis; Planetary Atmospheres; Astrobiology.
    • Georgia National Science Foundation; External reviewer 2008-present.
    • France ANR; external reviewer, 2011.
    • NRAO Solar System Panel; 2010-2011.

    Journals and books:

     

    • Peer reviewer for:  Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, Journal of Geophysical Research, Advances in Geophysics, Astrophysical Journal Letters, Applied Optics, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
    • Guest editor for Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 60, 2012: special issue on "Titan Through Time" (12 papers).
    • Co-editor of The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets, Astrophysics and Space Science  Proceedings, Vol. 35., Springer 2012 (12 papers).

    Other professional service:

    • Co-chair (Local and Scientific Organizing Committees) Titan Through Time, a workshop on Titan's Formation, Evolution and Fate. Held at NASA GSFC April 6-8th 2010 and April 3-5th 2012, with ~80 participants over 2.5 days.
    • Committee member of the ICPAE (International Commission for Planetary Atmospheres and their Evolution), a commission of IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology And Seismology), an association of IUGG (International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics).
    • Committee member, NASA GSFC Science Colloquium Committee.

    Awards

    07/01/06 Boeing Griffith Science Writing Contest 2005, 1st Place
    05/01/08 Boeing Griffth Science Writing Contest 2007, 3rd Place
    08/05/08 NASA Group Achievement Award for Cassini Titan Science Integration Team
    16/04/09 NASA Group Achievement Award for Cassini Titan Orbiter Science Team
    16/04/09 NASA Group Achievement Award for Cassini CIRS Team
    09/10/08 NASA Robert H. Goddard Award for Exceptional Achievement in Science (CIRS Team)
    11/29/11 NASA Robert H. Goddard Award for Exceptional Achievement in Science (individual)

    Grants

    07/31/2007 - 06/30/2010 Planetary Instrument Definition and Development (PIDDP), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH06ZDA001N-PIDDP
    Magnesium Diboride Detector Array (MDA) for Far-IR Exploration of the Outer Planets and Icy Moons (P.I. B. Lakew) ; Co-Investigator ; 0.05 FTE
    Grant Amount: $7.5K
    10/01/2007 - 09/30/2009 Cassini Data Analysis (CASSINI), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH06ZDA001N-CASSINI
    Trace Species on Saturn from Cassini (P.I. D. Jennings)
    ; Co-Investigator (0.3 FTE/yr, $$$ below) ; 0.6 FTE
    Grant Amount: $103K
    03/02/2008 - 03/02/2011 Cassini Data Analysis Program (CDAP), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH07ZSS001N
    Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Surface from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra
    ; Principal Investigator
    Grant Amount: $241K
    04/01/2008 - 03/31/2011 Outer Planets Research (OPR), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH07ZDA001N-OPR
    Jovian Stratospheric Dynamics: Insights from Cassini Observations and Coupled Dynamical-Chemical Modeling (P.I. M Allen)
    ; Co-Investigator ; 0.25 FTE
    Grant Amount: $20K
    02/01/2009 - 08/01/2012 Cassini Data Analysis Program (CDAP), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH08ZDA001N-CDAP
    Trace Species in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Spectroscopy
    ; Principal Investigator ; 0.30 FTE
    Grant Amount: $357K
    05/01/2012 - 04/30/2015 Planetary Atmospheres Research (PATM), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH11ZDA001N-PATM
    Kinetic Isotope Fractionation in Methane and Application to Titan (P.I. R. Cody) ; Co-Investigator (0.1 FTE/yr, $$$ below) ; 0.3 FTE
    Grant Amount: $52K
    10/01/2012 - 09/30/2015 Outer Planets Research Program (OPRP), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH11ZDA001N-OPR
    Alkanes in Titan's Stratosphere From Cassini CIRS Spectroscopy
    ; Principal Investigator ; 0.30 FTE
    Grant Amount: $443K
    01/01/2013 - 12/31/2014 Cassini Data Analysis Program (CDAP), NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH12ZDA001N-CDAPS
    Non-LTE Diagnostics of CIRS observations of Titan's Mesosphere
    ; Co-Investigator (0.06 FTE/yr) ; 0.12 FTE
    Grant Amount: $24K

    Special Experience

    Team Leader: "Team Ice" (August 2018). NASA 2-week field work expedition to study Europa analog environments in Iceland.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, R. K. Achterberg, et al. G. Bampasidis, C. A. Nixon, P. Lavvas, V. Cottini, and F. M. Flasar. 2018. "Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles." The Astrophysical Journal, 854 (2): L30 [10.3847/2041-8213/aaadbd]

    Cordiner, M. A., C. A. Nixon, S. B. Charnley, et al. N. A. Teanby, E. M. Molter, Z. Kisiel, and V. Vuitton. 2018. "Interferometric Imaging of Titan’s HC3N, H13CCCN, and HCCC15N." The Astrophysical Journal, 859 (1): L15 [10.3847/2041-8213/aac38d]

    Teanby, N. A., M. A. Cordiner, C. A. Nixon, et al. P. G. Irwin, S. M. Hörst, M. Sylvestre, J. Serigano, A. E. Thelen, A. M. Richards, and S. B. Charnley. 2018. "The Origin of Titan’s External Oxygen: Further Constraints from ALMA Upper Limits on CS and CH2NH." The Astronomical Journal, 155 (6): 251 [10.3847/1538-3881/aac172]

    Thelen, A. E., C. Nixon, N. Chanover, et al. E. Molter, M. Cordiner, R. Achterberg, J. Serigano, P. Irwin, N. Teanby, and S. Charnley. 2018. "Spatial variations in Titan’s atmospheric temperature: ALMA and Cassini comparisons from 2012 to 2015." Icarus, 307: 380-390 [10.1016/j.icarus.2017.10.042]

    Nixon, C., R. Lorenz, R. Achterberg, et al. A. Buch, P. Coll, R. Clark, R. Courtin, A. Hayes, L. Iess, R. Johnson, R. Lopes, M. Mastrogiuseppe, K. Mandt, D. Mitchell, F. Raulin, A. Rymer, H. Todd Smith, A. Solomonidou, C. Sotin, D. Strobel, E. Turtle, V. Vuitton, R. West, and R. Yelle. 2018. "Titan's cold case files - Outstanding questions after Cassini-Huygens." Planetary and Space Science, 155: 50-72 [10.1016/j.pss.2018.02.009]

    Mousis, O., D. Atkinson, T. Cavalié, et al. L. Fletcher, M. Amato, S. Aslam, F. Ferri, J.-B. Renard, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, P. Wurz, K. Aplin, A. Coustenis, M. Deleuil, M. Dobrijevic, T. Fouchet, T. Guillot, P. Hartogh, T. Hewagama, M. Hofstadter, V. Hue, R. Hueso, J.-P. Lebreton, E. Lellouch, J. Moses, G. Orton, J. Pearl, A. Sánchez-Lavega, A. Simon, O. Venot, J. Waite, R. Achterberg, S. Atreya, F. Billebaud, M. Blanc, F. Borget, B. Brugger, S. Charnoz, T. Chiavassa, V. Cottini, L. d’Hendecourt, G. Danger, T. Encrenaz, N. Gorius, L. Jorda, B. Marty, R. Moreno, A. Morse, C. Nixon, K. Reh, T. Ronnet, F.-X. Schmider, S. Sheridan, C. Sotin, P. Vernazza, and G. Villanueva. 2018. "Scientific rationale for Uranus and Neptune in situ explorations." Planetary and Space Science, 155: 12-40 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.10.005]

    Holler, B. J., S. N. Milam, J. M. Bauer, et al. C. Alcock, M. T. Bannister, G. L. Bjoraker, C. A. Nixon, and A. A. Simon. 2018. "Solar system science with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope." Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 4 (03): 1 [10.1117/1.jatis.4.3.034003]

    Lombardo, N. A., C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, et al. A. Jolly, K. Sung, P. G. Irwin, and F. M. Flasar. 2018. "Spatial and seasonal variations in C3Hx hydrocarbon abundance in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini CIRS observations." Icarus, 317: 454-469 (Accepted) [10.1016/j.icarus.2018.08.027]

    Bauduin, S., P. Irwin, E. Lellouch, et al. V. Cottini, R. Moreno, C. Nixon, N. Teanby, T. Ansty, and F. Flasar. 2018. "Retrieval of H 2 O abundance in Titan’s stratosphere: A (re)analysis of CIRS/Cassini and PACS/Herschel observations." Icarus, 311: 288-305 [10.1016/j.icarus.2018.04.003]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, R. A. West, et al. P. J. Gierasch, S. Perez-Hoyos, A. Sanchez-Lavega, L. N. Fletcher, J. J. Fortney, B. Knowles, C. C. Porco, K. H. Baines, P. M. Fry, A. Mallama, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, U. A. Dyudina, S. P. Ewald, and R. W. Schmude. 2018. "Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter." Nature Communications, 9 (1): 3709 [10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. C. A. Nixon, M. E. Segura, P. N. Romani, N. Gorius, S. Albright, J. C. Brasunas, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, S. Aslam, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, J. C. Pearl, M. D. Smith, B. E. Hesman, R. D. Barney, S. Calcutt, T. J. Vellacott, L. J. Spilker, S. G. Edgington, S. M. Brooks, P. Ade, P. J. Schinder, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin, G. Michel, R. Fettig, S. Pilorz, and C. Ferrari. 2017. "Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini." Applied Optics, 56 (18): 5274 [10.1364/ao.56.005274]

    Palmer, M., M. Cordiner, C. Nixon, et al. S. Charnley, N. Teanby, Z. Kisiel, P. Irwin, and M. Mumma. 2017. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan." Science Advances, 3: e1700022 [10.1126/sciadv.1700022]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. C. A. Nixon, M. E. Segura, P. N. Romani, N. Gorius, S. Albright, J. C. Brasunas, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, S. Aslam, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, J. C. Pearl, M. D. Smith, B. E. Hesman, R. D. Barney, S. Calcutt, T. J. Vellacott, L. J. Spilker, S. G. Edgington, S. M. Brooks, P. Ade, P. J. Schinder, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin, G. Michel, R. Fettig, S. Pilorz, and C. Ferrari. 2017. "Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini: publisher’s note." Applied Optics, 56 (21): 5897 [10.1364/ao.56.005897]

    Pierel, J. D., C. A. Nixon, E. Lellouch, et al. L. N. Fletcher, G. L. Bjoraker, R. K. Achterberg, B. Bézard, B. E. Hesman, P. G. Irwin, and F. M. Flasar. 2017. "D/H Ratios on Saturn and Jupiter from Cassini CIRS." The Astronomical Journal, 154 (5): 178 [10.3847/1538-3881/aa899d]

    Lai, J.-Y., M. Cordiner, C. Nixon, et al. R. Achterberg, E. Molter, N. Teanby, M. Palmer, S. Charnley, J. Lindberg, Z. Kisiel, M. Mumma, and P. Irwin. 2017. "Mapping Vinyl Cyanide and Other Nitriles in Titan's Atmosphere Using ALMA." The Astronomical Journal, 154: 206 [10.3847/1538-3881/aa8eef]

    Teanby, N. A., B. Bézard, S. Vinatier, et al. M. Sylvestre, C. A. Nixon, P. G. Irwin, R. J. de Kok, S. B. Calcutt, and F. M. Flasar. 2017. "The formation and evolution of Titan’s winter polar vortex." Nature Communications, 8 (1): 1586 [10.1038/s41467-017-01839-z]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, M. Ádámkovics, et al. B. Bézard, G. L. Bjoraker, T. Cornet, A. G. Hayes, E. Lellouch, M. T. Lemmon, M. López-Puertas, S. Rodriguez, C. Sotin, N. A. Teanby, E. P. Turtle, and R. A. West. 2016. "Titan Science with theJames Webb Space Telescope." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 128 (959): 018007 [10.1088/1538-3873/128/959/018007]

    Jennings, D. E., V. Cottini, C. A. Nixon, et al. R. K. Achterberg, F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, P. N. Romani, R. E. Samuelson, A. Mamoutkine, N. J. Gorius, A. Coustenis, and T. Tokano. 2016. "SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING." The Astrophysical Journal, 816 (1): L17 [10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/l17]

    Nixon, C. A., F. Kirchman, J. Esper, D. Folta, and A. Mashiku. 2016. "Aerocapture design study for a Titan polar orbiter." 2016 IEEE Aerospace Conference, [10.1109/aero.2016.7500825]

    Mustafi, S., C. DeLee, J. Francis, et al. X. Li, D. McGuinness, C. Nixon, L. Purves, W. Willis, S. Riall, M. Devine, and A. Hedayat. 2016. "Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission." Cryogenics, 74: 81-87 [10.1016/j.cryogenics.2015.11.009]

    Serigano, J., C. A. Nixon, M. A. Cordiner, et al. P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, S. B. Charnley, and J. E. Lindberg. 2016. "Isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal, 821 (1): L8 [10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/l8]

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, R. K. Achterberg, et al. G. Bampasidis, P. Lavvas, C. A. Nixon, N. A. Teanby, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, and F. M. Flasar. 2016. "Titan’s temporal evolution in stratospheric trace gases near the poles." Icarus, 270: 409-420 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.027]

    Molter, E. M., C. A. Nixon, M. A. Cordiner, et al. J. Serigano, P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, S. B. Charnley, and J. E. Lindberg. 2016. "ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF HCN AND ITS ISOTOPOLOGUES ON TITAN." The Astronomical Journal, 152 (2): 42 [10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/42]

    Mousis, O., S. Aslam, C. A. Nixon, et al. D. Atkinson, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, and J. Poncy. 2016. "The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission." Planetary and Space Science , 130: 80-103 [10.1016/j.pss.2015.06.020]

    Aslam, S., M. Amato, N. Bowles, et al. S. Calcutt, T. Hewagama, J. Howard, C. Howett, W.-T. Hsieh, T. Hurford, J. Hurley, P. Irwin, D. E. Jennings, E. Kessler, B. Lakew, M. Loeffler, M. Mellon, A. Nicoletti, C. A. Nixon, N. Putzig, G. Quilligan, J. Rathbun, M. Segura, J. Spencer, J. Spitale, and G. West. 2016. "Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions." Acta Astronautica, 128: 628-639 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.08.009]

    Cordiner, M. A., M. Y. Palmer, C. A. Nixon, P. G. Irwin, and N. A. Teanby. 2015. "Ethyl Cyanide On Titan: Spectroscopic Detection and Mapping Using ALMA." ApJ, 800: L14.

    Jolly, A., V. Cottini, A. Fayt, et al. L. Manceron, F. Kwabia-Tchana, Y. Benilan, J.-C. Guillemin, C. Nixon, and P. Irwin. 2015. "Gas phase dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) on Titan: New experimental and theoretical spectroscopy results applied to Cassini CIRS data." Icarus, 248: 340-346 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.049]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, H. J. Trammell, et al. Y. Pan, J. Hernandez, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, F. M. Flasar, S. Perez-Hoyos, R. A. West, K. H. Baines, and B. Knowles. 2015. "Saturn's giant storm and global radiant energy." Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (7): 2144-2148 [10.1002/2015gl063763]

    Chan, C., S. Albright, N. Gorius, et al. J. Brasunas, D. Jennings, F. M. Flasar, R. Carlson, E. Guandique, and C. Nixon. 2015. "Electrical interferences observed in the Cassini CIRS spectrometer." Experimental Astronomy, 39 (2): 367-386 [10.1007/s10686-015-9452-3]

    Jennings, D. E., R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, et al. C. M. Anderson, F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, G. L. Bjoraker, V. G. Kunde, R. C. Carlson, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, J. S. Tingley, S. A. Albright, M. E. Segura, R. D. Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, G. Bampasidis, N. A. Teanby, and S. Calcutt. 2015. "EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-INFRARED CLOUD AT TITAN’S SOUTH POLE." The Astrophysical Journal, 804 (2): L34 [10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/l34]

    Aslam, S., M. J. Amato, D. Atkinson, et al. A. Colaprete, T. Hewaganma, D. E. Jennings, J. Lunine, C. A. Nixon, A. A. Simon, O. Mousis, and E. J. Wollack. 2015. "Net Flux Radiometer for a Saturn Probe." European Planetary Science Congress, 10: 388-389. (Submitted)

    Zhang, X., R. A. West, P. G. Irwin, C. A. Nixon, and Y. L. Yung. 2015. "Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter." Nature Communications, 6 (1): 10231 [10.1038/ncomms10231]

    Cordiner, M. A., C. A. Nixon, N. Teanby, et al. P. G. Irwin, J. Serigano, and L. Paganini. 2014. "ALMA Measurements of the HNC and HC3N Distributions in Titans Atmosphere." ApJ, 795: L30.

    Zahnle, K. J., D. G. Korycansky, and C. A. Nixon. 2014. "Transient climate effects of large impacts on Titan." Icarus, 229: 378-391 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.11.006]

    Lellouch, E., B. Bézard, F. Flasar, et al. S. Vinatier, R. Achterberg, C. Nixon, G. Bjoraker, and N. Gorius. 2014. "The distribution of methane in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS observations." Icarus, 231: 323-337 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.12.016]

    Tobie, G., N. Teanby, A. Coustenis, et al. R. Jaumann, F. Raulin, J. Schmidt, N. Carrasco, A. Coates, D. Cordier, R. De Kok, W. Geppert, J.-P. Lebreton, A. Lefevre, T. Livengood, K. Mandt, G. Mitri, F. Nimmo, C. Nixon, L. Norman, R. Pappalardo, F. Postberg, S. Rodriguez, D. Schulze-Makuch, J. Soderblom, A. Solomonidou, K. Stephan, E. Stofan, E. Turtle, R. Wagner, R. West, and J. Westlake. 2014. "Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus." Planetary and Space Science, 104: 59-77 [10.1016/j.pss.2014.10.002]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, C. M. Anderson, and S. Vinatier. 2013. "Nitrogen in the Stratosphere of Titan from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectroscopy." The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets, 123-143 [10.1007/978-1-4614-5191-4_10]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, C. Nixon, et al. R. Courtin, B. Swinyard, R. Moreno, E. Lellouch, M. Rengel, and P. Hartogh. 2013. "Constraints on Titan's middle atmosphere ammonia abundance from Herschel/SPIRE sub-millimetre spectra." Planetary and Space Science, 75: 136-147 [10.1016/j.pss.2012.11.008]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, P. G. Irwin, and S. M. Hörst. 2013. "Upper limits for PH3 and H2S in Titan’s atmosphere from Cassini CIRS." Icarus, 224 (1): 253-256 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.024]

    Li, L., R. K. Achterberg, B. J. Conrath, et al. P. J. Gierasch, M. A. Smith, A. A. Simon-Miller, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, F. M. Flasar, X. Jiang, K. H. Baines, R. Morales-Juberias, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. Del Genio, R. A. West, and S. P. Ewald. 2013. "Strong Temporal Variation Over One Saturnian Year: From Voyager to Cassini." Scientific Reports, 3 (2410): [10.1038/srep02410]

    Nixon, C. A., D. E. Jennings, B. Bézard, et al. S. Vinatier, N. A. Teanby, K. Sung, T. M. Ansty, P. G. Irwin, N. Gorius, V. Cottini, A. Coustenis, and F. M. Flasar. 2013. "DETECTION OF PROPENE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE." The Astrophysical Journal, 776 (1): L14 [10.1088/2041-8205/776/1/l14]

    Zhang, X., C. Nixon, R. Shia, et al. R. West, P. Irwin, R. Yelle, M. Allen, and Y. Yung. 2013. "Radiative forcing of the stratosphere of Jupiter, Part I: Atmospheric cooling rates from Voyager to Cassini." Planetary and Space Science, 88: 3-25 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.07.005]

    Coustenis, A., G. Bampasidis, R. K. Achterberg, et al. P. Lavvas, D. E. Jennings, C. A. Nixon, N. A. Teanby, S. Vinatier, F. M. Flasar, R. C. Carlson, G. Orton, P. N. Romani, E. A. Guandique, and S. Stamogiorgos. 2013. "EVOLUTION OF THE STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OVER ONE TITANIAN YEAR." The Astrophysical Journal, 779 (2): 177 [10.1088/0004-637x/779/2/177]

    Li, L., K. H. Baines, M. A. Smith, et al. R. A. West, S. Perez-Hoyos, H. J. Trammel, A. A. Simon-Miller, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, G. S. Orton, C. A. Nixon, G. Filacchione, P. M. Fry, and T. W. Momary. 2012. "Emitted Power of Jupiter Based on Cassini CIRS and VIMS Observations. ." J Geophys Res - Planets, 117: E11002 [ doi:10.1029/2012JE004191]

    Nixon, C. A., and R. D. Lorenz. 2012. "Titan through time: Formation, evolution and fate." Planetary and Space Science, 60 (1): 1-2 [10.1016/j.pss.2011.12.012]

    Cottini, V., C. Nixon, D. Jennings, et al. R. de Kok, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, and F. Flasar. 2012. "Spatial and temporal variations in Titan's surface temperatures from Cassini CIRS observations." Planetary and Space Science, 60 (1): 62-71 [10.1016/j.pss.2011.03.015]

    Nixon, C. A., T. M. Ansty, F. M. Flasar, and R. K. Achterberg. 2012. "Designing infrared observations of Titan's atmosphere with Cassini CIRS." 2012 IEEE Aerospace Conference, [10.1109/aero.2012.6187400]

    Aslam, S., T. Hewagama, D. E. Jennings, and C. A. Nixon. 2012. "A Near Infrared and Thermal Imager for Mapping Tttan's Surface Features." Titan Through Time II Workshop, 35.

    Mandt, K. E., J. H. Waite, B. Teolis, et al. B. A. Magee, J. Bell, J. H. Westlake, C. A. Nixon, O. Mousis, and J. I. Lunine. 2012. "THE12C/13C RATIO ON TITAN FROM CASSINI INMS MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF METHANE." The Astrophysical Journal, 749 (2): 160 [10.1088/0004-637x/749/2/160]

    Nixon, C. A., B. Temelso, S. Vinatier, et al. N. A. Teanby, B. Bézard, R. K. Achterberg, K. E. Mandt, C. D. Sherrill, P. G. Irwin, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, A. Coustenis, and F. M. Flasar. 2012. "ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING." The Astrophysical Journal, 749 (2): 159 [10.1088/0004-637x/749/2/159]

    Jennings, D. E., C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, et al. F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, V. G. Kunde, R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, R. de Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, and S. B. Calcutt. 2012. "SEASONAL DISAPPEARANCE OF FAR-INFRARED HAZE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE." The Astrophysical Journal, 754 (1): L3 [10.1088/2041-8205/754/1/l3]

    Cottini, V., C. Nixon, D. Jennings, et al. C. Anderson, N. Gorius, G. Bjoraker, A. Coustenis, N. Teanby, R. Achterberg, B. Bézard, R. de Kok, E. Lellouch, P. Irwin, F. Flasar, and G. Bampasidis. 2012. "Water vapor in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra." Icarus, 220 (2): 855-862 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.06.014]

    Hesman, B. E., G. L. Bjoraker, P. V. Sada, et al. R. K. Achterberg, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, A. W. Lunsford, L. N. Fletcher, R. J. Boyle, A. A. Simon-Miller, P. G. Irwin, and C. A. Nixon. 2012. "Elusive Ethylene Detected in Saturn's Northern Storm Region." Astrophysical Journal, 760:24: [10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/24]

    Bampasidis, G., A. Coustenis, R. K. Achterberg, et al. S. Vinatier, P. Lavvas, C. A. Nixon, D. E. Jennings, N. A. Teanby, F. M. Flasar, R. C. Carlson, X. Moussas, P. Preka-Papadema, P. N. Romani, E. A. Guandique, and S. Stamogiorgos. 2012. "THERMAL AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE DURING THECASSINIMISSION." The Astrophysical Journal, 760 (2): 144 [10.1088/0004-637x/760/2/144]

    Jennings, D. E., C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, et al. F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, B. E. Hesman, V. G. Kunde, R. C. Carlson, R. de Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, G. Bampasidis, N. A. Teanby, and S. B. Calcutt. 2012. "FIRST OBSERVATION IN THE SOUTH OF TITAN'S FAR-INFRARED 220 cm –1 CLOUD." The Astrophysical Journal, 761 (1): L15 [10.1088/2041-8205/761/1/l15]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, C. A. Nixon, et al. R. de Kok, S. Vinatier, A. Coustenis, E. Sefton-Nash, S. B. Calcutt, and F. M. Flasar. 2012. "Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan." Nature, 491 (7426): 732-735 [10.1038/nature11611]

    Achterberg, R. K., P. J. Gierasch, B. J. Conrath, F. Michael Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2011. "Temporal variations of Titan’s middle-atmospheric temperatures from 2004 to 2009 observed by Cassini/CIRS." Icarus, 211 (1): 686-698 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.08.009]

    Jennings, D. E., V. Cottini, C. A. Nixon, et al. F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, R. E. Samuelson, P. N. Romani, B. E. Hesman, R. C. Carlson, N. J. Gorius, A. Coustenis, and T. Tokano. 2011. "SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES." The Astrophysical Journal, 737 (1): L15 [10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/l15]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, A. P. Ingersoll, et al. A. D. Del Genio, C. C. Porco, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, S. P. Ewald, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, G. S. Orton, L. N. Fletcher, and K. H. Baines. 2011. "Equatorial winds on Saturn and the Stratospheric Oscillation." Nature Geoscience, 4: 750-752 [10.1038/ngeo1292]

    Li, L., C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, et al. M. A. Smith, N. J. Gorius, X. Jiang, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, A. A. Simon-Miller, F. M. Flasar, K. H. Baines, A. P. Ingersoll, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, and S. P. Ewald. 2011. "The Global Energy Balance of Titan ." Geophys Res Letter, 38: L23201 [10.1029/2011GL050053]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2010. "Mapping Titan's HCN in the far infra-red: implications for photochemistry." Faraday Discussions, 147: 51 [10.1039/c001690j]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, N. A. Teanby, et al. P. G. Irwin, J.-M. Flaud, I. Kleiner, A. Dehayem-Kamadjeu, L. R. Brown, R. L. Sams, B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, T. M. Ansty, A. Mamoutkine, S. Vinatier, G. L. Bjoraker, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, and F. M. Flasar. 2010. "Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan." Faraday Discussions, 147: 65 [10.1039/c003771k]

    Jolly, A., A. Fayt, Y. Benilan, et al. D. Jacquemart, C. A. Nixon, and D. E. Jennings. 2010. "The ν8 Bending Mode of Diacetylene: From Laboratory Spectroscopy to the Detection of 13C Isotopologues in Titan's Atmosphere." The Astrophysical Journal, 714 (1): 852-859 [10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/852]

    Li, L., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, et al. R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, A. A. Simon-Miller, F. M. Flasar, D. Banfield, K. H. Baines, R. A. West, A. A. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. D. Del Genio, C. C. Porco, A. A. Mamoutkine, M. E. Segura, G. L. Bjoraker, H. S. Orton, L. N. Fletcher, P. G. Irwin, and P. L. Read. 2010. "Saturn's emitted power." J Geophys Res, 115 (E11): E11002 [10.1029/2010JE003631]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bézard, C. A. Nixon, et al. A. Mamoutkine, R. C. Carlson, D. E. Jennings, E. A. Guandique, N. A. Teanby, G. L. Bjoraker, F. Michael Flasar, and V. G. Kunde. 2010. "Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission." Icarus, 205 (2): 559-570 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.08.013]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, and F. M. Flasar. 2010. "Infrared limb sounding with Cassini CIRS: Optimal viewing strategy using horizon nodes." 2010 IEEE Aerospace Conference, [10.1109/aero.2010.5446856]

    Flaud, J.-M., F. Kwabia Tchana, W. Lafferty, and C. Nixon. 2010. "High resolution analysis of the ν26 and 2ν9–ν9 bands of propane: modelling of Titan's infrared spectrum at 13.4 μm." Molecular Physics, 108 (6): 699-704 [10.1080/00268970903501709]

    Coustenis, A., D. Jennings, C. Nixon, et al. R. Achterberg, P. Lavvas, S. Vinatier, N. Teanby, G. Bjoraker, R. Carlson, L. Piani, G. Bampasidis, F. Flasar, and P. Romani. 2010. "Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini–Huygens prime mission." Icarus, 207 (1): 461-476 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.027]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, S. B. Calcutt, et al. S. Aslam, D. E. Jennings, V. G. Kunde, F. M. Flasar, P. G. Irwin, F. W. Taylor, D. A. Glenar, and M. D. Smith. 2010. "Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses: errata." Applied Optics, 49 (29): 5575 [10.1364/ao.49.005575]

    Nixon, C., R. Achterberg, P. Romani, et al. M. Allen, X. Zhang, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, and F. Flasar. 2010. "Abundances of Jupiter's trace hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini." Planetary and Space Science, 58 (13): 1667-1680 [10.1016/j.pss.2010.05.008]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2010. "SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S POLAR TRACE GAS ABUNDANCE OBSERVED BYCASSINI." The Astrophysical Journal, 724 (1): L84-L89 [10.1088/2041-8205/724/1/l84]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bézard, R. de Kok, et al. C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, C. A. Nixon, A. Mamoutkine, R. C. Carlson, D. E. Jennings, and E. A. Guandique. 2010. "Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission II: Aerosol extinction profiles in the 600–1420cm−1 spectral range." Icarus, 210 (2): 852-866 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.06.024]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. R. E. Samuelson, J. C. Pearl, C. A. Nixon, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, J. C. Brasunas, E. Guandique, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, M. E. Segura, S. A. Albright, M. H. Elliott, J. S. Tingley, S. Calcutt, A. Coustenis, and R. Courtin. 2009. "TITAN'S SURFACE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES." The Astrophysical Journal, 691 (2): L103-L105 [10.1088/0004-637x/691/2/l103]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2009. "Dynamical implications of seasonal and spatial variations in Titan's stratospheric composition." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 367 (1889): 697-711 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0164]

    Coustenis, A., S. K. Atreya, T. Balint, et al. R. H. Brown, M. K. Dougherty, F. Ferri, M. Fulchignoni, D. Gautier, R. A. Gowen, C. A. Griffith, L. I. Gurvits, R. Jaumann, Y. Langevin, M. R. Leese, J. I. Lunine, C. P. McKay, X. Moussas, I. Müller-Wodarg, F. Neubauer, T. C. Owen, F. Raulin, E. C. Sittler, F. Sohl, C. Sotin, G. Tobie, T. Tokano, E. P. Turtle, J. Wahlund, J. H. Waite, K. H. Baines, J. Blamont, A. J. Coates, I. Dandouras, T. Krimigis, E. Lellouch, R. D. Lorenz, A. Morse, C. C. Porco, M. Hirtzig, J. Saur, T. Spilker, J. C. Zarnecki, E. Choi, N. Achilleos, R. Amils, P. Annan, D. H. Atkinson, Y. Bénilan, C. Bertucci, B. Bézard, G. L. Bjoraker, M. Blanc, L. Boireau, J. Bouman, M. Cabane, M. T. Capria, E. Chassefière, P. Coll, M. Combes, J. F. Cooper, A. Coradini, F. Crary, T. Cravens, I. A. Daglis, E. de Angelis, C. de Bergh, I. de Pater, C. Dunford, G. Durry, O. Dutuit, D. Fairbrother, F. M. Flasar, A. D. Fortes, R. Frampton, M. Fujimoto, M. Galand, O. Grasset, M. Grott, T. Haltigin, A. Herique, F. Hersant, H. Hussmann, W. Ip, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, S. Kempf, M. Knapmeyer, W. Kofman, R. Koop, T. Kostiuk, N. Krupp, M. Küppers, H. Lammer, L. Lara, P. Lavvas, S. Le Mouélic, S. Lebonnois, S. Ledvina, J. Li, T. A. Livengood, R. M. Lopes, J. Lopez-Moreno, D. Luz, P. R. Mahaffy, U. Mall, J. Martinez-Frias, B. Marty, T. McCord, C. Menor Salvan, A. Milillo, D. G. Mitchell, R. Modolo, O. Mousis, M. Nakamura, C. D. Neish, C. A. Nixon, D. Nna Mvondo, G. Orton, M. Paetzold, J. Pitman, S. Pogrebenko, W. Pollard, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Rannou, K. Reh, L. Richter, F. T. Robb, R. Rodrigo, S. Rodriguez, P. Romani, M. Ruiz Bermejo, E. T. Sarris, P. Schenk, B. Schmitt, N. Schmitz, D. Schulze-Makuch, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Selig, B. Sicardy, L. Soderblom, L. J. Spilker, D. Stam, A. Steele, K. Stephan, D. F. Strobel, K. Szego, C. Szopa, R. Thissen, M. G. Tomasko, D. Toublanc, H. Vali, I. Vardavas, V. Vuitton, R. A. West, R. Yelle, and E. F. Young. 2009. "TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission." Experimental Astronomy, 23: 893 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, S. B. Calcutt, et al. S. Aslam, D. E. Jennings, V. G. Kunde, F. M. Flasar, P. G. Irwin, F. W. Taylor, D. A. Glenar, and M. D. Smith. 2009. "Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses." Applied Optics, 48 (10): 1912 [10.1364/ao.48.001912]

    Hesman, B. E., D. E. Jennings, P. V. Sada, et al. G. L. Bjoraker, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon-Miller, C. M. Anderson, R. J. Boyle, C. A. Nixon, L. N. Fletcher, and G. H. McCabe. 2009. "Saturn's latitudinal C2H2 and C2H6 abundance profiles from Cassini/CIRS and ground-based observations." Icarus, 202 (1): 249-259 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.02.013]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. de Kok, et al. A. Jolly, B. Bézard, C. Nixon, and S. Calcutt. 2009. "Titan's stratospheric C2N2, C3H4, and C4H2 abundances from Cassini/CIRS far-infrared spectra." Icarus, 202 (2): 620-631 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.022]

    Roman, M. T., R. A. West, D. J. Banfield, et al. P. J. Gierasch, R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, and P. C. Thomas. 2009. "Determining a tilt in Titan’s north–south albedo asymmetry from Cassini images." Icarus, 203 (1): 242-249 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.021]

    Jennings, D. E., P. N. Romani, G. L. Bjoraker, et al. P. V. Sada, C. A. Nixon, A. W. Lunsford, R. J. Boyle, B. E. Hesman, and G. H. McCabe. 2009. "12C/13C Ratio in Ethane on Titan and Implications for Methane’s Replenishment†." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 113 (42): 11101-11106 [10.1021/jp903637d]

    Nixon, C., D. Jennings, J.-M. Flaud, et al. B. Bézard, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, T. Ansty, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, and F. Flasar. 2009. "Titan's prolific propane: The Cassini CIRS perspective." Planetary and Space Science, 57 (13): 1573-1585 [10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. de Kok, et al. C. Nixon, A. Coustenis, E. Royer, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, L. Fletcher, C. Howett, and F. Taylor. 2008. "Global and temporal variations in hydrocarbons and nitriles in Titan's stratosphere for northern winter observed by Cassini/CIRS." Icarus, 193 (2): 595-611 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.017]

    Achterberg, R. K., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, F. M. Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2008. "Titan's middle-atmospheric temperatures and dynamics observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer." Icarus, 194 (1): 263-277 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.09.029]

    Irwin, P., N. Teanby, R. de Kok, et al. L. Fletcher, C. Howett, C. Tsang, C. Wilson, S. Calcutt, C. Nixon, and P. Parrish. 2008. "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 109 (6): 1136-1150 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.11.006]

    Nixon, C., R. Achterberg, S. Vinatier, et al. B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, P. Irwin, N. Teanby, R. de Kok, P. Romani, D. Jennings, G. Bjoraker, and F. Flasar. 2008. "The 12C/13C isotopic ratio in Titan hydrocarbons from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra." Icarus, 195 (2): 778-791 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.012]

    Nixon, C. A., D. E. Jennings, B. Bézard, et al. N. A. Teanby, R. K. Achterberg, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, P. G. Irwin, P. N. Romani, T. Hewagama, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Isotopic Ratios in Titan's Atmosphere fromCassiniCIRS Limb Sounding: CO2at Low and Midlatitudes." The Astrophysical Journal, 681 (2): L101-L103 [10.1086/590553]

    Jennings, D. E., C. A. Nixon, A. Jolly, et al. B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, P. N. Romani, R. K. Achterberg, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Isotopic Ratios in Titan's Atmosphere fromCassiniCIRS Limb Sounding: HC3N in the North." The Astrophysical Journal, 681 (2): L109-L111 [10.1086/590534]

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, A. Jolly, et al. Y. Bénilan, C. A. Nixon, S. Vinatier, D. Gautier, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, R. C. Carlson, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Detection of C2HD and the D/H ratio on Titan." Icarus, 197 (2): 539-548 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.06.003]

    Achterberg, R. K., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, F. M. Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2008. "Observation of a tilt of Titan's middle-atmospheric superrotation." Icarus, 197 (2): 549-555 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.014]

    Teanby, N. A., R. de Kok, P. G. Irwin, et al. S. Osprey, S. Vinatier, P. J. Gierasch, P. L. Read, F. M. Flasar, B. J. Conrath, R. K. Achterberg, B. Bézard, C. A. Nixon, and S. B. Calcutt. 2008. "Titan's winter polar vortex structure revealed by chemical tracers." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 (E12): E12003 [10.1029/2008je003218]

    de Kok, R., P. Irwin, N. Teanby, et al. E. Lellouch, B. Bézard, S. Vinatier, C. Nixon, L. Fletcher, C. Howett, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, F. Flasar, and F. Taylor. 2007. "Oxygen compounds in Titan's stratosphere as observed by Cassini CIRS." Icarus, 186 (2): 354-363 [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.016]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. de Kok, et al. S. Vinatier, B. Bézard, C. Nixon, F. Flasar, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, L. Fletcher, C. Howett, and F. Taylor. 2007. "Vertical profiles of HCN, HC3N, and C2H2 in Titan's atmosphere derived from Cassini/CIRS data." Icarus, 186 (2): 364-384 [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.024]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bezard, T. Fouchet, et al. N. Teanby, R. Dekok, P. Irwin, B. Conrath, C. Nixon, P. Romani, and F. Flasar. 2007. "Vertical abundance profiles of hydrocarbons in Titan's atmosphere at 15° S and 80° N retrieved from Cassini/CIRS spectra." Icarus, 188 (1): 120-138 [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.10.031]

    Nixon, C., R. Achterberg, B. Conrath, et al. P. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, T. Fouchet, P. Parrish, P. Romani, M. Abbas, A. LeClair, D. Strobel, A. A. Simon-Miller, D. Jennings, F. M. Flasar, and V. Kunde. 2007. "Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra." Icarus, 188: 47-71. [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.016]

    Coustenis, A., R. K. Achterberg, B. J. Conrath, et al. D. E. Jennings, A. Marten, D. Gautier, C. A. Nixon, F. M. Flasar, N. A. Teanby, B. Bézard, R. E. Samuelson, R. C. Carlson, E. Lellouch, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, F. W. Taylor, P. G. Irwin, T. Fouchet, A. Hubert, G. S. Orton, V. G. Kunde, S. Vinatier, J. Mondellini, M. M. Abbas, and R. Courtin. 2007. "The composition of Titan's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS mid-infrared spectra." Icarus, 189 (1): 35-62 [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.12.022]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bézard, and C. A. Nixon. 2007. "The Titan 14N/15N and 12C/13C isotopic ratios in HCN from Cassini/CIRS." Icarus, 191 (2): 712-721 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.001]

    Bezard, B., C. Nixon, I. Kleiner, and D. Jennings. 2007. "Detection of 13CH3D on Titan." Icarus, 191 (1): 397-400 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.004]

    Dekok, R., P. Irwin, N. Teanby, et al. C. Nixon, D. Jennings, L. Fletcher, C. Howett, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, and F. Flasar. 2007. "Characteristics of Titan's stratospheric aerosols and condensate clouds from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra." Icarus, 191 (1): 223-235 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.04.003]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. Dekok, et al. C. Nixon, A. Coustenis, B. Bezard, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, F. Flasar, and L. Fletcher. 2006. "Latitudinal variations of HCN, HC3N, and C2N2 in Titan's stratosphere derived from Cassini CIRS data." Icarus, 181 (1): 243-255 [10.1016/j.icarus.2005.11.008]

    Flasar, F. M., R. K. Achterberg, B. J. Conrath, et al. J. C. Pearl, G. L. Bjoraker, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, A. A. Simon-Miller, V. G. Kunde, C. A. Nixon, B. Bezard, G. Orton, L. Spilker, J. R. Spencer, P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, T. Owen, J. C. Brasunas, M. E. Segura, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, P. Gierasch, P. Schinder, M. Showalter, C. Ferrari, A. Barucci, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, T. Fouchet, D. Gautier, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, R. Prange, D. Strobel, S. Calcutt, P. Read, F. Taylor, N. Bowles, R. E. Samuelson, M. Abbas, F. Raulin, P. Ade, S. Edgington, S. Pilorz, B. Wallis, and E. Wishnow. 2005. "Temperatures, Winds, and Composition in the Saturnian System." Science, 307 (5713): 1247-1251 [10.1126/science.1105806]

    Flasar, F. M., R. Achterberg, B. Conrath, et al. P. Gierasch, V. Kunde, C. Nixon, G. Bjoraker, D. Jennings, P. Romani, A. Simon-Miller, B. Bezard, A. Coustenis, P. Irwin, N. Teanby, J. Brasunas, J. Pearl, M. Segura, R. Carlson, A. Mamoutkine, P. Schinder, A. Barucci, R. Courtin, T. Fouchet, D. Gautier, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, R. Prange, S. Vinatier, D. Strobel, S. Calcutt, P. Read, F. Taylor, N. Bowles, R. Samuelson, G. Orton, L. Spilker, T. Owen, J. Spencer, M. Showalter, C. Ferrari, M. Abbas, F. Raulin, S. Edgington, P. Ade, and E. Wishnow. 2005. "Titan's Atmospheric Temperatures, Winds, and Composition." Science, 308 (5724): 975-978. [10.1126/science.1111150]

    Flasar, F. M., V. Kunde, M. Abbas, et al. R. Achterberg, P. Ade, A. Barucci, B. Bezard, G. Bjoraker, J. Brasunas, S. Calcutt, R. Carlson, C. Cesarsky, B. J. Conrath, A. Coradini, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, S. Edberg, S. Edgington, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, K. Grossman, P. Irwin, D. Jennings, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, J. Meyer, C. Nixon, G. Orton, T. Owen, J. Pearl, R. Prange, F. Raulin, P. Read, P. Romani, R. Samuelson, M. Segura, M. Showalter, A. Simon-Miller, M. Smith, J. Spencer, L. Spilker, and F. Taylor. 2004. "Exploring the Saturn System in the Thermal Infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer." Space Science Reviews, 115 (1-4): 169-297 [10.1007/s11214-004-1454-9 ]

    Flasar, F. M., V. G. Kunde, R. K. Achterberg, et al. B. J. Conrath, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, P. Gierasch, P. N. Romani, B. Bezard, P. G. Irwin, G. L. Bjoraker, J. C. Brasunas, D. E. Jennings, J. C. Pearl, M. M. Smith, G. Orton, L. Spilker, R. C. Carlson, S. Calcutt, P. Read, F. Taylor, P. Parrish, A. Barucci, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, D. Gautier, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, R. Prange, Y. Biraud, T. Fouchet, C. Ferrari, T. Owen, M. Abbas, R. E. Samuelson, F. Raulin, P. Ade, C. Cesarsky, K. Grossman, and A. Coradini. 2004. "An Intense Stratospheric Jet on Jupiter." Nature, 427: 132-135 [10.1038/nature02142]

    Abbas, M. M., A. LeClair, T. Owen, et al. B. J. Conrath, F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, G. Bjoraker, D. J. Jennings, G. Orton, and P. N. Romani. 2004. "The Nitrogen Isotopic Ratio in Jupiter’s Atmosphere from Observations by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on theCassiniSpacecraft." The Astrophysical Journal, 602 (2): 1063-1074 [10.1086/381084]

    Wong, M. H., G. L. Bjoraker, M. D. Smith, F. Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2004. "Identification of the 10-μm ammonia ice feature on Jupiter." Planetary and Space Science, 52 (5-6): 385-395 [10.1016/j.pss.2003.06.005]

    Fouchet, T., G. Orton, P. G. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, and C. A. Nixon. 2004. "Upper limits on hydrogen halides in Jupiter from Cassini/CIRS observations." Icarus, 170 (1): 237-241 [10.1016/j.icarus.2004.03.013]

    Kunde, V., F. M. Flasar, D. Jennings, et al. B. Bezard, D. Strobel, B. Conrath, C. Nixon, G. Bjoraker, P. Romani, R. Achterberg, A. Simon-Miller, P. Irwin, J. Brasunas, J. Pearl, M. Smith, G. Orton, P. Gierasch, L. Spilker, R. Carlson, A. Mamoutkine, S. Calcutt, P. Read, F. Taylor, T. Fouchet, P. Parrish, A. Barucci, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, D. Gautier, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, R. Prange, Y. Biraud, C. Ferrari, T. Owen, M. Abbas, R. Samuelson, F. Raulin, P. Ade, C. Cesarsky, K. Grossman, and A. Coradini. 2004. "Jupiter's Atmospheric Composition from the Cassini Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment." Science, 305 (5690): 1582-1586. [10.1126/science.1100240]

    Fouchet, T., P. G. Irwin, P. Parrish, et al. S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, C. A. Nixon, and T. Owen. 2004. "Search for spatial variation in the jovian 15N/14N ratio from Cassini/CIRS observations." Icarus, 172 (1): 50-58 [10.1016/j.icarus.2003.11.011]

    Irwin, P., P. Parrish, T. Fouchet, et al. S. Calcutt, F. Taylor, A. Simon-Miller, C. Nixon, and F. M. Flasar. 2004. "Retrievals of Jovian tropospheric phosphine from Cassini/CIRS." Icarus, 172 (1): 37-49 [10.1016/j.icarus.2003.09.027 ]

    Nixon, C. A., J. C. Brasunas, B. Lakew, et al. R. K. Fettig, D. E. Jennings, R. C. Carlson, and V. G. Kunde. 2003. "In-flight Far-Infrared Performance of the CIRS Instrument on Cassini."

    Nixon, C., P. G. Irwin, S. B. Calcutt, F. W. Taylor, and R. W. Carlson. 2001. "Atmospheric Composition and Cloud Structure in Jovian 5-μm Hotspots from Analysis of Galileo NIMS Measurements." Icarus, 150 (1): 48-68 [10.1006/icar.2000.6561]

    Roos-Serote, M., A. R. Vasavada, L. Kamp, et al. P. Drossart, P. Irwin, C. Nixon, and R. W. Carlson. 2000. "Proximate humid and dry regions in Jupiter's atmosphere indicate complex local meteorology." Nature, 405 (6783): 158-160 [10.1038/35012023]

    Taylor, F., S. Calcutt, P. Irwin, et al. C. Nixon, P. Read, P. Smith, and T. Vellacott. 1998. "Investigation of Saturns atmosphere by Cassini." Planetary and Space Science, 46 (9-10): 1315-1324 [10.1016/s0032-0633(97)00229-8]

    Drew, J. E., G. Busfield, M. G. Hoare, et al. K. A. Murdoch, C. A. Nixon, and R. D. Oudmaijer. 1997. "MWC 297, B1.5Ve: a zero-age main-sequence star in the Aquila Rift." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 286 (3): 538-548 [10.1093/mnras/286.3.538]

    Selected Public Outreach

    ESA Huygens Probe: Descent to Titan 1 / 2005 - 1 / 2005
    Public Outreach Lecture, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Visitor Center, Greenbelt MD, 01/14/05.
    Astrobiology of Titan and early results from Cassini-Huygens. 7 / 2005 - 7 / 2005
    NASA Spacegrant Consortium Astrobiology Workshop for Educators, State College, PA, 07/28/05. 
    Unriddling the Sphinx: The Huygens Mission to Titan 7 / 2006 - 7 / 2006
    Griffith Observer Magazine, Vol. 70 No. 7, pp 4-19, July 2006.
    Titan: New Views From Cassini. 2 / 2007 - 2 / 2007
    University of Maryland Observatory Open House, College Park, MD, 02/20/07.
    The Quest for Other Earths 5 / 2008 - 5 / 2008
    Griffith Observer Magazine, Vol. 72 No. 5, pp 3-15, MAy 2008.
    Launchfest 9 / 2008 - 9 / 2008
    Organizing Commitee for NASA GSFC Public Day, 09/13/2008.
    Titan Through Time: Public Night 4 / 2010 - 4 / 2010
    Organizer of Public Night at NASA GSFC Visitor Center, 04/06/2010.
    Titan: The Enduring Enigma 9 / 2010 - 9 / 2010
    Issue #144 of Geochemical News, the on-line news magazine of the Geochemical Society.
    Chemical Complexity on Titan: A Prebiotic Environment? 10 / 2010 - 10 / 2010
    University of Maryland AstroTerps Club, College Park, MD, 10/25/10.
    Titan Through Time 2: Public Night 4 / 2012 - 4 / 2012
    Organized Public Night at NASA GSFC Visitor Center, 04/03/2012.
    A Planetary Photojournal: Perspectives on Our Planetary Neighbors 5 / 2012 - 5 / 2012
    After-dinner speaker/slide-show, at the National Capitol Section (NCS) of the Optical Society of America (OSA), 05/15/2012.
    Titan Through Time 3: Public Night 4 / 2013 - Present
    Organizer of Public Night at NASA GSFC Visitor Center, 04/08/14.

    Brief Bio

    I am space scientist working in the Planetary Systems Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. I have worked at NASA since 2000 when I joined the Cassini mission team at GSFC. Previously, I studied science in the UK at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, after growing up and attending school in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, R. K. Achterberg, et al. G. Bampasidis, C. A. Nixon, P. Lavvas, V. Cottini, and F. M. Flasar. 2018. "Seasonal Evolution of Titan's Stratosphere Near the Poles." The Astrophysical Journal 854 (2): L30 [10.3847/2041-8213/aaadbd]

    Cordiner, M. A., C. A. Nixon, S. B. Charnley, et al. N. A. Teanby, E. M. Molter, Z. Kisiel, and V. Vuitton. 2018. "Interferometric Imaging of Titan’s HC3N, H13CCCN, and HCCC15N." The Astrophysical Journal 859 (1): L15 [10.3847/2041-8213/aac38d]

    Teanby, N. A., M. A. Cordiner, C. A. Nixon, et al. P. G. Irwin, S. M. Hörst, M. Sylvestre, J. Serigano, A. E. Thelen, A. M. Richards, and S. B. Charnley. 2018. "The Origin of Titan’s External Oxygen: Further Constraints from ALMA Upper Limits on CS and CH2NH." The Astronomical Journal 155 (6): 251 [10.3847/1538-3881/aac172]

    Thelen, A. E., C. Nixon, N. Chanover, et al. E. Molter, M. Cordiner, R. Achterberg, J. Serigano, P. Irwin, N. Teanby, and S. Charnley. 2018. "Spatial variations in Titan’s atmospheric temperature: ALMA and Cassini comparisons from 2012 to 2015." Icarus 307 380-390 [10.1016/j.icarus.2017.10.042]

    Nixon, C., R. Lorenz, R. Achterberg, et al. A. Buch, P. Coll, R. Clark, R. Courtin, A. Hayes, L. Iess, R. Johnson, R. Lopes, M. Mastrogiuseppe, K. Mandt, D. Mitchell, F. Raulin, A. Rymer, H. Todd Smith, A. Solomonidou, C. Sotin, D. Strobel, E. Turtle, V. Vuitton, R. West, and R. Yelle. 2018. "Titan's cold case files - Outstanding questions after Cassini-Huygens." Planetary and Space Science 155 50-72 [10.1016/j.pss.2018.02.009]

    Mousis, O., D. Atkinson, T. Cavalié, et al. L. Fletcher, M. Amato, S. Aslam, F. Ferri, J.-B. Renard, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, P. Wurz, K. Aplin, A. Coustenis, M. Deleuil, M. Dobrijevic, T. Fouchet, T. Guillot, P. Hartogh, T. Hewagama, M. Hofstadter, V. Hue, R. Hueso, J.-P. Lebreton, E. Lellouch, J. Moses, G. Orton, J. Pearl, A. Sánchez-Lavega, A. Simon, O. Venot, J. Waite, R. Achterberg, S. Atreya, F. Billebaud, M. Blanc, F. Borget, B. Brugger, S. Charnoz, T. Chiavassa, V. Cottini, L. d’Hendecourt, G. Danger, T. Encrenaz, N. Gorius, L. Jorda, B. Marty, R. Moreno, A. Morse, C. Nixon, K. Reh, T. Ronnet, F.-X. Schmider, S. Sheridan, C. Sotin, P. Vernazza, and G. Villanueva. 2018. "Scientific rationale for Uranus and Neptune in situ explorations." Planetary and Space Science 155 12-40 [10.1016/j.pss.2017.10.005]

    Holler, B. J., S. N. Milam, J. M. Bauer, et al. C. Alcock, M. T. Bannister, G. L. Bjoraker, C. A. Nixon, and A. A. Simon. 2018. "Solar system science with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope." Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems 4 (03): 1 [10.1117/1.jatis.4.3.034003]

    Lombardo, N. A., C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, et al. A. Jolly, K. Sung, P. G. Irwin, and F. M. Flasar. 2018. "Spatial and seasonal variations in C3Hx hydrocarbon abundance in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini CIRS observations." Icarus (Accepted) 317 454-469 [10.1016/j.icarus.2018.08.027]

    Bauduin, S., P. Irwin, E. Lellouch, et al. V. Cottini, R. Moreno, C. Nixon, N. Teanby, T. Ansty, and F. Flasar. 2018. "Retrieval of H 2 O abundance in Titan’s stratosphere: A (re)analysis of CIRS/Cassini and PACS/Herschel observations." Icarus 311 288-305 [10.1016/j.icarus.2018.04.003]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, R. A. West, et al. P. J. Gierasch, S. Perez-Hoyos, A. Sanchez-Lavega, L. N. Fletcher, J. J. Fortney, B. Knowles, C. C. Porco, K. H. Baines, P. M. Fry, A. Mallama, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, U. A. Dyudina, S. P. Ewald, and R. W. Schmude. 2018. "Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter." Nature Communications 9 (1): 3709 [10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. C. A. Nixon, M. E. Segura, P. N. Romani, N. Gorius, S. Albright, J. C. Brasunas, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, S. Aslam, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, J. C. Pearl, M. D. Smith, B. E. Hesman, R. D. Barney, S. Calcutt, T. J. Vellacott, L. J. Spilker, S. G. Edgington, S. M. Brooks, P. Ade, P. J. Schinder, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin, G. Michel, R. Fettig, S. Pilorz, and C. Ferrari. 2017. "Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini." Applied Optics 56 (18): 5274 [10.1364/ao.56.005274]

    Palmer, M., M. Cordiner, C. Nixon, et al. S. Charnley, N. Teanby, Z. Kisiel, P. Irwin, and M. Mumma. 2017. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan." Science Advances 3 e1700022 [10.1126/sciadv.1700022]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. C. A. Nixon, M. E. Segura, P. N. Romani, N. Gorius, S. Albright, J. C. Brasunas, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, S. Aslam, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, J. C. Pearl, M. D. Smith, B. E. Hesman, R. D. Barney, S. Calcutt, T. J. Vellacott, L. J. Spilker, S. G. Edgington, S. M. Brooks, P. Ade, P. J. Schinder, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin, G. Michel, R. Fettig, S. Pilorz, and C. Ferrari. 2017. "Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini: publisher’s note." Applied Optics 56 (21): 5897 [10.1364/ao.56.005897]

    Pierel, J. D., C. A. Nixon, E. Lellouch, et al. L. N. Fletcher, G. L. Bjoraker, R. K. Achterberg, B. Bézard, B. E. Hesman, P. G. Irwin, and F. M. Flasar. 2017. "D/H Ratios on Saturn and Jupiter from Cassini CIRS." The Astronomical Journal 154 (5): 178 [10.3847/1538-3881/aa899d]

    Lai, J.-Y., M. Cordiner, C. Nixon, et al. R. Achterberg, E. Molter, N. Teanby, M. Palmer, S. Charnley, J. Lindberg, Z. Kisiel, M. Mumma, and P. Irwin. 2017. "Mapping Vinyl Cyanide and Other Nitriles in Titan's Atmosphere Using ALMA." The Astronomical Journal 154 206 [10.3847/1538-3881/aa8eef]

    Teanby, N. A., B. Bézard, S. Vinatier, et al. M. Sylvestre, C. A. Nixon, P. G. Irwin, R. J. de Kok, S. B. Calcutt, and F. M. Flasar. 2017. "The formation and evolution of Titan’s winter polar vortex." Nature Communications 8 (1): 1586 [10.1038/s41467-017-01839-z]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, M. Ádámkovics, et al. B. Bézard, G. L. Bjoraker, T. Cornet, A. G. Hayes, E. Lellouch, M. T. Lemmon, M. López-Puertas, S. Rodriguez, C. Sotin, N. A. Teanby, E. P. Turtle, and R. A. West. 2016. "Titan Science with theJames Webb Space Telescope." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 128 (959): 018007 [10.1088/1538-3873/128/959/018007]

    Jennings, D. E., V. Cottini, C. A. Nixon, et al. R. K. Achterberg, F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, P. N. Romani, R. E. Samuelson, A. Mamoutkine, N. J. Gorius, A. Coustenis, and T. Tokano. 2016. "SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING." The Astrophysical Journal 816 (1): L17 [10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/l17]

    Nixon, C. A., F. Kirchman, J. Esper, D. Folta, and A. Mashiku. 2016. "Aerocapture design study for a Titan polar orbiter." 2016 IEEE Aerospace Conference [10.1109/aero.2016.7500825]

    Mustafi, S., C. DeLee, J. Francis, et al. X. Li, D. McGuinness, C. Nixon, L. Purves, W. Willis, S. Riall, M. Devine, and A. Hedayat. 2016. "Cryogenic propulsion for the Titan Orbiter Polar Surveyor (TOPS) mission." Cryogenics 74 81-87 [10.1016/j.cryogenics.2015.11.009]

    Serigano, J., C. A. Nixon, M. A. Cordiner, et al. P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, S. B. Charnley, and J. E. Lindberg. 2016. "Isotopic ratios of carbon and oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 821 (1): L8 [10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/l8]

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, R. K. Achterberg, et al. G. Bampasidis, P. Lavvas, C. A. Nixon, N. A. Teanby, C. M. Anderson, V. Cottini, and F. M. Flasar. 2016. "Titan’s temporal evolution in stratospheric trace gases near the poles." Icarus 270 409-420 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.027]

    Molter, E. M., C. A. Nixon, M. A. Cordiner, et al. J. Serigano, P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, S. B. Charnley, and J. E. Lindberg. 2016. "ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF HCN AND ITS ISOTOPOLOGUES ON TITAN." The Astronomical Journal 152 (2): 42 [10.3847/0004-6256/152/2/42]

    Mousis, O., S. Aslam, C. A. Nixon, et al. D. Atkinson, T. Spilker, E. Venkatapathy, and J. Poncy. 2016. "The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission." Planetary and Space Science 130 80-103 [10.1016/j.pss.2015.06.020]

    Aslam, S., M. Amato, N. Bowles, et al. S. Calcutt, T. Hewagama, J. Howard, C. Howett, W.-T. Hsieh, T. Hurford, J. Hurley, P. Irwin, D. E. Jennings, E. Kessler, B. Lakew, M. Loeffler, M. Mellon, A. Nicoletti, C. A. Nixon, N. Putzig, G. Quilligan, J. Rathbun, M. Segura, J. Spencer, J. Spitale, and G. West. 2016. "Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions." Acta Astronautica 128 628-639 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.08.009]

    Cordiner, M. A., M. Y. Palmer, C. A. Nixon, P. G. Irwin, and N. A. Teanby. 2015. "Ethyl Cyanide On Titan: Spectroscopic Detection and Mapping Using ALMA." ApJ 800 L14

    Jolly, A., V. Cottini, A. Fayt, et al. L. Manceron, F. Kwabia-Tchana, Y. Benilan, J.-C. Guillemin, C. Nixon, and P. Irwin. 2015. "Gas phase dicyanoacetylene (C4N2) on Titan: New experimental and theoretical spectroscopy results applied to Cassini CIRS data." Icarus 248 340-346 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.049]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, H. J. Trammell, et al. Y. Pan, J. Hernandez, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, F. M. Flasar, S. Perez-Hoyos, R. A. West, K. H. Baines, and B. Knowles. 2015. "Saturn's giant storm and global radiant energy." Geophysical Research Letters 42 (7): 2144-2148 [10.1002/2015gl063763]

    Chan, C., S. Albright, N. Gorius, et al. J. Brasunas, D. Jennings, F. M. Flasar, R. Carlson, E. Guandique, and C. Nixon. 2015. "Electrical interferences observed in the Cassini CIRS spectrometer." Experimental Astronomy 39 (2): 367-386 [10.1007/s10686-015-9452-3]

    Jennings, D. E., R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, et al. C. M. Anderson, F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, G. L. Bjoraker, V. G. Kunde, R. C. Carlson, E. Guandique, M. S. Kaelberer, J. S. Tingley, S. A. Albright, M. E. Segura, R. D. Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, G. Bampasidis, N. A. Teanby, and S. Calcutt. 2015. "EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-INFRARED CLOUD AT TITAN’S SOUTH POLE." The Astrophysical Journal 804 (2): L34 [10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/l34]

    Aslam, S., M. J. Amato, D. Atkinson, et al. A. Colaprete, T. Hewaganma, D. E. Jennings, J. Lunine, C. A. Nixon, A. A. Simon, O. Mousis, and E. J. Wollack. 2015. "Net Flux Radiometer for a Saturn Probe." European Planetary Science Congress (Submitted) 10 388-389

    Zhang, X., R. A. West, P. G. Irwin, C. A. Nixon, and Y. L. Yung. 2015. "Aerosol influence on energy balance of the middle atmosphere of Jupiter." Nature Communications 6 (1): 10231 [10.1038/ncomms10231]

    Cordiner, M. A., C. A. Nixon, N. Teanby, et al. P. G. Irwin, J. Serigano, and L. Paganini. 2014. "ALMA Measurements of the HNC and HC3N Distributions in Titans Atmosphere." ApJ 795 L30

    Zahnle, K. J., D. G. Korycansky, and C. A. Nixon. 2014. "Transient climate effects of large impacts on Titan." Icarus 229 378-391 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.11.006]

    Lellouch, E., B. Bézard, F. Flasar, et al. S. Vinatier, R. Achterberg, C. Nixon, G. Bjoraker, and N. Gorius. 2014. "The distribution of methane in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS observations." Icarus 231 323-337 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.12.016]

    Tobie, G., N. Teanby, A. Coustenis, et al. R. Jaumann, F. Raulin, J. Schmidt, N. Carrasco, A. Coates, D. Cordier, R. De Kok, W. Geppert, J.-P. Lebreton, A. Lefevre, T. Livengood, K. Mandt, G. Mitri, F. Nimmo, C. Nixon, L. Norman, R. Pappalardo, F. Postberg, S. Rodriguez, D. Schulze-Makuch, J. Soderblom, A. Solomonidou, K. Stephan, E. Stofan, E. Turtle, R. Wagner, R. West, and J. Westlake. 2014. "Science goals and mission concept for the future exploration of Titan and Enceladus." Planetary and Space Science 104 59-77 [10.1016/j.pss.2014.10.002]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, C. M. Anderson, and S. Vinatier. 2013. "Nitrogen in the Stratosphere of Titan from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectroscopy." The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets 123-143 [10.1007/978-1-4614-5191-4_10]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, C. Nixon, et al. R. Courtin, B. Swinyard, R. Moreno, E. Lellouch, M. Rengel, and P. Hartogh. 2013. "Constraints on Titan's middle atmosphere ammonia abundance from Herschel/SPIRE sub-millimetre spectra." Planetary and Space Science 75 136-147 [10.1016/j.pss.2012.11.008]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, P. G. Irwin, and S. M. Hörst. 2013. "Upper limits for PH3 and H2S in Titan’s atmosphere from Cassini CIRS." Icarus 224 (1): 253-256 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.02.024]

    Li, L., R. K. Achterberg, B. J. Conrath, et al. P. J. Gierasch, M. A. Smith, A. A. Simon-Miller, C. A. Nixon, G. S. Orton, F. M. Flasar, X. Jiang, K. H. Baines, R. Morales-Juberias, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. Del Genio, R. A. West, and S. P. Ewald. 2013. "Strong Temporal Variation Over One Saturnian Year: From Voyager to Cassini." Scientific Reports 3 (2410): [10.1038/srep02410]

    Nixon, C. A., D. E. Jennings, B. Bézard, et al. S. Vinatier, N. A. Teanby, K. Sung, T. M. Ansty, P. G. Irwin, N. Gorius, V. Cottini, A. Coustenis, and F. M. Flasar. 2013. "DETECTION OF PROPENE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE." The Astrophysical Journal 776 (1): L14 [10.1088/2041-8205/776/1/l14]

    Zhang, X., C. Nixon, R. Shia, et al. R. West, P. Irwin, R. Yelle, M. Allen, and Y. Yung. 2013. "Radiative forcing of the stratosphere of Jupiter, Part I: Atmospheric cooling rates from Voyager to Cassini." Planetary and Space Science 88 3-25 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.07.005]

    Coustenis, A., G. Bampasidis, R. K. Achterberg, et al. P. Lavvas, D. E. Jennings, C. A. Nixon, N. A. Teanby, S. Vinatier, F. M. Flasar, R. C. Carlson, G. Orton, P. N. Romani, E. A. Guandique, and S. Stamogiorgos. 2013. "EVOLUTION OF THE STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OVER ONE TITANIAN YEAR." The Astrophysical Journal 779 (2): 177 [10.1088/0004-637x/779/2/177]

    Li, L., K. H. Baines, M. A. Smith, et al. R. A. West, S. Perez-Hoyos, H. J. Trammel, A. A. Simon-Miller, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, G. S. Orton, C. A. Nixon, G. Filacchione, P. M. Fry, and T. W. Momary. 2012. "Emitted Power of Jupiter Based on Cassini CIRS and VIMS Observations. ." J Geophys Res - Planets 117 E11002 [ doi:10.1029/2012JE004191]

    Nixon, C. A., and R. D. Lorenz. 2012. "Titan through time: Formation, evolution and fate." Planetary and Space Science 60 (1): 1-2 [10.1016/j.pss.2011.12.012]

    Cottini, V., C. Nixon, D. Jennings, et al. R. de Kok, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, and F. Flasar. 2012. "Spatial and temporal variations in Titan's surface temperatures from Cassini CIRS observations." Planetary and Space Science 60 (1): 62-71 [10.1016/j.pss.2011.03.015]

    Nixon, C. A., T. M. Ansty, F. M. Flasar, and R. K. Achterberg. 2012. "Designing infrared observations of Titan's atmosphere with Cassini CIRS." 2012 IEEE Aerospace Conference [10.1109/aero.2012.6187400]

    Aslam, S., T. Hewagama, D. E. Jennings, and C. A. Nixon. 2012. "A Near Infrared and Thermal Imager for Mapping Tttan's Surface Features." Titan Through Time II Workshop 35

    Mandt, K. E., J. H. Waite, B. Teolis, et al. B. A. Magee, J. Bell, J. H. Westlake, C. A. Nixon, O. Mousis, and J. I. Lunine. 2012. "THE12C/13C RATIO ON TITAN FROM CASSINI INMS MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF METHANE." The Astrophysical Journal 749 (2): 160 [10.1088/0004-637x/749/2/160]

    Nixon, C. A., B. Temelso, S. Vinatier, et al. N. A. Teanby, B. Bézard, R. K. Achterberg, K. E. Mandt, C. D. Sherrill, P. G. Irwin, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, A. Coustenis, and F. M. Flasar. 2012. "ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING." The Astrophysical Journal 749 (2): 159 [10.1088/0004-637x/749/2/159]

    Jennings, D. E., C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, et al. F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, V. G. Kunde, R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, R. de Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, and S. B. Calcutt. 2012. "SEASONAL DISAPPEARANCE OF FAR-INFRARED HAZE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE." The Astrophysical Journal 754 (1): L3 [10.1088/2041-8205/754/1/l3]

    Cottini, V., C. Nixon, D. Jennings, et al. C. Anderson, N. Gorius, G. Bjoraker, A. Coustenis, N. Teanby, R. Achterberg, B. Bézard, R. de Kok, E. Lellouch, P. Irwin, F. Flasar, and G. Bampasidis. 2012. "Water vapor in Titan’s stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra." Icarus 220 (2): 855-862 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.06.014]

    Hesman, B. E., G. L. Bjoraker, P. V. Sada, et al. R. K. Achterberg, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, A. W. Lunsford, L. N. Fletcher, R. J. Boyle, A. A. Simon-Miller, P. G. Irwin, and C. A. Nixon. 2012. "Elusive Ethylene Detected in Saturn's Northern Storm Region." Astrophysical Journal 760:24 [10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/24]

    Bampasidis, G., A. Coustenis, R. K. Achterberg, et al. S. Vinatier, P. Lavvas, C. A. Nixon, D. E. Jennings, N. A. Teanby, F. M. Flasar, R. C. Carlson, X. Moussas, P. Preka-Papadema, P. N. Romani, E. A. Guandique, and S. Stamogiorgos. 2012. "THERMAL AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE VARIATIONS IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE DURING THECASSINIMISSION." The Astrophysical Journal 760 (2): 144 [10.1088/0004-637x/760/2/144]

    Jennings, D. E., C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, et al. F. M. Flasar, C. A. Nixon, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, R. K. Achterberg, V. Cottini, B. E. Hesman, V. G. Kunde, R. C. Carlson, R. de Kok, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, G. Bampasidis, N. A. Teanby, and S. B. Calcutt. 2012. "FIRST OBSERVATION IN THE SOUTH OF TITAN'S FAR-INFRARED 220 cm –1 CLOUD." The Astrophysical Journal 761 (1): L15 [10.1088/2041-8205/761/1/l15]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, C. A. Nixon, et al. R. de Kok, S. Vinatier, A. Coustenis, E. Sefton-Nash, S. B. Calcutt, and F. M. Flasar. 2012. "Active upper-atmosphere chemistry and dynamics from polar circulation reversal on Titan." Nature 491 (7426): 732-735 [10.1038/nature11611]

    Achterberg, R. K., P. J. Gierasch, B. J. Conrath, F. Michael Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2011. "Temporal variations of Titan’s middle-atmospheric temperatures from 2004 to 2009 observed by Cassini/CIRS." Icarus 211 (1): 686-698 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.08.009]

    Jennings, D. E., V. Cottini, C. A. Nixon, et al. F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, R. E. Samuelson, P. N. Romani, B. E. Hesman, R. C. Carlson, N. J. Gorius, A. Coustenis, and T. Tokano. 2011. "SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES." The Astrophysical Journal 737 (1): L15 [10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/l15]

    Li, L., X. Jiang, A. P. Ingersoll, et al. A. D. Del Genio, C. C. Porco, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, S. P. Ewald, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, A. A. Simon, C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, G. S. Orton, L. N. Fletcher, and K. H. Baines. 2011. "Equatorial winds on Saturn and the Stratospheric Oscillation." Nature Geoscience 4 750-752 [10.1038/ngeo1292]

    Li, L., C. A. Nixon, R. K. Achterberg, et al. M. A. Smith, N. J. Gorius, X. Jiang, B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, A. A. Simon-Miller, F. M. Flasar, K. H. Baines, A. P. Ingersoll, R. A. West, A. R. Vasavada, and S. P. Ewald. 2011. "The Global Energy Balance of Titan ." Geophys Res Letter 38 L23201 [10.1029/2011GL050053]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2010. "Mapping Titan's HCN in the far infra-red: implications for photochemistry." Faraday Discussions 147 51 [10.1039/c001690j]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, N. A. Teanby, et al. P. G. Irwin, J.-M. Flaud, I. Kleiner, A. Dehayem-Kamadjeu, L. R. Brown, R. L. Sams, B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, T. M. Ansty, A. Mamoutkine, S. Vinatier, G. L. Bjoraker, D. E. Jennings, P. N. Romani, and F. M. Flasar. 2010. "Upper limits for undetected trace species in the stratosphere of Titan." Faraday Discussions 147 65 [10.1039/c003771k]

    Jolly, A., A. Fayt, Y. Benilan, et al. D. Jacquemart, C. A. Nixon, and D. E. Jennings. 2010. "The ν8 Bending Mode of Diacetylene: From Laboratory Spectroscopy to the Detection of 13C Isotopologues in Titan's Atmosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 714 (1): 852-859 [10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/852]

    Li, L., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, et al. R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, A. A. Simon-Miller, F. M. Flasar, D. Banfield, K. H. Baines, R. A. West, A. A. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, A. D. Del Genio, C. C. Porco, A. A. Mamoutkine, M. E. Segura, G. L. Bjoraker, H. S. Orton, L. N. Fletcher, P. G. Irwin, and P. L. Read. 2010. "Saturn's emitted power." J Geophys Res 115 (E11): E11002 [10.1029/2010JE003631]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bézard, C. A. Nixon, et al. A. Mamoutkine, R. C. Carlson, D. E. Jennings, E. A. Guandique, N. A. Teanby, G. L. Bjoraker, F. Michael Flasar, and V. G. Kunde. 2010. "Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission." Icarus 205 (2): 559-570 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.08.013]

    Nixon, C. A., R. K. Achterberg, and F. M. Flasar. 2010. "Infrared limb sounding with Cassini CIRS: Optimal viewing strategy using horizon nodes." 2010 IEEE Aerospace Conference [10.1109/aero.2010.5446856]

    Flaud, J.-M., F. Kwabia Tchana, W. Lafferty, and C. Nixon. 2010. "High resolution analysis of the ν26 and 2ν9–ν9 bands of propane: modelling of Titan's infrared spectrum at 13.4 μm." Molecular Physics 108 (6): 699-704 [10.1080/00268970903501709]

    Coustenis, A., D. Jennings, C. Nixon, et al. R. Achterberg, P. Lavvas, S. Vinatier, N. Teanby, G. Bjoraker, R. Carlson, L. Piani, G. Bampasidis, F. Flasar, and P. Romani. 2010. "Titan trace gaseous composition from CIRS at the end of the Cassini–Huygens prime mission." Icarus 207 (1): 461-476 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.11.027]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, S. B. Calcutt, et al. S. Aslam, D. E. Jennings, V. G. Kunde, F. M. Flasar, P. G. Irwin, F. W. Taylor, D. A. Glenar, and M. D. Smith. 2010. "Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses: errata." Applied Optics 49 (29): 5575 [10.1364/ao.49.005575]

    Nixon, C., R. Achterberg, P. Romani, et al. M. Allen, X. Zhang, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, and F. Flasar. 2010. "Abundances of Jupiter's trace hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini." Planetary and Space Science 58 (13): 1667-1680 [10.1016/j.pss.2010.05.008]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2010. "SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S POLAR TRACE GAS ABUNDANCE OBSERVED BYCASSINI." The Astrophysical Journal 724 (1): L84-L89 [10.1088/2041-8205/724/1/l84]

    Vinatier, S., B. Bézard, R. de Kok, et al. C. M. Anderson, R. E. Samuelson, C. A. Nixon, A. Mamoutkine, R. C. Carlson, D. E. Jennings, and E. A. Guandique. 2010. "Analysis of Cassini/CIRS limb spectra of Titan acquired during the nominal mission II: Aerosol extinction profiles in the 600–1420cm−1 spectral range." Icarus 210 (2): 852-866 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.06.024]

    Jennings, D. E., F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde, et al. R. E. Samuelson, J. C. Pearl, C. A. Nixon, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamoutkine, J. C. Brasunas, E. Guandique, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, M. E. Segura, S. A. Albright, M. H. Elliott, J. S. Tingley, S. Calcutt, A. Coustenis, and R. Courtin. 2009. "TITAN'S SURFACE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES." The Astrophysical Journal 691 (2): L103-L105 [10.1088/0004-637x/691/2/l103]

    Teanby, N. A., P. G. Irwin, R. de Kok, and C. A. Nixon. 2009. "Dynamical implications of seasonal and spatial variations in Titan's stratospheric composition." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 367 (1889): 697-711 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0164]

    Coustenis, A., S. K. Atreya, T. Balint, et al. R. H. Brown, M. K. Dougherty, F. Ferri, M. Fulchignoni, D. Gautier, R. A. Gowen, C. A. Griffith, L. I. Gurvits, R. Jaumann, Y. Langevin, M. R. Leese, J. I. Lunine, C. P. McKay, X. Moussas, I. Müller-Wodarg, F. Neubauer, T. C. Owen, F. Raulin, E. C. Sittler, F. Sohl, C. Sotin, G. Tobie, T. Tokano, E. P. Turtle, J. Wahlund, J. H. Waite, K. H. Baines, J. Blamont, A. J. Coates, I. Dandouras, T. Krimigis, E. Lellouch, R. D. Lorenz, A. Morse, C. C. Porco, M. Hirtzig, J. Saur, T. Spilker, J. C. Zarnecki, E. Choi, N. Achilleos, R. Amils, P. Annan, D. H. Atkinson, Y. Bénilan, C. Bertucci, B. Bézard, G. L. Bjoraker, M. Blanc, L. Boireau, J. Bouman, M. Cabane, M. T. Capria, E. Chassefière, P. Coll, M. Combes, J. F. Cooper, A. Coradini, F. Crary, T. Cravens, I. A. Daglis, E. de Angelis, C. de Bergh, I. de Pater, C. Dunford, G. Durry, O. Dutuit, D. Fairbrother, F. M. Flasar, A. D. Fortes, R. Frampton, M. Fujimoto, M. Galand, O. Grasset, M. Grott, T. Haltigin, A. Herique, F. Hersant, H. Hussmann, W. Ip, R. Johnson, E. Kallio, S. Kempf, M. Knapmeyer, W. Kofman, R. Koop, T. Kostiuk, N. Krupp, M. Küppers, H. Lammer, L. Lara, P. Lavvas, S. Le Mouélic, S. Lebonnois, S. Ledvina, J. Li, T. A. Livengood, R. M. Lopes, J. Lopez-Moreno, D. Luz, P. R. Mahaffy, U. Mall, J. Martinez-Frias, B. Marty, T. McCord, C. Menor Salvan, A. Milillo, D. G. Mitchell, R. Modolo, O. Mousis, M. Nakamura, C. D. Neish, C. A. Nixon, D. Nna Mvondo, G. Orton, M. Paetzold, J. Pitman, S. Pogrebenko, W. Pollard, O. Prieto-Ballesteros, P. Rannou, K. Reh, L. Richter, F. T. Robb, R. Rodrigo, S. Rodriguez, P. Romani, M. Ruiz Bermejo, E. T. Sarris, P. Schenk, B. Schmitt, N. Schmitz, D. Schulze-Makuch, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Selig, B. Sicardy, L. Soderblom, L. J. Spilker, D. Stam, A. Steele, K. Stephan, D. F. Strobel, K. Szego, C. Szopa, R. Thissen, M. G. Tomasko, D. Toublanc, H. Vali, I. Vardavas, V. Vuitton, R. A. West, R. Yelle, and E. F. Young. 2009. "TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission." Experimental Astronomy 23 893 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z]

    Nixon, C. A., N. A. Teanby, S. B. Calcutt, et al. S. Aslam, D. E. Jennings, V. G. Kunde, F. M. Flasar, P. G. Irwin, F. W. Taylor, D. A. Glenar, and M. D. Smith. 2009. "Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses." Applied Optics 48 (10): 1912 [10.1364/ao.48.001912]

    Hesman, B. E., D. E. Jennings, P. V. Sada, et al. G. L. Bjoraker, R. K. Achterberg, A. A. Simon-Miller, C. M. Anderson, R. J. Boyle, C. A. Nixon, L. N. Fletcher, and G. H. McCabe. 2009. "Saturn's latitudinal C2H2 and C2H6 abundance profiles from Cassini/CIRS and ground-based observations." Icarus 202 (1): 249-259 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.02.013]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. de Kok, et al. A. Jolly, B. Bézard, C. Nixon, and S. Calcutt. 2009. "Titan's stratospheric C2N2, C3H4, and C4H2 abundances from Cassini/CIRS far-infrared spectra." Icarus 202 (2): 620-631 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.022]

    Roman, M. T., R. A. West, D. J. Banfield, et al. P. J. Gierasch, R. K. Achterberg, C. A. Nixon, and P. C. Thomas. 2009. "Determining a tilt in Titan’s north–south albedo asymmetry from Cassini images." Icarus 203 (1): 242-249 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.021]

    Jennings, D. E., P. N. Romani, G. L. Bjoraker, et al. P. V. Sada, C. A. Nixon, A. W. Lunsford, R. J. Boyle, B. E. Hesman, and G. H. McCabe. 2009. "12C/13C Ratio in Ethane on Titan and Implications for Methane’s Replenishment†." The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113 (42): 11101-11106 [10.1021/jp903637d]

    Nixon, C., D. Jennings, J.-M. Flaud, et al. B. Bézard, N. Teanby, P. Irwin, T. Ansty, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, and F. Flasar. 2009. "Titan's prolific propane: The Cassini CIRS perspective." Planetary and Space Science 57 (13): 1573-1585 [10.1016/j.pss.2009.06.021]

    Teanby, N., P. Irwin, R. de Kok, et al. C. Nixon, A. Coustenis, E. Royer, S. Calcutt, N. Bowles, L. Fletcher, C. Howett, and F. Taylor. 2008. "Global and temporal variations in hydrocarbons and nitriles in Titan's stratosphere for northern winter observed by Cassini/CIRS." Icarus 193 (2): 595-611 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.08.017]

    Achterberg, R. K., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, F. M. Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2008. "Titan's middle-atmospheric temperatures and dynamics observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer." Icarus 194 (1): 263-277 [10.1016/j.icarus.2007.09.029]

    Irwin, P., N. Teanby, R. de Kok, et al. L. Fletcher, C. Howett, C. Tsang, C. Wilson, S. Calcutt, C. Nixon, and P. Parrish. 2008. "The NEMESIS planetary atmosphere radiative transfer and retrieval tool." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 109 (6): 1136-1150 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.11.006]

    Nixon, C., R. Achterberg, S. Vinatier, et al. B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, P. Irwin, N. Teanby, R. de Kok, P. Romani, D. Jennings, G. Bjoraker, and F. Flasar. 2008. "The 12C/13C isotopic ratio in Titan hydrocarbons from Cassini/CIRS infrared spectra." Icarus 195 (2): 778-791 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.012]

    Nixon, C. A., D. E. Jennings, B. Bézard, et al. N. A. Teanby, R. K. Achterberg, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, P. G. Irwin, P. N. Romani, T. Hewagama, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Isotopic Ratios in Titan's Atmosphere fromCassiniCIRS Limb Sounding: CO2at Low and Midlatitudes." The Astrophysical Journal 681 (2): L101-L103 [10.1086/590553]

    Jennings, D. E., C. A. Nixon, A. Jolly, et al. B. Bézard, A. Coustenis, S. Vinatier, P. G. Irwin, N. A. Teanby, P. N. Romani, R. K. Achterberg, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Isotopic Ratios in Titan's Atmosphere fromCassiniCIRS Limb Sounding: HC3N in the North." The Astrophysical Journal 681 (2): L109-L111 [10.1086/590534]

    Coustenis, A., D. E. Jennings, A. Jolly, et al. Y. Bénilan, C. A. Nixon, S. Vinatier, D. Gautier, G. L. Bjoraker, P. N. Romani, R. C. Carlson, and F. M. Flasar. 2008. "Detection of C2HD and the D/H ratio on Titan." Icarus 197 (2): 539-548 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.06.003]

    Achterberg, R. K., B. J. Conrath, P. J. Gierasch, F. M. Flasar, and C. A. Nixon. 2008. "Observation of a tilt of Titan's middle-atmospheric superrotation." Icarus 197 (2): 549-555 [10.1016/j.icarus.2008.05.014]

    Teanby, N. A., R. de Kok, P. G. Irwin, et al. S. Osprey, S. Vinatier, P. J. Gierasch, P. L. Read, F. M. Flasar, B. J. Conrath, R. K. Achterberg, B. Bézard, C. A. Nixon, and S. B. Calcutt. 2008. "Titan's winter polar vortex structure revealed by chemical tracers." Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (E12): E12003 [10.1029/2008je003218]

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