Alain Salma Joseph Khayat

Alain Salma Joseph Khayat

  • ASSISTANT RESEARCH SCIENTIST
  • 301.614.5420
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 693
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: UNIV OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
  • Brief Bio

    Research Expertise:

    • Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars
    • Developing radiative transfer techniques in planetary atmospheres
    • Infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy
    • Instrument development: Infrared Spectrometers
    • Spacecraft/Rover operations - Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    My research focuses on the remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars, by developing radiative transfer techniques from near-infrared to submillimeter wavelengths. This includes ground-based (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Keck telescopes, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Submillimeter Array, Caltech Submillimeter Observatory), spacecraft-based (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/CRISM, Trace Gas Orbiter/NOMAD), and rover-based (Mars Science Laboratory) observations. Analyses include the study of the water cycle over the northern polar cap of Mars, atmospheric D/H and ozone mapping, and trace gases (CH4, SO2, OCS, SO, H2S…). My research highlights include conducting a 3-year campaign targeting volcanic gases on Mars using ground-based observatories such as the NASA IRTF, JCMT, and CSO, indicating the lack of major volcanic outgassing on current day Mars. 

    For information on how to formally request an interview with Dr. Alain Khayat, fill out the online request form through NASA's Speakers Bureau.

    Current Projects

    Spacecraft Mission Participation

    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter: Team member for the NOMAD near-infrared spectrometer.

    Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover: Participating Scientist/Science Team Collaborator/Mission operation.

    Positions/Employment

    7/2019 - Present

    Assistant Research Scientist

    CRESST II, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
    10/2016 - 6/2019

    Postdoctoral Research Associate

    CRESST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
    6/2016 - 9/2016

    Postdoctoral Researcher

    Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, Honolulu, HI.

    High-resolution infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy in planetary atmospheres.
    Radiative transfer in the atmosphere of Mars.

    8/2011 - 9/2016

    Science Collaborator

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

    Goddard Center for Astrobiology.

    CAN 7: "Exploring the Evolution of the Water and Organic Reservoirs in the Solar System".

    Defining observational strategies for Mars observing campaigns, investigating new methods to synthesize molecular band-systems, and processing high-resolution spectroscopic data.

    8/2008 - 5/2016

    Graduate Research Assistant

    NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Honolulu, HI.

    Instrument Development.
    Using a computer aided design software (SolidWorks) in order to design and draw different parts for the next generation High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (iSHELL) that is mounted on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility.

    8/2008 - 12/2015

    Graduate Research Assistant

    Institute for Astronomy - University of Hawai'i at Manoa., Honolulu, HI.
    11/2009 - 5/2010

    Research Assistant

    NASA Astrobiology Institute/ University of Hawai'i., Honolulu, HI.

    CAN 5: "The Chemical Composition of Comets."

    Reducing and analyzing photometric data looking for activity in comet-asteroid transition object 107P/Wilson-Harrington.

    Education

    2015 Ph. D. in Astronomy. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, and NASA Infrared Telescope Facility.

    2010 M. Sc. in Astronomy. Magna Cum Laude. University of Hawai`i at Manoa.

    2006 Diplôme d'ingénieur Mécanique (U.S. Equivalence: Bachelor degree and Master degree: Mechanical Engineering).

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 2018 - Present
    American Astronomical Society, 2010 - 2016

    Professional Service

    2020-present: Science team member. Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery (NOMAD) on the Exomars Trace Gas Orbiter.

    2018-present: NASA's Speakers Bureau. "The NASA Speakers Bureau is composed of engineers, scientists, and other professionals who represent the agency as speakers at civic, professional, educational and other public venues". https://www.nasa.gov/about/speakers/nasa-speakers-about.html

    2018: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Planetary Science Winter School for NASA's early career scientists - Mechanical engineering lead.

    2018-present: Group leader, Exoplanets & Stellar Astrophysics; Solar System Exploration, Astrochemistry; Planetary Systems & Magnetospheres. Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science & Technology II.

    2017-present: Served on NASA review panels.

    2017-present: Red panel reviewer, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    Reviewer, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer.

    Reviewer, Astronomy & Astrophysics.

    Reviewer, Icarus.

    2016-present: Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Science Team Collaborator.

    2016-present: Environmental Science Theme Lead/Keeper of the Plan (ESTLK) for the Environmental Science Theme Group of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL).

    2016: NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School - Instrument lead.

    Awards

    Observing nights awarded:

    • Submillimeter Array: 5 nights using dual receiver RxA and RxB 2018A (PI)
    • NASA Infrared Telescope Facility: 2 nights using CSHELL 2016A (PI)
    • James Clerk Maxwell Telescope: 18 hours using HARP 2014A (PI)
    • NASA Infrared Telescope Facility: 10 nights using CSHELL 2014A (PI)
    • Caltech Submillimeter Observatory: 14 nights using Barney 2012A (PI)
    • Caltech Submillimeter Observatory: 12 nights using Barney 2011B (PI)
    • NASA Infrared Telescope Facility: 9 nights using CSHELL 2011B (PI)

    Grants

    08/01/2019 - 07/21/2023 Measuring Molecular Oxygen, Water Vapor, and Aerosols with ChemCam Passive Sky Observations, NASA, NASA NRA #: NNH18ZDA001N-MDAP
    Co-Investigator
    03/26/2021 An integrated database of CRISM’s atmospheric retrievals for Mars, NASA, NASA NRA #: Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) - NNH20ZDA001N
    Principal Investigator
    01/01/2021 - 12/31/2022 High-resolution Measurements of Atmospheric Water over the North Polar Cap of Mars – an Interconnection Between the Small and Large Scale Processes Controlling the Water Transport Over the Pole, NASA ISFM
    Science Principal Investigator

    Publications

    Refereed

    Daerden, F., L. Neary, G. Villanueva, et al. G. Liuzzi, S. Aoki, R. T. Clancy, J. A. Whiteway, B. J. Sandor, M. D. Smith, M. J. Wolff, A. Pankine, A. Khayat, R. Novak, B. Cantor, M. Crismani, M. J. Mumma, S. Viscardy, J. Erwin, C. Depiesse, A. Mahieux, A. Piccialli, S. Robert, L. Trompet, Y. Willame, E. Neefs, I. Thomas, B. Ristic, and A. C. Vandaele. 2022. "Explaining NOMAD D/H Observations by Cloud‐induced Fractionation of Water Vapor on Mars." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, [10.1029/2021je007079]

    Patel, M., G. Sellers, J. Mason, et al. J. Holmes, M. Brown, S. Lewis, K. Rajendran, P. Streeter, C. Marriner, B. Hathi, D. Slade, M. Leese, M. Wolff, A. Khayat, M. Smith, S. Aoki, A. Piccialli, A. Vandaele, S. Robert, F. Daerden, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, Y. Willame, C. Depiesse, G. Bellucci, and J. Lopez‐Moreno. 2021. "ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS vertical profiles of ozone: Part 1 – Seasonal variation and comparison to water." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, [10.1029/2021je006837]

    Khayat, A. S., M. D. Smith, M. Wolff, et al. F. Daerden, L. Neary, M. R. Patel, A. Piccialli, A. C. Vandaele, I. Thomas, B. Ristic, J. Mason, Y. Willame, C. Depiesse, G. Bellucci, and J. J. López‐Moreno. 2021. "ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS vertical profiles of ozone: Part 2: The high‐altitude layers of atmospheric ozone." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, [10.1029/2021je006834]

    Guzewich, S. D., M. D. Juárez, C. E. Newman, et al. E. Mason, M. D. Smith, N. Miller, A. S. Khayat, H. Kahanpää, D. Viúdez‐Moreiras, and M. I. Richardson. 2021. "Gravity Wave Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS Pressure Sensor and Comparison with Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling with MarsWRF." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, [10.1029/2021je006907]

    Parks, M. C., C. A. Nixon, G. L. Villanueva, et al. M. D. Smith, A. S. Khayat, A. E. Thelen, E. Villard, S. B. Charnley, and P. G. Irwin. 2021. "Observations of Mars with ALMA: potential for future constraints of global circulation models." Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 7 (02): [10.1117/1.jatis.7.2.025001]

    Smith, M. D., F. Daerden, L. Neary, et al. A. S. Khayat, J. A. Holmes, M. R. Patel, G. Villanueva, G. Liuzzi, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, G. Bellucci, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, and A. C. Vandaele. 2021. "The climatology of carbon monoxide on Mars as observed by NOMAD nadir-geometry observations." Icarus, 114404 [10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114404]

    Smith, C. L., M. Lemmon, J. E. Moores, et al. S. D. Guzewich, T. H. McConnochie, C. E. Newman, A. S. Khayat, M. Battalio, C. A. Moore, and D. Ellison. 2020. "The Line‐of‐Sight Extinction record at Gale Crater as observed by MSL's Mastcam and Navcam through ~2500 sols." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, [10.1029/2020je006465]

    Honniball, C. I., R. Wright, P. G. Lucey, and A. S. Khayat. 2020. "Evaluating the spectroradiometric performance of an uncooled midwave infrared hyperspectral interferometer using a microbolometer array detector." Optical Engineering, 59 (07): 1 [10.1117/1.oe.59.7.074103]

    Khayat, A. S., M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2020. "Detections of Water Vapor Increase over the North Polar Troughs on Mars as Observed by CRISM." Geophysical Research Letters, [10.1029/2019gl086195]

    Khayat, A., G. L. Villanueva, M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2019. "IRTF/CSHELL Mapping of Atmospheric HDO, H2O and D/H on Mars during Northern Summer." Icarus, 330: 204-216 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2019.04.007]

    Smith, C. L., J. E. Moores, M. Lemmon, et al. S. D. Guzewich, C. A. Moore, D. Ellison, and A. S. Khayat. 2019. "Visibility and Line‐Of‐Sight Extinction Estimates in Gale Crater during the 2018/MY34 Global Dust Storm." Geophysical Research Letters, 2019GL083788 [10.1029/2019gl083788]

    Khayat, A., M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2019. "Understanding the Water Cycle Above the North Polar Cap on Mars Using MRO CRISM Retrievals of Water Vapor." Icarus, 321: 722 - 735 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.024]

    Guzewich, S., M. Lemmon, G. Martínez, M. D. Smith, and A. S. Khayat. 2019. "Mars Science Laboratory observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 global dust storm." Geophysical Research Letters , [doi:10.1029/2018GL080839]

    Honniball, C. I., R. Wright, P. G. Lucey, A. Gabrieli, and A. Khayat. 2018. "Volcanic gas measurements using a compact mid-wave infrared hyperspectral imager." Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Remote Sensing Technology, Techniques and Applications VII, [10.1117/12.2324627]

    Smith, M. D., F. Daerden, L. Neary, and A. Khayat. 2018. "The climatology of carbon monoxide and water vapor on Mars as observed by CRISM and modeled by the GEM-Mars general circulation model ." Icarus, 301: 117-131 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.027]

    Guzewich, S., J. Bleacher, M. Smith, A. Khayat, and P. Conrad. 2018. "Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring of Astronaut Exploration Zones." Dust in the Atmosphere of Mars and its Impact on Human Exploration, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Chapter 16.

    Elder, C., J. Molaro, A. Khayat, et al. A. Chopra, L. Blum, S. Valencia, K. Mitchell, A. Delgado, L. Jozwiak, M. Landis, J. Watkins, A. Bramson, A. Davis, M. Slipski, C. Budney, C. Young, C. Chu, A. Das, J. Fulton, and H. Chilton. 2018. "OCEANUS: A high science return Uranus orbiter with a low-cost instrument suite." Acta Astronautica , 148: 1-11 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.04.019]

    Khayat, A. S., G. L. Villanueva, M. J. Mumma, and A. T. Tokunaga. 2017. "A deep search for the release of volcanic gases on Mars using ground-based high-resolution infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy: Sensitive upper limits for OCS and SO2." Icarus, 296: 1-14 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.05.014]

    Khayat, A., G. Villanueva, M. Mumma, and A. Tokunaga. 2015. "A search for SO2, H2S and SO above Tharsis and Syrtis volcanic districts on Mars using ground-based high-resolution submillimeter spectroscopy." Icarus, 253: 130-141 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.02.028]

    Villanueva, G. L., M. J. Mumma, R. E. Novak, et al. H. U. Kaufl, P. Hartogh, T. Encrenaz, A. Tokunaga, A. Khayat, and M. D. Smith. 2015. "Strong water isotopic anomalies in the martian atmosphere: Probing current and ancient reservoirs." Science, 348 (6231): 218-221 [10.1126/science.aaa3630]

    Khayat, A. S. 2015. "Multi-band search for volcanic outgassing in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major regions on Mars." ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), 77-08(E) (ISBN: 9781339590189): 197 p.

    Villanueva, G., M. Mumma, R. Novak, et al. Y. Radeva, H. Käufl, A. Smette, A. Tokunaga, A. Khayat, T. Encrenaz, and P. Hartogh. 2013. "A sensitive search for organics (CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6, C2H2, C2H4), hydroperoxyl (HO2), nitrogen compounds (N2O, NH3, HCN) and chlorine species (HCl, CH3Cl) on Mars using ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy." Icarus, 223 (1): 11-27 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.013]

    James, B. M., A. K. Mainzer, T. Grav, et al. R. J. Walker, J. R. Masiero, E. K. Blauvelt, R. S. McMillan, Y. R. Fernandez, K. J. Meech, C. M. Lisse, R. M. Cutri, J. W. Dailey, D. J. Tholen, T. Riesen, L. Urban, A. S. Khayat, G. Pearman, J. V. Scotti, E. Kramer, D. Cherry, T. Gautier, S. Gomillion, J. Watkins, E. L. Wright, and W. Team. 2012. "WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT." The Astrophysical Journal, 747 (1): 49, 9 pp. [10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/49]

    Non-Refereed

    Guzewich, S., J. B. Abshire, M. M. Baker, et al. J. M. Battalio, T. Bertrand, A. J. Brown, A. Colaprete, A. M. Cook, D. R. Cremons, M. M. Crismani, A. Dave, M. Day, M.-C. Desjean, M. Elrod, L. K. Fenton, J. Fisher, L. L. Gordley, P. O. Hayne, N. G. Heavens, J. L. Hollingsworth, D. Jha, V. Jha, M. A. Kahre, A. S. Khayat, A. M. Kling, S. R. Lewis, B. T. Marshall, G. Martínez, L. Montabone, M. A. Mischna, C. E. Newman, A. Pankine, H. Riris, J. Shirley, M. D. Smith, A. Spiga, X. Sun, L. K. Tamppari, R. M. Young, D. Viúdez-Moreiras, G. L. Villaneuva, M. J. Wolff, and R. J. Wilson. 2021. "Measuring Mars Atmospheric Winds from Orbit." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.6576a506]

    Brown, A., G. Videen, S. Byrne, et al. E. Zubko, S. Diniega, N. Heavens, M. Mishchenko, N.-J. Schlegel, S. Kim, P. Becerra, S. Conway, Y.-J. Choi, K. Herkenhoff, C. R. Meyer, M. Mischna, T. N. Harrison, A. Colaprete, P. Hayne, M. Jeong, R. W. Obbard, I. Smith, T. I. Michaels, M. R. Perry, M. J. Wolff, J. E. Moores, S. Guzewich, C. S. Hvidberg, Y. Hu, J. A. Rall, C. Newman, S. Piqueux, C. K. Sim, R. Lillis, L. Tamppari, P. B. Buhler, W. M. Calvin, M. Landis, J. Hanley, T. J. Stubbs, N. Putzig, A. Spiga, T. N. Titus, A. M. Bramson, B. Meineke, M. Veto, J. Holt, B. L. Henderson, L. K. Fenton, A. Khayat, T. McConnochie, and D. Jha. 2021. "The case for a multi-channel polarization sensitive LIDAR for investigation of insolation-driven ices and atmospheres." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.8c410c60]

    Smith, I., W. M. Calvin, D. E. Smith, et al. C. Hansen, S. Diniega, A. McEwen, N. Thomas, D. Banfield, T. N. Titus, P. Becerra, M. Kahre, F. Forget, M. Hecht, S. Byrne, C. S. Hvidberg, P. O. Hayne, J. W. Iii, M. Mellon, B. Horgan, J. Mustard, J. W. Holt, A. Howard, D. McCleese, C. Stoker, P. James, N. E. Putzig, J. Whitten, P. Buhler, A. Spiga, M. Crismani, K. M. Aye, A. Portyankina, R. Orosei, A. Bramson, J. Hanley, M. Sori, O. Aharonson, S. Clifford, H. Sizemore, G. Morgan, B. Hartmann, N. Schorghofer, R. Clark, D. Berman, D. Crown, F. Chuang, M. Siegler, E. N. Dobrea, K. Lynch, R. W. Obbard, M. R. Elmaary, D. Fisher, A. Kleinboehl, M. Balme, B. Schmitt, M. Daly, R. C. Ewing, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Fenton, S. D. Guzewich, M. Koutnik, J. Levy, R. Massey, A. Łosiak, V. Eke, D. Goldsby, A. Cross, T. Hager, S. Piqueux, A. Kereszturi, K. Seelos, S. Wood, E. Hauber, C. Amos, P. Russell, R. Jaumann, G. Michael, S. Conway, A. Khayat, S. Lewis, G. Luizzi, G. Martinez, K. Mesick, L. Montabone, A. Johnsson, A. Pankine, C. Phillips-Lander, P. Read, L. Edgar, K. Zacny, A. McAdam, A. Rutledge, T. Bertrand, J. Widmer, D. Stillman, A. Soto, Z. Yoldi, R. Young, A. Svensson, L. Sam, M. Landis, A. Bhardwaj, M. Chojnacki, E. Kite, P. Thomas, J. Plaut, J. Bapst, S. Milkovich, J. Whiteway, J. Moores, C. Rezza, R. Karimova, I. Mishev, A. V. Brenen, P. Acharya, J. Chesal, A. Pascuzzo, E. Vos, G. Osinski, C. Andres, C. Neisch, S. Hibbard, P. Sinha, J. P. Knightly, S. Cartwright, S. Kounaves, C. Orgel, M. Skidmore, J. MacGregor, R. Staehle, J. Rabassa, C. Gallagher, A. Coronato, A. G. Galofre, J. Wilson, L. McKeown, N. Oliveira, P. Fawdon, U. Gayathri, C. Stuurman, C. Herny, F. Butcher, F. Bernardini, M. Perry, R. Hu, S. Mukherjee, V. Chevrier, M. E. Banks, T. Meng, P. A. Johnson, B. Tober, J. C. Johnson, S. Ulamsec, J. C. Echaurren, A. Khuller, C. Dinwiddie, S. Adeli, B. L. Henderson, L. R. Lozano, D. Lalich, E. Rivera-Valentín, S. Nerozzi, E. Petersen, F. Foss, R. Lorenz, J. Eigenbrode, M. Day, A. Brown, M. Pajola, Ö. Karatekin, A. Lucchetti, C. Cesar, C. Newman, T. G. Cave, L. Tamppari, M. Mischna, M. Patel, P. Streeter, J. C. Stern, and C. M. Dundas. 2021. "Solar-System-Wide Significance of Mars Polar Science." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.4db95c67]

    Guzewich, S., J. Abshire, L. Carter, et al. D. Cremons, L. Hanson, D. H. Baker, D.-Y. Kao, A. Khayat, B. Lakew, E. Mason, R. Rincon, H. Riris, and M. Smith. 2021. "The Mars Atmospheric and Polar Science Mission." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.7e4e0e4d]

    Selected Public Outreach

    Alain Khayat, l’enfant de Tripoli devenu chercheur à la NASA 2022 - 2022
    https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1286306/alain-khayat-lenfant-de-tripoli-devenu-chercheur-a-la-nasa.html

    Featured on the French speaking newspaper L'Orient Le Jour on the first day of the year 2022 where Dr. Khayat's career path was described.

    NASA is ready to send its most sophisticated observatory into space: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 2021 - 2021
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDVSWXnjvxI

    Al Arabiya TV network interviewed Dr. Khayat at the NASA Goddard visitor center to talk about the launch preparations of the James Webb Space Telescope. The interview included a brief description of the deployment sequence as well as the science objectives of JWST during its nominal mission.

    Featured on the NASA solar system exploration page 2020 - 2020
    https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/399/alain-sj-khayat/
    Interviewed by the NASA Sciences and Exploration Directorate - Early Career Scientist Spotlight 2021 - 2021
    https://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/600/ECSS/KhayatA.html
    Mars looks dead, but don't count it out just yet 2019 - 2019
    https://mashable.com/article/mars-volcano-active-lake/

    Interviewed by the online magazine “Mashable” on volcanic outgassing on Mars

    The search for volcanic eruptions on Mars reaches the next level 2015 - 2015
    https://www.astrobio.net/mars/search-volcanic-eruptions-mars-reaches-next-level/

    Thesis work was highlighted by the "Astrobiology Magazine: Exploring Origins of Life on Earth and Beyond"

    UH scientists help in groundbreaking Martian research 2015 - 2015
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kewzcL30MtM

    Interviewed by KITV News Hawai'i on the NASA study that explained Mars' lost water

    The Telescopes of Mauna Kea 2012 - 2012
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jq8bhFMBm_I&t=11s

    Talks, Presentations and Posters

    Invited

    On the detection of a high-altitude peak of atmospheric ozone by the NOMAD/UVIS onboard the ExoMars TGO

    8 / 2020

    NASA GSFC Solar System Exploration Division director's seminar series

    Detections of Water Vapor Increase over the North Polar Troughs on Mars as Observed by MRO/CRISM

    1 / 2020

    NASA GSFC Solar System Exploration Division director's seminar series

    NASA IRTF CSHELL disk mapping of HDO, H2O and D/H on Mars during its northern summer season

    9 / 2018

    NASA GSFC Solar System Exploration Division director's seminar series

    Understanding the Water Cycle Above the North Polar Cap on Mars Using MRO CRISM Retrievals of Water Vapor

    4 / 2018

    NASA GSFC Solar System Exploration Division director's seminar series

    Sensitive Search for Volcanic Outgassing on Mars

    7 / 2017

    NASA GSFC Solar System Exploration Division director's seminar series

    Ground-based search for volcanic outgassing in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major regions on Mars

    4 / 2015

    NASA Astrobiology Institute. Honolulu, Hawai'i.

    Other

    Simulating Mars D/H and atmospheric chemistry during the 2018 Global Dust Storm and comparing with NOMAD observations

    2020

    Frank Daerden, Lori Neary, Geronimo Villanueva, Shohei Aoki, Sebastien Viscardy, Ian Thomas, Ann Carine Vandaele, Giuliano Liuzzi, Matteo Crismani, Alain SJ. Khayat, Michael D. Smith, R. Todd Clancy, Michael J. Wolff, Brad J. Sandor, James A. Whiteway, Michael J. Mumma, Justin Erwin, Yannick Willame, Arianna Piccialli. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 14, EPSC2020-371, 2020

    On the detection of a high-altitude peak of atmospheric ozone by the NOMAD/UVIS onboard the ExoMars TGO

    2020

    Khayat, Alain SJ.; Smith, Michael; Wolff, Michael; Daerden, Frank; Patel, Manish; Piccialli, Arianna; Vandaele, Anne C.; Thomas, Ian; Mason, Jon; Willame, Yannick; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Depiesse, Cedric; Juan Lopez-Moreno, Jose. 14th Europlanet Science Congress 2020, EPSC2020-362

    Validating Mars GCMs Using High Resolution GroundBased Observations

     

    12 / 2019

    Maxwell C. Parks, Conor A. Nixon, Geronimo L. Villanueva, Michael D. Smith, Martin A. Cordiner, Alain SJ Khayat, Steven B. Charnley, Veronica A. Allen, Eric Villard, J. A. Holmes, Alexander E. Thelen. ". EPSC Abstracts. Vol. 13, EPSC-DPS2019-681-1, 2019.

    On the Non-uniformity of Water Vapor Abundance over the Polar Troughs on Mars: A case study

    12 / 2019

    Khayat, A. SJ., Smith, M. D., Guzewich, S. D.  2019AGUFM.P41B3416K

    Mars Science Laboratory observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 global dust storm

    2018

    Guzewich, S., Lemmon, M., Martínez, G., Smith, M. D., Khayat, A., et al. 2019. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2018, abstract #P34A-03


    Understanding the water cycle above the north polar cap on Mars using MRO CRISM retrievals of water vapor

    2018

    Khayat, A., Smith, M. D., and Guzewich, S. D. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2018, abstract #P31A-06.


    Mars Science Laboratory observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 global dust storm

    2018

    Guzewich, S., Lemmon, M., Martínez, G., Smith, M. D., Khayat, A. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2018, abstract #P34A-03


    Astronaut-deployable geophysical and environmental monitoring stations

    2017

    Guzewich S. D., Bleacher, J. E., Smith, M. D., Khayat, A., Conrad, P. G. Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop 1989, 8092.

    New frontiers-class missions to the ice giants

    2017

    Elder, C., Molaro, J., Khayat, A., Chopra, A., Blum, L., Valencia, S., Mitchell, K., Delgado, A., Jozwiak, L., Landis, M., Watkins, J., Bramson, A., Davis, A., Slipski, M., Budney, C., Young, C., Chu, C., Das, A., Fulton, J., and Chilton, H. Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop 1989, 8147.

    OCEANUS: A Uranus orbiter concept study from the 2016 NASA/JPL planetary science summer school

    2017

    Bramson, A., Elder, C., J. Molaro, A. Khayat, A. Chopra, L. Blum, S. Valencia, K. Mitchell, A. Delgado, L. Jozwiak, M. Landis, J. Watkins, A. Davis, M. Slipski, C. Budney, C. Young, C. Chu, A. Das, J. Fulton, and H. Chilton. 2017. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 1583.

    Astronaut-deployable geophysical and environmental monitoring stations. Dust in the atmosphere of Mars and its impact on human exploration

    2017

    Guzewich, S. D., Bleacher, J. E., Smith, M. D., Khayat, A., Conrad, P. LPI Contributions 1966, 6011.

    ChemCam passive sky spectroscopy at Gale crater, Mars: Interannual variability in dust aerosol particle size, missing water vapor, and the molecular oxygen problem

    2017

    McConnochie, T.H., Smith, M.D. , Wolff, M. J., Khayat, A., et al. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2017, abstract #P23D-2746.

    Ground-based high-resolution infrared and submillimeter searches for the release of volcanic gases on Mars

    2017

    Khayat, A., Villanueva, G. L., Mumma, M. J., and Tokunaga, A. T. The Mars Atmosphere: Modelling and observation 296, Granada, Spain.


    The Evolution of the Water Reservoirs on Mars Revealed via D/H Isotopic Mapping

    2016

    Villanueva, G.L. and Mumma, M.J. and Novak, R.E. and Kaufl, H.U. and Hartogh, P. and Encrenaz, T. and Tokunaga, A. and Khayat, A. and Smith, M.D. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 46.

    Three-dimensional mapping of the water cycle and D/H on Mars with ALMA

    2016

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Clarke, John T.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Khayat, Alain; Hecht, Michael; Fisher, David Andrew. American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #48

    The search for active release of volcanic gases on Mars

    2015

    Khayat, A. SJ., and Villanueva, G.L. and Mumma, M.J. and Tokunaga, A. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 47. National Harbor, MD.

    A new search for active release of volcanic gases on Mars: Sensitive upper limits for OCS

    2014

    Khayat, A. and Villanueva, G.L. and Mumma, M.J. and Tokunaga, A. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 46. Tucson, AZ.

    Revealing the water cycle on Mars via D/H isotopic measurements

    2014

    Villanueva, G.L. and Mumma, M.J. and Novak, R.E. and Kaufl, H.U. and Hartogh, P. and Encrenaz, T. and Tokunaga, A. and Khayat, A. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 46. Tucson, AZ.

    Seasonal Variations in the CO Line Profile and the Retrieved Thermal/Pressure Structures in the Atmosphere of Mars

    2013

    Khayat, A. and Villanueva, G. L. and Mumma, M. J. and Riesen, T. E. and Tokunaga, A. T. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 45. Denver, CO.

    Sensitive Ground-based Search for Sulfuretted Species on Mars

    2012

    Khayat, A. and Villanueva, G. L. and Mumma, M. J. and Riesen, T. E. and Tokunaga, A. T. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 44. Reno, NV.

    Search for Activity in Comet-Asteroid Transition Object 107P/Wilson-Harrington

    2010

    Khayat, A. and Meech, K. and Pittichova, J. and Schorghofer, N. and Yang, B. and Sonnett, S. and Riesen, T. and Kleyna, J. and Kaluna, H. and Keane, J. American Astronomical Society/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 42. Pasadena, CA.

    Brief Bio

    Research Expertise:

    • Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars
    • Developing radiative transfer techniques in planetary atmospheres
    • Infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy
    • Instrument development: Infrared Spectrometers
    • Spacecraft/Rover operations - Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    My research focuses on the remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars, by developing radiative transfer techniques from near-infrared to submillimeter wavelengths. This includes ground-based (NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Keck telescopes, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Submillimeter Array, Caltech Submillimeter Observatory), spacecraft-based (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter/CRISM, Trace Gas Orbiter/NOMAD), and rover-based (Mars Science Laboratory) observations. Analyses include the study of the water cycle over the northern polar cap of Mars, atmospheric D/H and ozone mapping, and trace gases (CH4, SO2, OCS, SO, H2S…). My research highlights include conducting a 3-year campaign targeting volcanic gases on Mars using ground-based observatories such as the NASA IRTF, JCMT, and CSO, indicating the lack of major volcanic outgassing on current day Mars. 

    For information on how to formally request an interview with Dr. Alain Khayat, fill out the online request form through NASA's Speakers Bureau.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Daerden, F., L. Neary, G. Villanueva, et al. G. Liuzzi, S. Aoki, R. T. Clancy, J. A. Whiteway, B. J. Sandor, M. D. Smith, M. J. Wolff, A. Pankine, A. Khayat, R. Novak, B. Cantor, M. Crismani, M. J. Mumma, S. Viscardy, J. Erwin, C. Depiesse, A. Mahieux, A. Piccialli, S. Robert, L. Trompet, Y. Willame, E. Neefs, I. Thomas, B. Ristic, and A. C. Vandaele. 2022. "Explaining NOMAD D/H Observations by Cloud‐induced Fractionation of Water Vapor on Mars." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [10.1029/2021je007079]

    Patel, M., G. Sellers, J. Mason, et al. J. Holmes, M. Brown, S. Lewis, K. Rajendran, P. Streeter, C. Marriner, B. Hathi, D. Slade, M. Leese, M. Wolff, A. Khayat, M. Smith, S. Aoki, A. Piccialli, A. Vandaele, S. Robert, F. Daerden, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, Y. Willame, C. Depiesse, G. Bellucci, and J. Lopez‐Moreno. 2021. "ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS vertical profiles of ozone: Part 1 – Seasonal variation and comparison to water." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [10.1029/2021je006837]

    Khayat, A. S., M. D. Smith, M. Wolff, et al. F. Daerden, L. Neary, M. R. Patel, A. Piccialli, A. C. Vandaele, I. Thomas, B. Ristic, J. Mason, Y. Willame, C. Depiesse, G. Bellucci, and J. J. López‐Moreno. 2021. "ExoMars TGO/NOMAD‐UVIS vertical profiles of ozone: Part 2: The high‐altitude layers of atmospheric ozone." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [10.1029/2021je006834]

    Guzewich, S. D., M. D. Juárez, C. E. Newman, et al. E. Mason, M. D. Smith, N. Miller, A. S. Khayat, H. Kahanpää, D. Viúdez‐Moreiras, and M. I. Richardson. 2021. "Gravity Wave Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory REMS Pressure Sensor and Comparison with Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling with MarsWRF." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [10.1029/2021je006907]

    Parks, M. C., C. A. Nixon, G. L. Villanueva, et al. M. D. Smith, A. S. Khayat, A. E. Thelen, E. Villard, S. B. Charnley, and P. G. Irwin. 2021. "Observations of Mars with ALMA: potential for future constraints of global circulation models." Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems 7 (02): [10.1117/1.jatis.7.2.025001]

    Smith, M. D., F. Daerden, L. Neary, et al. A. S. Khayat, J. A. Holmes, M. R. Patel, G. Villanueva, G. Liuzzi, I. R. Thomas, B. Ristic, G. Bellucci, J. J. Lopez-Moreno, and A. C. Vandaele. 2021. "The climatology of carbon monoxide on Mars as observed by NOMAD nadir-geometry observations." Icarus 114404 [10.1016/j.icarus.2021.114404]

    Smith, C. L., M. Lemmon, J. E. Moores, et al. S. D. Guzewich, T. H. McConnochie, C. E. Newman, A. S. Khayat, M. Battalio, C. A. Moore, and D. Ellison. 2020. "The Line‐of‐Sight Extinction record at Gale Crater as observed by MSL's Mastcam and Navcam through ~2500 sols." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets [10.1029/2020je006465]

    Honniball, C. I., R. Wright, P. G. Lucey, and A. S. Khayat. 2020. "Evaluating the spectroradiometric performance of an uncooled midwave infrared hyperspectral interferometer using a microbolometer array detector." Optical Engineering 59 (07): 1 [10.1117/1.oe.59.7.074103]

    Khayat, A. S., M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2020. "Detections of Water Vapor Increase over the North Polar Troughs on Mars as Observed by CRISM." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2019gl086195]

    Khayat, A., G. L. Villanueva, M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2019. "IRTF/CSHELL Mapping of Atmospheric HDO, H2O and D/H on Mars during Northern Summer." Icarus 330 204-216 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2019.04.007]

    Smith, C. L., J. E. Moores, M. Lemmon, et al. S. D. Guzewich, C. A. Moore, D. Ellison, and A. S. Khayat. 2019. "Visibility and Line‐Of‐Sight Extinction Estimates in Gale Crater during the 2018/MY34 Global Dust Storm." Geophysical Research Letters 2019GL083788 [10.1029/2019gl083788]

    Khayat, A., M. D. Smith, and S. D. Guzewich. 2019. "Understanding the Water Cycle Above the North Polar Cap on Mars Using MRO CRISM Retrievals of Water Vapor." Icarus 321 722 - 735 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.024]

    Guzewich, S., M. Lemmon, G. Martínez, M. D. Smith, and A. S. Khayat. 2019. "Mars Science Laboratory observations of the 2018/Mars Year 34 global dust storm." Geophysical Research Letters [doi:10.1029/2018GL080839]

    Honniball, C. I., R. Wright, P. G. Lucey, A. Gabrieli, and A. Khayat. 2018. "Volcanic gas measurements using a compact mid-wave infrared hyperspectral imager." Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Remote Sensing Technology, Techniques and Applications VII [10.1117/12.2324627]

    Smith, M. D., F. Daerden, L. Neary, and A. Khayat. 2018. "The climatology of carbon monoxide and water vapor on Mars as observed by CRISM and modeled by the GEM-Mars general circulation model ." Icarus 301 117-131 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.09.027]

    Guzewich, S., J. Bleacher, M. Smith, A. Khayat, and P. Conrad. 2018. "Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring of Astronaut Exploration Zones." Dust in the Atmosphere of Mars and its Impact on Human Exploration, Cambridge Scholars Publishing Chapter 16

    Elder, C., J. Molaro, A. Khayat, et al. A. Chopra, L. Blum, S. Valencia, K. Mitchell, A. Delgado, L. Jozwiak, M. Landis, J. Watkins, A. Bramson, A. Davis, M. Slipski, C. Budney, C. Young, C. Chu, A. Das, J. Fulton, and H. Chilton. 2018. "OCEANUS: A high science return Uranus orbiter with a low-cost instrument suite." Acta Astronautica 148 1-11 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2018.04.019]

    Khayat, A. S., G. L. Villanueva, M. J. Mumma, and A. T. Tokunaga. 2017. "A deep search for the release of volcanic gases on Mars using ground-based high-resolution infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy: Sensitive upper limits for OCS and SO2." Icarus 296 1-14 [doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.05.014]

    Khayat, A., G. Villanueva, M. Mumma, and A. Tokunaga. 2015. "A search for SO2, H2S and SO above Tharsis and Syrtis volcanic districts on Mars using ground-based high-resolution submillimeter spectroscopy." Icarus 253 130-141 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.02.028]

    Villanueva, G. L., M. J. Mumma, R. E. Novak, et al. H. U. Kaufl, P. Hartogh, T. Encrenaz, A. Tokunaga, A. Khayat, and M. D. Smith. 2015. "Strong water isotopic anomalies in the martian atmosphere: Probing current and ancient reservoirs." Science 348 (6231): 218-221 [10.1126/science.aaa3630]

    Khayat, A. S. 2015. "Multi-band search for volcanic outgassing in the Tharsis and Syrtis Major regions on Mars." ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.) 77-08(E) (ISBN: 9781339590189): 197 p.

    Villanueva, G., M. Mumma, R. Novak, et al. Y. Radeva, H. Käufl, A. Smette, A. Tokunaga, A. Khayat, T. Encrenaz, and P. Hartogh. 2013. "A sensitive search for organics (CH4, CH3OH, H2CO, C2H6, C2H2, C2H4), hydroperoxyl (HO2), nitrogen compounds (N2O, NH3, HCN) and chlorine species (HCl, CH3Cl) on Mars using ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy." Icarus 223 (1): 11-27 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.11.013]

    James, B. M., A. K. Mainzer, T. Grav, et al. R. J. Walker, J. R. Masiero, E. K. Blauvelt, R. S. McMillan, Y. R. Fernandez, K. J. Meech, C. M. Lisse, R. M. Cutri, J. W. Dailey, D. J. Tholen, T. Riesen, L. Urban, A. S. Khayat, G. Pearman, J. V. Scotti, E. Kramer, D. Cherry, T. Gautier, S. Gomillion, J. Watkins, E. L. Wright, and W. Team. 2012. "WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT." The Astrophysical Journal 747 (1): 49, 9 pp. [10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/49]

    Non-Refereed

    Guzewich, S., J. B. Abshire, M. M. Baker, et al. J. M. Battalio, T. Bertrand, A. J. Brown, A. Colaprete, A. M. Cook, D. R. Cremons, M. M. Crismani, A. Dave, M. Day, M.-C. Desjean, M. Elrod, L. K. Fenton, J. Fisher, L. L. Gordley, P. O. Hayne, N. G. Heavens, J. L. Hollingsworth, D. Jha, V. Jha, M. A. Kahre, A. S. Khayat, A. M. Kling, S. R. Lewis, B. T. Marshall, G. Martínez, L. Montabone, M. A. Mischna, C. E. Newman, A. Pankine, H. Riris, J. Shirley, M. D. Smith, A. Spiga, X. Sun, L. K. Tamppari, R. M. Young, D. Viúdez-Moreiras, G. L. Villaneuva, M. J. Wolff, and R. J. Wilson. 2021. "Measuring Mars Atmospheric Winds from Orbit." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.6576a506]

    Brown, A., G. Videen, S. Byrne, et al. E. Zubko, S. Diniega, N. Heavens, M. Mishchenko, N.-J. Schlegel, S. Kim, P. Becerra, S. Conway, Y.-J. Choi, K. Herkenhoff, C. R. Meyer, M. Mischna, T. N. Harrison, A. Colaprete, P. Hayne, M. Jeong, R. W. Obbard, I. Smith, T. I. Michaels, M. R. Perry, M. J. Wolff, J. E. Moores, S. Guzewich, C. S. Hvidberg, Y. Hu, J. A. Rall, C. Newman, S. Piqueux, C. K. Sim, R. Lillis, L. Tamppari, P. B. Buhler, W. M. Calvin, M. Landis, J. Hanley, T. J. Stubbs, N. Putzig, A. Spiga, T. N. Titus, A. M. Bramson, B. Meineke, M. Veto, J. Holt, B. L. Henderson, L. K. Fenton, A. Khayat, T. McConnochie, and D. Jha. 2021. "The case for a multi-channel polarization sensitive LIDAR for investigation of insolation-driven ices and atmospheres." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.8c410c60]

    Smith, I., W. M. Calvin, D. E. Smith, et al. C. Hansen, S. Diniega, A. McEwen, N. Thomas, D. Banfield, T. N. Titus, P. Becerra, M. Kahre, F. Forget, M. Hecht, S. Byrne, C. S. Hvidberg, P. O. Hayne, J. W. Iii, M. Mellon, B. Horgan, J. Mustard, J. W. Holt, A. Howard, D. McCleese, C. Stoker, P. James, N. E. Putzig, J. Whitten, P. Buhler, A. Spiga, M. Crismani, K. M. Aye, A. Portyankina, R. Orosei, A. Bramson, J. Hanley, M. Sori, O. Aharonson, S. Clifford, H. Sizemore, G. Morgan, B. Hartmann, N. Schorghofer, R. Clark, D. Berman, D. Crown, F. Chuang, M. Siegler, E. N. Dobrea, K. Lynch, R. W. Obbard, M. R. Elmaary, D. Fisher, A. Kleinboehl, M. Balme, B. Schmitt, M. Daly, R. C. Ewing, K. E. Herkenhoff, L. Fenton, S. D. Guzewich, M. Koutnik, J. Levy, R. Massey, A. Łosiak, V. Eke, D. Goldsby, A. Cross, T. Hager, S. Piqueux, A. Kereszturi, K. Seelos, S. Wood, E. Hauber, C. Amos, P. Russell, R. Jaumann, G. Michael, S. Conway, A. Khayat, S. Lewis, G. Luizzi, G. Martinez, K. Mesick, L. Montabone, A. Johnsson, A. Pankine, C. Phillips-Lander, P. Read, L. Edgar, K. Zacny, A. McAdam, A. Rutledge, T. Bertrand, J. Widmer, D. Stillman, A. Soto, Z. Yoldi, R. Young, A. Svensson, L. Sam, M. Landis, A. Bhardwaj, M. Chojnacki, E. Kite, P. Thomas, J. Plaut, J. Bapst, S. Milkovich, J. Whiteway, J. Moores, C. Rezza, R. Karimova, I. Mishev, A. V. Brenen, P. Acharya, J. Chesal, A. Pascuzzo, E. Vos, G. Osinski, C. Andres, C. Neisch, S. Hibbard, P. Sinha, J. P. Knightly, S. Cartwright, S. Kounaves, C. Orgel, M. Skidmore, J. MacGregor, R. Staehle, J. Rabassa, C. Gallagher, A. Coronato, A. G. Galofre, J. Wilson, L. McKeown, N. Oliveira, P. Fawdon, U. Gayathri, C. Stuurman, C. Herny, F. Butcher, F. Bernardini, M. Perry, R. Hu, S. Mukherjee, V. Chevrier, M. E. Banks, T. Meng, P. A. Johnson, B. Tober, J. C. Johnson, S. Ulamsec, J. C. Echaurren, A. Khuller, C. Dinwiddie, S. Adeli, B. L. Henderson, L. R. Lozano, D. Lalich, E. Rivera-Valentín, S. Nerozzi, E. Petersen, F. Foss, R. Lorenz, J. Eigenbrode, M. Day, A. Brown, M. Pajola, Ö. Karatekin, A. Lucchetti, C. Cesar, C. Newman, T. G. Cave, L. Tamppari, M. Mischna, M. Patel, P. Streeter, J. C. Stern, and C. M. Dundas. 2021. "Solar-System-Wide Significance of Mars Polar Science." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.4db95c67]

    Guzewich, S., J. Abshire, L. Carter, et al. D. Cremons, L. Hanson, D. H. Baker, D.-Y. Kao, A. Khayat, B. Lakew, E. Mason, R. Rincon, H. Riris, and M. Smith. 2021. "The Mars Atmospheric and Polar Science Mission." Vol. 53, Issue 4 (Planetary/Astrobiology Decadal Survey Whitepapers) 53 (4): [10.3847/25c2cfeb.7e4e0e4d]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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