Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Wei-Kuo Tao


Wei-Kuo Tao's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 301.614.6269
Org Code: 612
Mail Code 612
Greenbelt, MD 20771
Employer: EMERITUS

Current Projects

Science Team Member



Research Meteorologist

NASA GSFC - Goddard Space Flight Center

January 1989 - Present

Research Associate

National Research Council/National Academy Science - Goddard Space Flight Center

November 1982 - October 1984

Postdoctoral Fellowship

Senior Research Scientist

General Sciences Corporation - Goddard Space Flight Center

November 1984 - January 1989

Professional Societies

Royal Meteorological Society


2001 - Present

American Meteorological Society

member and fellow

1976 - Present



2003 - Present



2014. "Aerosol Effects on Instability, Circulations, Clouds, and Precipitation." Advances in Meteorology 2014 (Article ID 683950): 1-8 [10.1155/2014/683950] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study." Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 56-67 [10.1109/MCSE.2012.90] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Impacts of microphysical scheme on convective and stratiform characteristics in two high precipitation squall line events." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (19): 11,119-11,135 [10.1002/jgrd.50798] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "GPM Satellite Simulator over Ground Validation Sites." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (11): 1653-1660 [10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00160.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Advanced Visualizations of Scale Interactions of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Tropical Waves." Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (2): 47-59 [10.1109/MCSE.2012.64] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The NASA-Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework–Land Information System: Global land/atmosphere interaction with resolved convection." Environmental Modelling & Software 39 103-115 [10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.023] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Correction to “Genesis of twin tropical cyclones as revealed by a global mesoscale model: The role of mixed Rossby gravity waves”." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D16): D16199 [10.1029/2012JD018598] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Genesis of twin tropical cyclones as revealed by a global mesoscale model: The role of mixed Rossby gravity waves." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D13): D13114 [10.1029/2012JD017450] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "A Comparison of Perturbed Initial Conditions and Multiphysics Ensembles in a Severe Weather Episode in Spain." J Appl Meteor Climato 51 (3): 489-504 [10.1175/JAMC-D-11-041.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics in JMA-NHM Simulations Using Bin or Bulk Microphysical Schemes through Comparison with Cloud Radar Observations." J Atmos Sci 69 (8): 2566-2586 [10.1175/JAS-D-11-0213.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "High-Resolution Numerical Simulation of the Extreme Rainfall Associated with Typhoon Morakot. Part I: Comparing the Impact of Microphysics and PBL Parameterizations with Observations." Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 22 (6): 673 [10.3319/TAO.2011.08.26.01(TM)] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Estimating the Ice Crystal Enhancement Factor in the Tropics." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 68 (7): 1424-1434 [10.1175/2011JAS3550.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Coupling Advanced Modeling and Visualization to Improve High-Impact Tropical Weather Prediction." Computing in Science & Engineering 13 (5): 56-67 [10.1109/MCSE.2010.141] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Partitioning CloudSat ice water content for comparison with upper tropospheric ice in global atmospheric models." J. Geophys. Res. 116 (D19): D19206 [10.1029/2010JD015179] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "The impact of microphysical schemes on hurricane intensity and track." Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 47 (1): 1-16 [10.1007/s13143-011-1001-z] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Reducing the Biases in Simulated Radar Reflectivities from a Bulk Microphysics Scheme: Tropical Convective Systems." J. Atmos. Sci. 68 (10): 2306-2320 [10.1175/JAS-D-10-05000.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Ten-year climatology of summertime diurnal rainfall rate over the conterminous U.S." Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 (13): L13807 [10.1029/2010GL044139] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Predicting tropical cyclogenesis with a global mesoscale model: Hierarchical multiscale interactions during the formation of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008)." J. Geophys. Res 115 (D14): D14102 [10.1029/2009JD013140] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Estimates of Tropical Diabatic Heating Profiles: Commonalities and Uncertainties." Journal of Climate 23 (3): 542-558 [10.1175/2009JCLI3025.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "MJO Signals in Latent Heating: Results from TRMM Retrievals." J Atmos Sci 67 (11): 3488-3508 [10.1175/2010JAS3398.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Improving a spectral bin microphysical scheme using TRMM satellite observations." Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 136 (647): 382-399 [10.1002/qj.569] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data." Journal of Climate 23 (8): 2030-2046 [10.1175/2009JCLI3110.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Satellite Data Simulator Unit: A Multisensor, Multispectral Satellite Simulator Package." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 91 (12): 1625-1632 [10.1175/2010BAMS2809.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "WRF Simulations of the 20–22 January 2007 Snow Events over Eastern Canada: Comparison with In Situ and Satellite Observations." J Applied Meteor Climatol 49 (11): 2246–2266 [10.1175/2010JAMC2282.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations." J. Geophys. Res. 115 (D4): D04301 [10.1029/2009JD011880] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "African easterly waves in 30-day high-resolution global simulations: A case study during the 2006 NAMMA period." Geophys Res Lett 37 (18): L18803 [10.1029/2010GL044355] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Relating Convective and Stratiform Rain to Latent Heating." Journal of Climate 23 (7): 1874-1893 [10.1175/2009JCLI3278.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data. Part IV: Comparisons of Lookup Tables from Two- and Three-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations." Journal of Climate 22 (20): 5577-5594 [10.1175/2009JCLI2919.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Mechanisms of diurnal precipitation over the US Great Plains: a cloud resolving model perspective." Climate Dynamics 34 (2-3): 419-437 [10.1007/s00382-009-0531-x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress." J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00A21 [10.1029/2008JD010015] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Heating Profiles." Journal of Climate 22 (23): 6356-6376 [10.1175/2009JCLI3020.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation." J. Atmos. Sci. 66 (1): 41-61 [10.1175/2008JAS2778.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Vertical Heating Structures Associated with the MJO as Characterized by TRMM Estimates, ECMWF Reanalyses, and Forecasts: A Case Study during 1998/99 Winter." Journal of Climate 22 (22): 6001-6020 [10.1175/2009JCLI3048.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "A Modeling and Observational Framework for Diagnosing Local Land–Atmosphere Coupling on Diurnal Time Scales." J. Hydrometeor 10 (3): 577-599 [10.1175/2009JHM1066.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming." Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 135 (643): 1614-1629 [10.1002/qj.449] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "A Multiscale Modeling System: Developments, Applications, and Critical Issues." Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 90 (4): 515-534 [10.1175/2008BAMS2542.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes. Part I: Comparisons." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 66 (1): 3-21 [10.1175/2008JAS2646.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. " Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics." Annales Geophysics 27 3055-3064 [10.5194/angeo-27-3055-2009] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Multiscale cloud system modeling." Rev. Geophys. 47 (4): RG4002 [10.1029/2008RG000276] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Diagnosing the Ice Crystal Enhancement Facort in the Tropics." J Atmos Sci [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Convective-radiative-mixing processes in the Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere." Recent Progress in Atmospheric Sciences with Applications to the Asia-Pacific Region 66-88 [10.1142/9789812818911_0004] [Article in Book]

2008. "Effects of aerosol optical properties on deep convective clouds and radiative forcing." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 113 D08209 [10.1029/2007JD009257] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Representation of 3D heterogeneous cloud fields using copulas: Theory for water clouds." Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 1843-1864 10.1002/qj.321 [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Characteristics of vertical velocity in marine stratocumulus: comparison of large eddy simulations with observations." Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (4): 045020 [10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045020] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Comparisons of satellites liquid water estimates to ECMWF and GMAO analyses, 20th century IPCC AR4 climate simulations, and GCM simulations." Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19): L19710 [10.1029/2008GL035427] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Use of High-Resolution Satellite Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. Part I: South China Sea Monsoon Experiment." J. Atmos. Sci. 64 (12): 4309-4329 [10.1175/2007JAS2281.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Evaluating Clouds in Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations with Observational Data." J Atmos Sci 64 4153-4329 [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Improving Simulations of Convective Systems from TRMM LBA: Easterly and Westerly Regimes." J Atmos Sci 64 (4): 1141-1164 [10.1175/JAS3879.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Effects of aerosols and relative humidity on cumulus clouds." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D14): D14204 [10.1029/2006JD008136] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Improving simulations of convective systems from TRMM LBA: Easterly and westerly regimes." J Atmos Sci 64 (1141-1164): 101175/JAS3879 [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Improved method and uncertainties." J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45 (5): 702-720 [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Satellite-based assessment of marine low cloud variability associated with aerosol, atmospheric stability, and the diurnal cycle." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D17): D17204 [10.1029/2005JD006097] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "An Equation for Moist Entropy in a Precipitating and Icy Atmosphere." Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 62 (12): 4293-4309 [10.1175/JAS3570.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Simulation of the fine structure of the 12 July 1996 Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment: Radiation Aerosols and Ozone (STERAO-A) storm accounting for effects of terrain and interaction with mesoscale flow." J Geophys Res 110 (D14304): [0.1029/2004JD005582] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Comparisons of EOS MLS cloud ice measurements with ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations: Initial results." Geophysical Research Letters 32 (18): L18710 [10.1029/2005GL023788] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "The Cumulus Parameterization Problem: Past, Present, and Future." Journal of Climate 17 (13): 2493-2525 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2493:RATCPP>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Tropical convective responses to microphysical and radiative processes: a sensitivity study with a 2-D cloud resolving model." Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 90 (3-4): 245-259 [10.1007/s00703-004-0088-5] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Modeling of Convective–Stratiform Precipitation Processes: Sensitivity to Partitioning Methods." J Appl Meteor 42 (4): 505–527 [10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0505:MOCSPP>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Microphysics radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCM) model." Meteor Atmos Phys 82 97-137 [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes." Meteorological Monographs 29 (51): 107-107 [10.1175/0065-9401(2003)029<0107:CGCEGM>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Estimation of precipitation and latent heating distributions by satellite passive/active microwave remote sensing." Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment 50-57 [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Reply to Comment on paper: An inquiry into the Cirrus-Cloud Thermostat Effect for tropical sea surface temperature." Geophys. Res. Lett. 21 1187-1188 [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "An inquiry into the cirrus-cloud thermostat effect for tropical sea surface temperature." Geophys Res Lett 21 (12): 1,157-1,160 [10.1029/94GL00222] [Journal Article/Letter]