Andrea M Molod

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Andrea M Molod

  • Rsch AST, Climate and Radiation Std
  • 301.614.6845
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 610.1
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Education

    PhD Johns Hopkins University, 2003. Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences.Dissertation: Interactions Between the Heterogeneous Land Surface and the Atmosphere in Global Models

    M. Sc. University of Maryland, 1982. Department of Meteorology. Thesis: Collision Efficiencies of Charged Ice Crystals of Different Densities with Charged Droplets

    B. A. Clark University, 1979. Physics and Science, Technology and Society.

    Positions/Employment

    10/2016 - Present

    Research Physical Scientist

    NASA, Greenbelt, MD

    NASA/Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Lead of Seasonal/Decadal prediction group, managing the development of the next generation atmosphere-ocean coupled seasonal prediction system. Development of GEOS-5 General Circulation Model physical parameterizations. GMAO lead of the Coupled Chemistry Model Development effort, with members of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch.

    9/2007 - 10/2016

    Associate Research Scientist

    University of Maryland, Greenbelt, MD

    Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, and previously, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, Goddard Earth Sciences and Tech. Center. Work with NASA/Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Development of GEOS-5 General Circulation Model physical parameterizations. Collaboration with scientists from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch related to boundary layer transport of chemical species.

    8/2003 - 6/2007

    Post-doctoral associate

    Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

    Dept of Earth Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachussetts Institute of Technology. Development of MITgcm atmospheric model, physical parameterizations and new gridding technique.

    2/1985 - 6/2003

    Senior Support Scientist

    Science Applications International Corporation, Laurel, MD

    Formerly, Senior Scientific Programmer/Analyst. Contract with the NASA/Goddard Data Assimilation Office. GCM development, parameterizations of cumulus convection, turbulence, radiative-cloud interactions, and land-surface processes.

    Professional Service

    2021-present: Member of WWRP/WCRP S2S Prediction Project Steering Group

    2020-present: US liaison between the S2S Subgroup of the Weather Research Science Working Group (WRSWG-S2S) and the S2S Prediction Project for the S2S Project Aerosol Subproject

    2014-present: Co-chair, GEOS-Chem Transport working group

    2013-present: Member of the GEOS-Chem Scientific Steering Committee.

    2003-present: Panelist and Reviewer, various NSF, NASA and NOAA proposal review panels, Reviewer, various Journals

    Summer, 1996, 2009 - Mentor, NASA Summer Inst. in Earth Sciences

    2005-2007, 2012: M.S. thesis committee, students in Dept. of Geography, Hunter College of the City University of New York

    July 1993,1995,1999: Mentor, NASA Summer Institute in Sci., Tech., Eng. and Research (SISTER)

    Publications

    Refereed

    Lim, Y.-K., N. Arnold, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2021. "Seasonality in prediction skill of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and associated dynamics in Version 2 of NASA's GEOS-S2S forecast system." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 126 (18): e2021JD034961 [ 10.1029/2021JD034961]

    Koster, R. D., A. M. DeAngelis, S. D. Schubert, and A. M. Molod. 2021. "Asymmetry in Subseasonal Surface Air Temperature Forecast Error with Respect to Soil Moisture Initialization." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 22 (10): 2505-2519 [10.1175/jhm-d-21-0022.1]

    Suselj, K., J. Teixeira, M. J. Kurowski, and A. Molod. 2021. "Improving the Representation of Subtropical Boundary Layer Clouds in the NASA GEOS Model with the Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux Parameterization." Monthly Weather Review, 149 (3): 793-809 [10.1175/mwr-d-20-0183.1]

    Kim, H., M.-I. Lee, S. Kim, et al. Y.-K. Lim, S. D. Schubert, and A. M. Molod. 2021. "Representation of tropical storms by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 57: 35-49 [10.1007/s13143-019-00169-y]

    Gibson, P. B., D. E. Waliser, A. Goodman, et al. M. J. DeFlorio, L. Delle Monache, and A. Molod. 2020. "Subseasonal‐to‐Seasonal Hindcast Skill Assessment of Ridging Events Related to Drought Over the Western United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125 (22): [10.1029/2020jd033655]

    Freire, J. L., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, et al. C. A. Coelho, A. M. Molod, J. Marshak, A. Silva, and B. Z. Ribeiro. 2020. "To What Extent Biomass Burning Aerosols Impact South America Seasonal Climate Predictions?" Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (16): [10.1029/2020gl088096]

    Koster, R. D., S. D. Schubert, A. M. DeAngelis, A. M. Molod, and S. P. Mahanama. 2020. "Using a Simple Water Balance Framework to Quantify the Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Subseasonal Evapotranspiration and Air Temperature Forecasts." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 21 (8): 1705-1722 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0007.1]

    Strobach, E., A. Molod, A. Trayanov, et al. G. Forget, J. Campin, C. Hill, and D. Menemenlis. 2020. "Three‐to‐Six‐Day Air–Sea Oscillation in Models and Observations." Geophysical Research Letters, 47 (10): [10.1029/2019gl085837]

    Mariotti, A., C. Baggett, E. A. Barnes, et al. E. Becker, A. Butler, D. C. Collins, P. A. Dirmeyer, L. Ferranti, N. C. Johnson, J. Jones, B. P. Kirtman, A. L. Lang, A. Molod, M. Newman, A. W. Robertson, S. Schubert, D. E. Waliser, and J. Albers. 2020. "Windows of Opportunity for Skillful Forecasts Subseasonal to Seasonal and Beyond." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101 (5): E608-E625 [10.1175/bams-d-18-0326.1]

    Hackert, E., R. M. Kovach, A. Molod, et al. G. Vernieres, A. Borovikov, J. Marshak, and Y. Chang. 2020. "Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Observations Impact on El Niño/Southern Oscillation Predictions: Case Studies From the NASA GEOS Seasonal Forecast System." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125 (4): [10.1029/2019jc015788]

    Molod, A. M., E. C. Hackert, Y. V. Vikhliaev, et al. B. Zhao, D. Barahona, G. Vernieres, A. Y. Borovikov, R. M. Kovach, J. Marshak, S. D. Schubert, Z. Li, Y.-K. Lim, L. C. Andrews, R. I. Cullather, R. D. Koster, D. Achuthavarier, J. Carton, L. Coy, J. Friere, K. Longo De Freitas, K. Nakada, and S. Pawson. 2020. "GEOS-S2S Version 2: The GMAO high resolution coupled model and assimilation system for seasonal prediction." Journal of Geophysical Research, 125 (5): [10.1029/2019JD031767]

    Wright, J. S., X. Sun, P. Konopka, et al. K. Krüger, A. M. Molod, S. Tegtmeier, G. J. Zhang, and X. Zhao. 2020. "Differences in tropical high clouds among reanalyses: origins and radiative impacts." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, [10.5194/acp-2019-1187]

    Schubert, S. D., Y. Chang, H. Wang, R. D. Koster, and A. M. Molod. 2019. "A Systematic Approach to Assessing the Sources and Global Impacts of Errors in Climate Models." Journal of Climate, 32 (23): 8301-8321 [10.1175/jcli-d-19-0189.1]

    Stanfield, R. E., H. Su, J. H. Jiang, et al. S. R. Freitas, A. M. Molod, Z. J. Luo, L. Huang, and M. Luo. 2019. "Convective entrainment rates estimated from Aura CO and CloudSat/CALIPSO observations and comparison with GEOS‐5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 2019JD030846 [10.1029/2019jd030846]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and A. B. Marquardt Collow. 2019. "Annual Cycle of Planetary Boundary Layer Heights Estimated From Wind Profiler Network Data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124 (12): 6207-6221 [10.1029/2018jd030102]

    Chang, Y., S. D. Schubert, R. D. Koster, A. M. Molod, and H. Wang. 2019. "Tendency Bias Correction in Coupled and Uncoupled Global Climate Models with a Focus on Impacts over North America." Journal of Climate, 32 (2): 639-661 [10.1175/jcli-d-18-0598.1]

    Strobach, E., A. Molod, G. Forget, et al. J.-M. Campin, C. Hill, D. Menemenlis, and P. Heimbach. 2018. "Consequences of different air-sea feedbacks on ocean using MITgcm and MERRA-2 forcing: Implications for coupled data assimilation systems." Ocean Modelling, 132: 91-111 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.10.006]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, R. M. Kovach, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2018. "The roles of climate change and climate variability in the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season." Scientific Reports, 8: [10.1038/s41598-018-34343-5]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, Y. Chang, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2018. "The impact of SST-forced and unforced teleconnections on 2015/16 El Nino winter precipitation over the western United States." Journal of Climate, 31 (15): 5825-5844 [10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0218.1]

    Eastham, S. D., M. S. Long, C. A. Keller, et al. E. Lundgren, R. M. Yantosca, J. Zhuang, C. Li, C. J. Lee, M. Yannetti, B. M. Auer, T. L. Clune, J. Kouatchou, W. M. Putman, M. A. Thompson, A. L. Trayanov, A. M. Molod, R. V. Martin, and D. J. Jacob. 2018. "GEOS-Chem High Performance (GCHP v11-02c): a next-generation implementation of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for massively parallel applications." Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (7): 2941-2953 [10.5194/gmd-11-2941-2018]

    Freitas, S. R., G. A. Grell, A. Molod, et al. M. A. Thompson, W. M. Putman, C. M. Santos e Silva, and E. P. Souza. 2018. "Assessing the Grell-Freitas Convection Parameterization in the NASA GEOS Modeling System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, [10.1029/2017ms001251]

    Yu, K., C. A. Keller, D. J. Jacob, et al. A. M. Molod, S. D. Eastham, and M. S. Long. 2018. "Errors and improvements in the use of archived meteorological data for chemical transport modeling: an analysis using GEOS-Chem v11-01 driven by GEOS-5 meteorology." Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (1): 305-319 [10.5194/gmd-11-305-2018]

    Nielsen, J. E., S. Pawson, A. Molod, et al. B. Auer, A. M. da Silva, A. R. Douglass, B. Duncan, Q. Liang, M. Manyin, L. D. Oman, W. Putman, S. E. Strahan, and K. Wargan. 2017. "Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, [10.1002/2017ms001011]

    Orbe, C., L. D. Oman, S. E. Strahan, et al. D. W. Waugh, S. Pawson, L. L. Takacs, and A. M. Molod. 2017. "Large-Scale Atmospheric Transport in GEOS Replay Simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9 (7): 2545-2560 [10.1002/2017ms001053]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. Bader, L. J. Donner, et al. G. S. Elsaesser, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, A. Molod, R. B. Neale, and S. Saha. 2017. "Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers." Geoscientific Model Development, 10 (9): 3207-3223 [10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017]

    Barahona, D., A. Molod, and H. Kalesse. 2017. "Direct estimation of the global distribution of vertical velocity within cirrus clouds." Scientific Reports, 7 (1): 6840 [10.1038/s41598-017-07038-6]

    Holt, L. A., M. J. Alexander, L. Coy, et al. C. Liu, A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2017. "An evaluation of gravity waves and gravity wave sources in the Southern Hemisphere in a 7 km global climate simulation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 143 (707): 2481-2495 [10.1002/qj.3101]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate, 30: 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    Fujiwara, M., J. S. Wright, G. L. Manney, et al. L. J. Gray, J. Anstey, T. Birner, S. Davis, E. P. Gerber, V. L. Harvey, M. I. Hegglin, C. R. Homeyer, J. A. Knox, K. Krüger, A. Lambert, C. S. Long, P. Martineau, A. Molod, B. M. Monge-Sanz, M. L. Santee, S. Tegtmeier, S. Chabrillat, D. G. Tan, D. R. Jackson, S. Polavarapu, G. P. Compo, R. Dragani, W. Ebisuzaki, Y. Harada, C. Kobayashi, W. McCarty, K. Onogi, S. Pawson, A. Simmons, K. Wargan, J. S. Whitaker, and C.-Z. Zou. 2017. "Introduction to the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) and overview of the reanalysis systems." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (2): 1417-1452 [10.5194/acp-17-1417-2017]

    Bosilovich, M. G., F. R. Robertson, L. Takacs, A. Molod, and D. M. Mocko. 2017. "Atmospheric water balance and variability in the MERRA-2 reanalysis." J. Climate, 30 (4): 1177-1196 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0338.1]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, O. Reale, et al. A. M. Molod, M. J. Suarez, and B. M. Auer. 2016. "Large-scale controls on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity on seasonal time scales." Journal of Climate, 29: 6727-6749 [10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0098.1]

    Holt, L. A., M. Joan Alexander, L. Coy, et al. A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in a 7-km global climate simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73: 3771–3783 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0350.1]

    Ott, L. E., B. N. Duncan, A. M. Thompson, et al. G. Diskin, Z. Fasnacht, A. O. Langford, M. Lin, A. M. Molod, J. E. Nielsen, S. E. Pusede, K. Wargan, A. J. Weinheimer, and Y. Yoshida. 2016. "Frequency and impact of summertime stratospheric intrusions over Maryland during DISCOVER-AQ (2011): New evidence from NASA's GEOS-5 simulations." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., [10.1002/2015jd024052]

    Coy, L., K. Wargan, A. M. Molod, W. R. McCarty, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Structure and Dynamics of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in MERRA-2." J. Climate, 29:14: 5339-5354 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0809.1]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, S. M. Nowicki, et al. J. N. Lee, A. M. Molod, R. I. Cullather, and B. Zhao. 2016. "Atmospheric summer teleconnections and Greenland ice sheet surface mass variations: Insights from MERRA-2." Environmental Research Letters, 11 (2): [10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024002]

    Posselt, D. J., B. Fryxell, A. Molod, and B. Williams. 2016. "Quantitative Sensitivity Analysis of Physical Parameterizations for Cases of Deep Convection in the NASA GEOS-5." Journal of Climate, 29 (2): 455-479 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0250.1]

    Jiang, J. H., H. Su, C. Zhai, et al. L. Wu, K. Minschwaner, A. M. Molod, and A. M. Tompkins. 2015. "An assessment of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2, and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120 (22): 11,468-11,485 [10.1002/2015jd023752]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and M. Dempsey. 2015. "Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32 (9): 1545-1561 [10.1175/jtech-d-14-00155.1]

    McGrath-Spangler, E. L., A. M. Molod, L. E. Ott, and S. Pawson. 2015. "Impact of planetary boundary layer turbulence on model climate and tracer transport." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15 (13): 7269-7286 [10.5194/acp-15-7269-2015]

    Molod, A. M., L. L. Takacs, M. J. Suarez, and J. Bacmeister. 2015. "Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2 ." Geosci. Model Dev., 8: 1339-1356 [10.5194/gmd-8-1339-2015]

    Salmun, H., and A. Molod. 2015. "The Use of a Statistical Model of Storm Surge as a Bias Correction for Dynamical Surge Models and its Applicability along the U.S. East Coast." Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 3 (1): 73-86 [10.3390/jmse3010073]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, O. Reale, et al. M.-I. Lee, A. M. Molod, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to parameterized convection in the NASA GEOS-5 model." J. Climate, 28 (2): 551-573 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00104.1]

    McGrath-Spangler, E. L., and A. M. Molod. 2014. "Comparison of GEOS-5 AGCM planetary boundary layer depths computed with various definitions." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14 (13): 6717-6727 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/acp-14-6717-2014]

    Barahona, D., A. M. Molod, J. Bacmeister, et al. A. Nenes, A. Gettelman, H. Morrison, V. Phillips, and A. F. Eichmann. 2014. "Development of two-moment cloud microphysics for liquid and ice within the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5)." Geosci. Model Dev., 7: 1733-1766 [10.5194/gmd-7-1733-2014]

    Lyapustin, A. I., M. J. Alexander, L. E. Ott, et al. A. M. Molod, B. N. Holben, J. Susskind, and Y. Wang. 2014. "Observation of mountain lee waves with MODIS NIR column water vapor." Geophys. Res. Lett., 41 (2): 710-716 [10.1002/2013GL058770]

    Blackburn, M., D. L. Williamson, K. Nakajim, et al. W. Ohfuchi, Y. O. Takahashi, Y.-Y. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, M. Ishiwatari, J. L. McGregor, H. Borth, V. Wirth, H. Frank, P. Bechtold, N. P Wedi, H. Tomita, M. Satoh, M. Zhao, I. M. Held, M. J. Suarez, M.-I. Lee, M. Watanabe, M. Kimoto, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, A. Molod, K. Rajendran, A. Kitoh, and R. Stratton. 2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 91A (0): 17-56 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A02]

    Williamson, D. L., M. Blackburn, K. Nakajima, et al. W. Ohfuchi, Y. O. Takahashi, Y.-Y. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, M. Ishiwatari, J. L. McGregor, H. Borth, V. Wirth, H. Frank, P. Bechtold, N. P. Wedi, H. Tomita, M. Satoh, M. Zhao, I. M. Held, M. J. Suarez, M.-I. Lee, M. Watanabe, M. Kimoto, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, A. Molod, K. Rajendran, A. Kitoh, and R. Stratton. 2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 91A (0): 57-89 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A03]

    Molod, A. M., M. J. Suarez, and G. Partyka. 2013. "The impact of limiting ocean roughness on GEOS-5 AGCM tropical cyclone forecasts." Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (2): 411-416 [10.1029/2012GL053979]

    Lewis, J. R., E. J. Welton, A. M. Molod, and E. Joseph. 2013. "Improved boundary layer depth retrievals from MPLNET." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (17): 9870-9879 [10.1002/jgrd.50570]

    Zhang, M., C. S. Bretherton, P. N. Blossey, et al. P. H. Austin, J. T. Bacmeister, S. Bony, F. Brient, S. K. Cheedela, A. Cheng, A. D. Del Genio, S. R. De Roode, S. Endo, C. N. Franklin, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, T. Heus, F. A. Isotta, J. L. Dufresne, I.-S. Kang, H. Awai, M. Koehler, V. E. Larson, Y. Liu, A. P. Lock, U. Lohmann, M. F. Khairoutdinov, A. M. Molod, R. A. Neggers, P. Rasch, I. Sandu, R. Senkbeil, A. P. Siebesma, C. Siegenthaler-Le Drian, B. Stevens, M. J. Suarez, K. M. Xu, K. von Salzen, M. J. Webb, A. Wolf, and M. Zhao. 2013. "CGILS: Results from the first phase of an international project to understand the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks in single column models." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5 (4): 826-842 [10.1002/2013MS000246]

    Garfinkel, C. I., L. D. Oman, E. A. Barnes, et al. D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz, and A. M. Molod. 2013. "Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air–Sea Roughness." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70 (7): 2137-2151 [10.1175/JAS-D-12-0242.1]

    Molod, A. 2012. "Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model." Journal of Climate, 25 (23): 8341-8352 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00412.1]

    Garfinkel, C. I., A. M. Molod, L. D. Oman, and I.-S. Song. 2011. "Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization." Geophysical Research Letters, 38 (18): [10.1029/2011gl048802]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, K. Wisniewska, and F. S. Buonaiuto. 2011. "Statistical Prediction of the Storm Surge Associated with Cool-Weather Storms at the Battery, New York." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50 (2): 273-282 [10.1175/2010jamc2459.1]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, et al. R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, J. Joiner, R. D. Koster, R. Lucchesi, A. Molod, T. Owens, S. Pawson, P. Pegion, C. R. Redder, R. H. Reichle, F. R. Robertson, A. G. Ruddick, M. Sienkiewicz, and J. Woollen. 2011. "MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications." J. Climate, 24 (14): 3624-3648 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1]

    Hurwitz, M., I. Song, L. D. Oman, et al. P. Newman, A. Molod, S. Frith, and J. Nielsen. 2011. "Response of the Antarctic stratosphere to warm pool El Niño Events in the GEOS CCM." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (18): 9659-9669 [10.5194/acp-11-9659-2011]

    Hurwitz, M., P. Newman, L. D. Oman, and A. Molod. 2011. "Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Two Types of El Niño Events." J Atmos Sci, 68 (4): 812-822 [10.1175/2011JAS3606.1]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, F. S. Buonaiuto, K. Wisniewska, and K. C. Clarke. 2009. "East Coast Cool-Weather Storms in the New York Metropolitan Region." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 48 (11): 2320-2330 [10.1175/2009jamc2183.1]

    Molod, A. 2009. "Running GCM physics and dynamics on different grids: algorithm and tests." Tellus A, [10.3402/tellusa.v61i3.15602]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, J. Albrecht, and F. Santos. 2009. "Scales of variability of surface vegetation: Calculation and implications for climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 114 (G2): [10.1029/2008jg000762]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, and A. Ira. 2007. "Observational validation of an extended mosaic technique for capturing subgrid scale heterogeneity in a GCM." Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59 (3): 622-632 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00257.x]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and D. W. Waugh. 2004. "The Impact on a GCM Climate of an Extended Mosaic Technique for the Land–Atmosphere Coupling." Journal of Climate, 17 (20): 3877-3891 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3877:tioagc>2.0.co;2]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and D. W. Waugh. 2003. "A New Look at Modeling Surface Heterogeneity: Extending Its Influence in the Vertical." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4 (5): 810-825 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<0810:anlams>2.0.co;2]

    Molod, A. 2002. "A global assessment of the mosaic approach to modeling land surface heterogeneity." Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (D14): 4217 [10.1029/2001jd000588]

    Pawson, S., L. Takacs, A. Molod, et al. S. Nebuda, M. Chen, R. Rood, W. Read, and M. Fiorino. 2001. "The tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the GEOS-2 GCM." Advances in Space Research, 27 (8): 1457-1465 [10.1016/s0273-1177(01)00214-9]

    Pawson, S., K. Kodera, K. Hamilton, et al. T. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, B. A. Boville, J. D. Farrara, T. D. Fairlie, A. Kitoh, W. A. Lahoz, U. Langematz, E. Manzini, D. H. Rind, A. A. Scaife, K. Shibata, P. Simon, R. Swinbank, L. Takacs, R. J. Wilson, J. A. Al-Saadi, H. Amodei, M. Chiba, L. Coy, J. de Grandpré, R. S. Eckman, M. Fiorino, W. L. Grose, H. Koide, J. N. Koshyk, D. Li, J. Lerner, J. D. Mahlman, N. A. McFarlane, C. R. Mechoso, A. Molod, A. O'Neill, R. B. Pierce, W. J. Randel, R. B. Rood, and F. Wuh. 2000. "The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results." Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 81: 781-796.

    Allen, D. J., K. E. Pickering, and A. Molod. 1997. "An evaluation of deep convective mixing in the Goddard Chemical Transport Model using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud parameters." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 102 (D21): 25467-25476 [10.1029/97jd02401]

    Molod, A., H. M. Helfand, and L. L. Takacs. 1996. "The Climatology of Parameterized Physical Processes in the GEOS-1 GCM and Their Impact on the GEOS-1 Data Assimilation System." Journal of Climate, 9 (4): 764-785 [10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<0764:tcoppp>2.0.co;2]

    Hou, A. Y., and A. Molod. 1995. "Modulation of Dynamic Heating in the Winter Extratropics Associated with the Cross-Equatorial Hadley Circulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52 (15): 2609-2626 [10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2609:modhit>2.0.co;2]

    Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao, et al. R. B. Rood, D. P. McNamara, and A. M. Molod. 1995. "Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons of three modeling approaches." Geophys. Res. Lett., 22: 1089-1092:

    Sud, Y. C., A. Molod, and A. M. Molod. 1988. "A GCM simulation study of the influence of Saharan evapotranspiration and surface-albedo anomalies on July circulation and rainfall." Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 (11): 2388-2400 [10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2388:AGSSOT>2.0.CO;2]

    Sud, Y. C., and A. Molod. 1988. "The roles of dry convection and cloud radiation feedback processes and the influence of recent improvements in the parameterization of convection in the GLA GCM." Mon. Wea. Rev., 11: 2366-2387.

    Non-Refereed

    Schubert, S. D., Y.-K. Lim, A. M. Molod, and A. Collow. 2021. "A phenomenon-based decomposition of model-based estimates of boreal winter ENSO variability." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 55: 88.

    Schubert, S. D., A. Y. Borovikov, Y.-K. Lim, and A. M. Molod. 2019. "Ensemble Generation Strategies Employed in the GMAO GEOS-S2S Forecast System." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. NASA/TM-2019-104606 53: 75.

    Kouatchou, J., A. Molod, J. E. Nielsen, and T. Clune. 2015. "GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide." GMAO Office Note 8:

    Bosilovich, M. G., S. R. Akella, L. Coy, et al. R. I. Cullather, C. S. Draper, R. Gelaro, R. M. Kovach, Q. Liu, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, K. Wargan, C. Yang, R. H. Reichle, L. L. Takacs, Y. V. Vikhliaev, S. C. Bloom, A. Collow, S. Firth, G. J. Labow, G. S. Partyka, S. Pawson, O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "MERRA-2: Initial Evaluation of the Climate." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 43 (NASA/TM–2015–10): 139 pp.

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

    Teaching Experience

    Spring 2006: Teaching Fellowship - Physical Parameterizations in NWP Models, Dept. of Earth Atmos. and Planetary Sci., MIT

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 1999 - Present
    American Meteorological Society, 1988 - Present

    Awards

    NASA Honor Award Group Achievement Award MERRA-2 Science Team, 2019

    Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Scientific Achievement Award, 2019

    NASA Cash and Time Off Awards, Rating-Based and Not Rating-Based, 2018, 2019

    Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Outstanding Performance Award, 2009, 2011, 2012

    NASA's Earth System Science Graduate Fellowship, 2000-2003

    Gilman Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University, 1999

    Data Assimilation Office Outstanding Performance Award, 1998, 1995, 1986

    Data Assimilation Office Most Exceptional Performance Award, 1993, 1989


    Publications

    Refereed

    Lim, Y.-K., N. Arnold, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2021. "Seasonality in prediction skill of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and associated dynamics in Version 2 of NASA's GEOS-S2S forecast system." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 126 (18): e2021JD034961 [ 10.1029/2021JD034961]

    Koster, R. D., A. M. DeAngelis, S. D. Schubert, and A. M. Molod. 2021. "Asymmetry in Subseasonal Surface Air Temperature Forecast Error with Respect to Soil Moisture Initialization." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 (10): 2505-2519 [10.1175/jhm-d-21-0022.1]

    Suselj, K., J. Teixeira, M. J. Kurowski, and A. Molod. 2021. "Improving the Representation of Subtropical Boundary Layer Clouds in the NASA GEOS Model with the Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux Parameterization." Monthly Weather Review 149 (3): 793-809 [10.1175/mwr-d-20-0183.1]

    Kim, H., M.-I. Lee, S. Kim, et al. Y.-K. Lim, S. D. Schubert, and A. M. Molod. 2021. "Representation of tropical storms by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 57 35-49 [10.1007/s13143-019-00169-y]

    Gibson, P. B., D. E. Waliser, A. Goodman, et al. M. J. DeFlorio, L. Delle Monache, and A. Molod. 2020. "Subseasonal‐to‐Seasonal Hindcast Skill Assessment of Ridging Events Related to Drought Over the Western United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (22): [10.1029/2020jd033655]

    Freire, J. L., K. M. Longo, S. R. Freitas, et al. C. A. Coelho, A. M. Molod, J. Marshak, A. Silva, and B. Z. Ribeiro. 2020. "To What Extent Biomass Burning Aerosols Impact South America Seasonal Climate Predictions?" Geophysical Research Letters 47 (16): [10.1029/2020gl088096]

    Koster, R. D., S. D. Schubert, A. M. DeAngelis, A. M. Molod, and S. P. Mahanama. 2020. "Using a Simple Water Balance Framework to Quantify the Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Subseasonal Evapotranspiration and Air Temperature Forecasts." Journal of Hydrometeorology 21 (8): 1705-1722 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0007.1]

    Strobach, E., A. Molod, A. Trayanov, et al. G. Forget, J. Campin, C. Hill, and D. Menemenlis. 2020. "Three‐to‐Six‐Day Air–Sea Oscillation in Models and Observations." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (10): [10.1029/2019gl085837]

    Mariotti, A., C. Baggett, E. A. Barnes, et al. E. Becker, A. Butler, D. C. Collins, P. A. Dirmeyer, L. Ferranti, N. C. Johnson, J. Jones, B. P. Kirtman, A. L. Lang, A. Molod, M. Newman, A. W. Robertson, S. Schubert, D. E. Waliser, and J. Albers. 2020. "Windows of Opportunity for Skillful Forecasts Subseasonal to Seasonal and Beyond." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101 (5): E608-E625 [10.1175/bams-d-18-0326.1]

    Hackert, E., R. M. Kovach, A. Molod, et al. G. Vernieres, A. Borovikov, J. Marshak, and Y. Chang. 2020. "Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Observations Impact on El Niño/Southern Oscillation Predictions: Case Studies From the NASA GEOS Seasonal Forecast System." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 125 (4): [10.1029/2019jc015788]

    Molod, A. M., E. C. Hackert, Y. V. Vikhliaev, et al. B. Zhao, D. Barahona, G. Vernieres, A. Y. Borovikov, R. M. Kovach, J. Marshak, S. D. Schubert, Z. Li, Y.-K. Lim, L. C. Andrews, R. I. Cullather, R. D. Koster, D. Achuthavarier, J. Carton, L. Coy, J. Friere, K. Longo De Freitas, K. Nakada, and S. Pawson. 2020. "GEOS-S2S Version 2: The GMAO high resolution coupled model and assimilation system for seasonal prediction." Journal of Geophysical Research 125 (5): [10.1029/2019JD031767]

    Wright, J. S., X. Sun, P. Konopka, et al. K. Krüger, A. M. Molod, S. Tegtmeier, G. J. Zhang, and X. Zhao. 2020. "Differences in tropical high clouds among reanalyses: origins and radiative impacts." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [10.5194/acp-2019-1187]

    Schubert, S. D., Y. Chang, H. Wang, R. D. Koster, and A. M. Molod. 2019. "A Systematic Approach to Assessing the Sources and Global Impacts of Errors in Climate Models." Journal of Climate 32 (23): 8301-8321 [10.1175/jcli-d-19-0189.1]

    Stanfield, R. E., H. Su, J. H. Jiang, et al. S. R. Freitas, A. M. Molod, Z. J. Luo, L. Huang, and M. Luo. 2019. "Convective entrainment rates estimated from Aura CO and CloudSat/CALIPSO observations and comparison with GEOS‐5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2019JD030846 [10.1029/2019jd030846]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and A. B. Marquardt Collow. 2019. "Annual Cycle of Planetary Boundary Layer Heights Estimated From Wind Profiler Network Data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (12): 6207-6221 [10.1029/2018jd030102]

    Chang, Y., S. D. Schubert, R. D. Koster, A. M. Molod, and H. Wang. 2019. "Tendency Bias Correction in Coupled and Uncoupled Global Climate Models with a Focus on Impacts over North America." Journal of Climate 32 (2): 639-661 [10.1175/jcli-d-18-0598.1]

    Strobach, E., A. Molod, G. Forget, et al. J.-M. Campin, C. Hill, D. Menemenlis, and P. Heimbach. 2018. "Consequences of different air-sea feedbacks on ocean using MITgcm and MERRA-2 forcing: Implications for coupled data assimilation systems." Ocean Modelling 132 91-111 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.10.006]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, R. M. Kovach, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2018. "The roles of climate change and climate variability in the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season." Scientific Reports 8 [10.1038/s41598-018-34343-5]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, Y. Chang, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2018. "The impact of SST-forced and unforced teleconnections on 2015/16 El Nino winter precipitation over the western United States." Journal of Climate 31 (15): 5825-5844 [10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0218.1]

    Eastham, S. D., M. S. Long, C. A. Keller, et al. E. Lundgren, R. M. Yantosca, J. Zhuang, C. Li, C. J. Lee, M. Yannetti, B. M. Auer, T. L. Clune, J. Kouatchou, W. M. Putman, M. A. Thompson, A. L. Trayanov, A. M. Molod, R. V. Martin, and D. J. Jacob. 2018. "GEOS-Chem High Performance (GCHP v11-02c): a next-generation implementation of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for massively parallel applications." Geoscientific Model Development 11 (7): 2941-2953 [10.5194/gmd-11-2941-2018]

    Freitas, S. R., G. A. Grell, A. Molod, et al. M. A. Thompson, W. M. Putman, C. M. Santos e Silva, and E. P. Souza. 2018. "Assessing the Grell-Freitas Convection Parameterization in the NASA GEOS Modeling System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2017ms001251]

    Yu, K., C. A. Keller, D. J. Jacob, et al. A. M. Molod, S. D. Eastham, and M. S. Long. 2018. "Errors and improvements in the use of archived meteorological data for chemical transport modeling: an analysis using GEOS-Chem v11-01 driven by GEOS-5 meteorology." Geoscientific Model Development 11 (1): 305-319 [10.5194/gmd-11-305-2018]

    Nielsen, J. E., S. Pawson, A. Molod, et al. B. Auer, A. M. da Silva, A. R. Douglass, B. Duncan, Q. Liang, M. Manyin, L. D. Oman, W. Putman, S. E. Strahan, and K. Wargan. 2017. "Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1002/2017ms001011]

    Orbe, C., L. D. Oman, S. E. Strahan, et al. D. W. Waugh, S. Pawson, L. L. Takacs, and A. M. Molod. 2017. "Large-Scale Atmospheric Transport in GEOS Replay Simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9 (7): 2545-2560 [10.1002/2017ms001053]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. Bader, L. J. Donner, et al. G. S. Elsaesser, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, A. Molod, R. B. Neale, and S. Saha. 2017. "Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers." Geoscientific Model Development 10 (9): 3207-3223 [10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017]

    Barahona, D., A. Molod, and H. Kalesse. 2017. "Direct estimation of the global distribution of vertical velocity within cirrus clouds." Scientific Reports 7 (1): 6840 [10.1038/s41598-017-07038-6]

    Holt, L. A., M. J. Alexander, L. Coy, et al. C. Liu, A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2017. "An evaluation of gravity waves and gravity wave sources in the Southern Hemisphere in a 7 km global climate simulation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 143 (707): 2481-2495 [10.1002/qj.3101]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate 30 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    Fujiwara, M., J. S. Wright, G. L. Manney, et al. L. J. Gray, J. Anstey, T. Birner, S. Davis, E. P. Gerber, V. L. Harvey, M. I. Hegglin, C. R. Homeyer, J. A. Knox, K. Krüger, A. Lambert, C. S. Long, P. Martineau, A. Molod, B. M. Monge-Sanz, M. L. Santee, S. Tegtmeier, S. Chabrillat, D. G. Tan, D. R. Jackson, S. Polavarapu, G. P. Compo, R. Dragani, W. Ebisuzaki, Y. Harada, C. Kobayashi, W. McCarty, K. Onogi, S. Pawson, A. Simmons, K. Wargan, J. S. Whitaker, and C.-Z. Zou. 2017. "Introduction to the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) and overview of the reanalysis systems." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (2): 1417-1452 [10.5194/acp-17-1417-2017]

    Bosilovich, M. G., F. R. Robertson, L. Takacs, A. Molod, and D. M. Mocko. 2017. "Atmospheric water balance and variability in the MERRA-2 reanalysis." J. Climate 30 (4): 1177-1196 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0338.1]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, O. Reale, et al. A. M. Molod, M. J. Suarez, and B. M. Auer. 2016. "Large-scale controls on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity on seasonal time scales." Journal of Climate 29 6727-6749 [10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0098.1]

    Holt, L. A., M. Joan Alexander, L. Coy, et al. A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in a 7-km global climate simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 3771–3783 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0350.1]

    Ott, L. E., B. N. Duncan, A. M. Thompson, et al. G. Diskin, Z. Fasnacht, A. O. Langford, M. Lin, A. M. Molod, J. E. Nielsen, S. E. Pusede, K. Wargan, A. J. Weinheimer, and Y. Yoshida. 2016. "Frequency and impact of summertime stratospheric intrusions over Maryland during DISCOVER-AQ (2011): New evidence from NASA's GEOS-5 simulations." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. [10.1002/2015jd024052]

    Coy, L., K. Wargan, A. M. Molod, W. R. McCarty, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Structure and Dynamics of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in MERRA-2." J. Climate 29:14 5339-5354 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0809.1]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, S. M. Nowicki, et al. J. N. Lee, A. M. Molod, R. I. Cullather, and B. Zhao. 2016. "Atmospheric summer teleconnections and Greenland ice sheet surface mass variations: Insights from MERRA-2." Environmental Research Letters 11 (2): [10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024002]

    Posselt, D. J., B. Fryxell, A. Molod, and B. Williams. 2016. "Quantitative Sensitivity Analysis of Physical Parameterizations for Cases of Deep Convection in the NASA GEOS-5." Journal of Climate 29 (2): 455-479 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0250.1]

    Jiang, J. H., H. Su, C. Zhai, et al. L. Wu, K. Minschwaner, A. M. Molod, and A. M. Tompkins. 2015. "An assessment of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2, and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 (22): 11,468-11,485 [10.1002/2015jd023752]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and M. Dempsey. 2015. "Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 32 (9): 1545-1561 [10.1175/jtech-d-14-00155.1]

    McGrath-Spangler, E. L., A. M. Molod, L. E. Ott, and S. Pawson. 2015. "Impact of planetary boundary layer turbulence on model climate and tracer transport." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15 (13): 7269-7286 [10.5194/acp-15-7269-2015]

    Molod, A. M., L. L. Takacs, M. J. Suarez, and J. Bacmeister. 2015. "Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2 ." Geosci. Model Dev. 8 1339-1356 [10.5194/gmd-8-1339-2015]

    Salmun, H., and A. Molod. 2015. "The Use of a Statistical Model of Storm Surge as a Bias Correction for Dynamical Surge Models and its Applicability along the U.S. East Coast." Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 3 (1): 73-86 [10.3390/jmse3010073]

    Lim, Y.-K., S. D. Schubert, O. Reale, et al. M.-I. Lee, A. M. Molod, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to parameterized convection in the NASA GEOS-5 model." J. Climate 28 (2): 551-573 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00104.1]

    McGrath-Spangler, E. L., and A. M. Molod. 2014. "Comparison of GEOS-5 AGCM planetary boundary layer depths computed with various definitions." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 (13): 6717-6727 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/acp-14-6717-2014]

    Barahona, D., A. M. Molod, J. Bacmeister, et al. A. Nenes, A. Gettelman, H. Morrison, V. Phillips, and A. F. Eichmann. 2014. "Development of two-moment cloud microphysics for liquid and ice within the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5)." Geosci. Model Dev. 7 1733-1766 [10.5194/gmd-7-1733-2014]

    Lyapustin, A. I., M. J. Alexander, L. E. Ott, et al. A. M. Molod, B. N. Holben, J. Susskind, and Y. Wang. 2014. "Observation of mountain lee waves with MODIS NIR column water vapor." Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (2): 710-716 [10.1002/2013GL058770]

    Blackburn, M., D. L. Williamson, K. Nakajim, et al. W. Ohfuchi, Y. O. Takahashi, Y.-Y. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, M. Ishiwatari, J. L. McGregor, H. Borth, V. Wirth, H. Frank, P. Bechtold, N. P Wedi, H. Tomita, M. Satoh, M. Zhao, I. M. Held, M. J. Suarez, M.-I. Lee, M. Watanabe, M. Kimoto, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, A. Molod, K. Rajendran, A. Kitoh, and R. Stratton. 2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 91A (0): 17-56 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A02]

    Williamson, D. L., M. Blackburn, K. Nakajima, et al. W. Ohfuchi, Y. O. Takahashi, Y.-Y. Hayashi, H. Nakamura, M. Ishiwatari, J. L. McGregor, H. Borth, V. Wirth, H. Frank, P. Bechtold, N. P. Wedi, H. Tomita, M. Satoh, M. Zhao, I. M. Held, M. J. Suarez, M.-I. Lee, M. Watanabe, M. Kimoto, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, A. Molod, K. Rajendran, A. Kitoh, and R. Stratton. 2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 91A (0): 57-89 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A03]

    Molod, A. M., M. J. Suarez, and G. Partyka. 2013. "The impact of limiting ocean roughness on GEOS-5 AGCM tropical cyclone forecasts." Geophysical Research Letters 40 (2): 411-416 [10.1029/2012GL053979]

    Lewis, J. R., E. J. Welton, A. M. Molod, and E. Joseph. 2013. "Improved boundary layer depth retrievals from MPLNET." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (17): 9870-9879 [10.1002/jgrd.50570]

    Zhang, M., C. S. Bretherton, P. N. Blossey, et al. P. H. Austin, J. T. Bacmeister, S. Bony, F. Brient, S. K. Cheedela, A. Cheng, A. D. Del Genio, S. R. De Roode, S. Endo, C. N. Franklin, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, T. Heus, F. A. Isotta, J. L. Dufresne, I.-S. Kang, H. Awai, M. Koehler, V. E. Larson, Y. Liu, A. P. Lock, U. Lohmann, M. F. Khairoutdinov, A. M. Molod, R. A. Neggers, P. Rasch, I. Sandu, R. Senkbeil, A. P. Siebesma, C. Siegenthaler-Le Drian, B. Stevens, M. J. Suarez, K. M. Xu, K. von Salzen, M. J. Webb, A. Wolf, and M. Zhao. 2013. "CGILS: Results from the first phase of an international project to understand the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks in single column models." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 5 (4): 826-842 [10.1002/2013MS000246]

    Garfinkel, C. I., L. D. Oman, E. A. Barnes, et al. D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz, and A. M. Molod. 2013. "Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air–Sea Roughness." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 70 (7): 2137-2151 [10.1175/JAS-D-12-0242.1]

    Molod, A. 2012. "Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model." Journal of Climate 25 (23): 8341-8352 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00412.1]

    Garfinkel, C. I., A. M. Molod, L. D. Oman, and I.-S. Song. 2011. "Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization." Geophysical Research Letters 38 (18): [10.1029/2011gl048802]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, K. Wisniewska, and F. S. Buonaiuto. 2011. "Statistical Prediction of the Storm Surge Associated with Cool-Weather Storms at the Battery, New York." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 50 (2): 273-282 [10.1175/2010jamc2459.1]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, et al. R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, J. Joiner, R. D. Koster, R. Lucchesi, A. Molod, T. Owens, S. Pawson, P. Pegion, C. R. Redder, R. H. Reichle, F. R. Robertson, A. G. Ruddick, M. Sienkiewicz, and J. Woollen. 2011. "MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications." J. Climate 24 (14): 3624-3648 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1]

    Hurwitz, M., I. Song, L. D. Oman, et al. P. Newman, A. Molod, S. Frith, and J. Nielsen. 2011. "Response of the Antarctic stratosphere to warm pool El Niño Events in the GEOS CCM." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (18): 9659-9669 [10.5194/acp-11-9659-2011]

    Hurwitz, M., P. Newman, L. D. Oman, and A. Molod. 2011. "Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Two Types of El Niño Events." J Atmos Sci 68 (4): 812-822 [10.1175/2011JAS3606.1]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, F. S. Buonaiuto, K. Wisniewska, and K. C. Clarke. 2009. "East Coast Cool-Weather Storms in the New York Metropolitan Region." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (11): 2320-2330 [10.1175/2009jamc2183.1]

    Molod, A. 2009. "Running GCM physics and dynamics on different grids: algorithm and tests." Tellus A [10.3402/tellusa.v61i3.15602]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, J. Albrecht, and F. Santos. 2009. "Scales of variability of surface vegetation: Calculation and implications for climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 114 (G2): [10.1029/2008jg000762]

    Salmun, H., A. Molod, and A. Ira. 2007. "Observational validation of an extended mosaic technique for capturing subgrid scale heterogeneity in a GCM." Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 59 (3): 622-632 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00257.x]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and D. W. Waugh. 2004. "The Impact on a GCM Climate of an Extended Mosaic Technique for the Land–Atmosphere Coupling." Journal of Climate 17 (20): 3877-3891 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3877:tioagc>2.0.co;2]

    Molod, A., H. Salmun, and D. W. Waugh. 2003. "A New Look at Modeling Surface Heterogeneity: Extending Its Influence in the Vertical." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4 (5): 810-825 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<0810:anlams>2.0.co;2]

    Molod, A. 2002. "A global assessment of the mosaic approach to modeling land surface heterogeneity." Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (D14): 4217 [10.1029/2001jd000588]

    Pawson, S., L. Takacs, A. Molod, et al. S. Nebuda, M. Chen, R. Rood, W. Read, and M. Fiorino. 2001. "The tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the GEOS-2 GCM." Advances in Space Research 27 (8): 1457-1465 [10.1016/s0273-1177(01)00214-9]

    Pawson, S., K. Kodera, K. Hamilton, et al. T. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, B. A. Boville, J. D. Farrara, T. D. Fairlie, A. Kitoh, W. A. Lahoz, U. Langematz, E. Manzini, D. H. Rind, A. A. Scaife, K. Shibata, P. Simon, R. Swinbank, L. Takacs, R. J. Wilson, J. A. Al-Saadi, H. Amodei, M. Chiba, L. Coy, J. de Grandpré, R. S. Eckman, M. Fiorino, W. L. Grose, H. Koide, J. N. Koshyk, D. Li, J. Lerner, J. D. Mahlman, N. A. McFarlane, C. R. Mechoso, A. Molod, A. O'Neill, R. B. Pierce, W. J. Randel, R. B. Rood, and F. Wuh. 2000. "The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results." Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 81 781-796.

    Allen, D. J., K. E. Pickering, and A. Molod. 1997. "An evaluation of deep convective mixing in the Goddard Chemical Transport Model using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud parameters." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 102 (D21): 25467-25476 [10.1029/97jd02401]

    Molod, A., H. M. Helfand, and L. L. Takacs. 1996. "The Climatology of Parameterized Physical Processes in the GEOS-1 GCM and Their Impact on the GEOS-1 Data Assimilation System." Journal of Climate 9 (4): 764-785 [10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<0764:tcoppp>2.0.co;2]

    Hou, A. Y., and A. Molod. 1995. "Modulation of Dynamic Heating in the Winter Extratropics Associated with the Cross-Equatorial Hadley Circulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 52 (15): 2609-2626 [10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2609:modhit>2.0.co;2]

    Pickering, K. E., A. M. Thompson, W.-K. Tao, et al. R. B. Rood, D. P. McNamara, and A. M. Molod. 1995. "Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons of three modeling approaches." Geophys. Res. Lett. 22: 1089-1092

    Sud, Y. C., A. Molod, and A. M. Molod. 1988. "A GCM simulation study of the influence of Saharan evapotranspiration and surface-albedo anomalies on July circulation and rainfall." Mon. Wea. Rev. 116 (11): 2388-2400 [10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2388:AGSSOT>2.0.CO;2]

    Sud, Y. C., and A. Molod. 1988. "The roles of dry convection and cloud radiation feedback processes and the influence of recent improvements in the parameterization of convection in the GLA GCM." Mon. Wea. Rev. 11 2366-2387

    Non-Refereed

    Schubert, S. D., Y.-K. Lim, A. M. Molod, and A. Collow. 2021. "A phenomenon-based decomposition of model-based estimates of boreal winter ENSO variability." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 55 88

    Schubert, S. D., A. Y. Borovikov, Y.-K. Lim, and A. M. Molod. 2019. "Ensemble Generation Strategies Employed in the GMAO GEOS-S2S Forecast System." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. NASA/TM-2019-104606 53 75

    Kouatchou, J., A. Molod, J. E. Nielsen, and T. Clune. 2015. "GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide." GMAO Office Note 8

    Bosilovich, M. G., S. R. Akella, L. Coy, et al. R. I. Cullather, C. S. Draper, R. Gelaro, R. M. Kovach, Q. Liu, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, K. Wargan, C. Yang, R. H. Reichle, L. L. Takacs, Y. V. Vikhliaev, S. C. Bloom, A. Collow, S. Firth, G. J. Labow, G. S. Partyka, S. Pawson, O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "MERRA-2: Initial Evaluation of the Climate." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 43 (NASA/TM–2015–10) 139 pp.

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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