Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Wei-Kuo Tao



Org Code: 612

Mail Code: 612
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Employer: EMERITUS

Current Projects

Science Team Member



Research Meteorologist

NASA GSFC - Goddard Space Flight Center

January 1989 - Present

Research Associate

National Research Council/National Academy Science - Goddard Space Flight Center

November 1982 - October 1984

Postdoctoral Fellowship

Senior Research Scientist

General Sciences Corporation - Goddard Space Flight Center

November 1984 - January 1989

Professional Societies

Royal Meteorological Society


2001 - Present

American Meteorological Society

member and fellow

1976 - Present



2003 - Present



Lee, S. S., W.-K. Tao, and C. H. Jung. 2014. Aerosol Effects on Instability, Circulations, Clouds, and Precipitation Advances in Meteorology 2014 (Article ID 683950): 1-8 [10.1155/2014/683950]

Shen, B.-W., B. Nelson, S. Cheung, and W.-K. Tao. 2013. Improving NASA's Multiscale Modeling Framework for Tropical Cyclone Climate Study Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 56-67 [10.1109/MCSE.2012.90]

Wu, D., X. Dong, B. Xi, et al. Z. Feng, A. Kennedy, G. Mullendore, M. Gilmore, and W.-K. Tao. 2013. Impacts of microphysical scheme on convective and stratiform characteristics in two high precipitation squall line events J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (19): 11,119-11,135 [10.1002/jgrd.50798]

Matsui, T., T. Iguchi, X. Li, et al. M. Han, W.-K. Tao, W. A. Petersen, T. L'Ecuyer, R. Meneghini, W. S. Olson, C. D. Kummerow, A. Y. Hou, M. R. Schwaller, E. F. Stocker, and J. M. Kwiatkowski. 2013. GPM Satellite Simulator over Ground Validation Sites Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (11): 1653-1660 [10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00160.1]

Shen, B.-W., B. Nelson, W.-K. Tao, and Y.-L. Lin. 2013. Advanced Visualizations of Scale Interactions of Tropical Cyclone Formation and Tropical Waves Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (2): 47-59 [10.1109/MCSE.2012.64]

Mohr, K., W. Tao, J. Chern, S. Kumar, and C. Peters-Lidard. 2013. The NASA-Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework–Land Information System: Global land/atmosphere interaction with resolved convection Environmental Modelling & Software 39 103-115 [10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.02.023]

Shen, B.-W., W.-K. Tao, Y.-L. Lin, and A. Laing. 2012. Correction to “Genesis of twin tropical cyclones as revealed by a global mesoscale model: The role of mixed Rossby gravity waves” J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D16): D16199 [10.1029/2012JD018598]

Shen, B.-W., W.-K. Tao, Y.-L. Lin, and A. Laing. 2012. Genesis of twin tropical cyclones as revealed by a global mesoscale model: The role of mixed Rossby gravity waves J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D13): D13114 [10.1029/2012JD017450]

Tapiador, F., W.-K. Tao, J. J. Shi, et al. C. Angelis, M. Martinez, C. Marcos, A. Rodriguez, and A. Y. Hou. 2012. A Comparison of Perturbed Initial Conditions and Multiphysics Ensembles in a Severe Weather Episode in Spain J Appl Meteor Climato 51 (3): 489-504 [10.1175/JAMC-D-11-041.1]

Iguchi, T., T. Nakajima, A. Khain, et al. K. Saito, T. Takemura, H. Okamoto, T. Nishizawa, and W. Tao. 2012. Evaluation of Cloud Microphysics in JMA-NHM Simulations Using Bin or Bulk Microphysical Schemes through Comparison with Cloud Radar Observations J Atmos Sci 69 (8): 2566-2586 [10.1175/JAS-D-11-0213.1]

Tao, W.-K., J. Jainn, L. Pay-Lin, et al. C. Jhihying, S. E. Lang, C. Mei-Yu, Y. Ming-Jen, W. Chun-Chien, P. Christa, S. Chung-Hsiung, and J. Ben. 2011. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation of the Extreme Rainfall Associated with Typhoon Morakot. Part I: Comparing the Impact of Microphysics and PBL Parameterizations with Observations Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 22 (6): 673 [10.3319/TAO.2011.08.26.01(TM)]

Zeng, X., W. Tao, T. Matsui, et al. S. Xie, S. E. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li. 2011. Estimating the Ice Crystal Enhancement Factor in the Tropics Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 68 (7): 1424-1434 [10.1175/2011JAS3550.1]

Shen, B., W. Tao, and B. Green. 2011. Coupling Advanced Modeling and Visualization to Improve High-Impact Tropical Weather Prediction Computing in Science & Engineering 13 (5): 56-67 [10.1109/MCSE.2010.141]

Chen, W., P. Christopher, F. Jui-Lin, et al. E. Duane, J. Chern, W. Tao, H. Jonathan, and M. Adrian. 2011. Partitioning CloudSat ice water content for comparison with upper tropospheric ice in global atmospheric models J. Geophys. Res. 116 (D19): D19206 [10.1029/2010JD015179]

Tao, W.-K., J. J. Shi, S. S. Chen, et al. S. E. Lang, L. Pay-Liam, S.-Y. Hong, C. D. Peters-Lidard, and A. Y. Hou. 2011. The impact of microphysical schemes on hurricane intensity and track Asia-Pacific J Atmos Sci 47 (1): 1-16 [10.1007/s13143-011-1001-z]

Lang, S., W. Tao, X. Zeng, and L. Yaping. 2011. Reducing the Biases in Simulated Radar Reflectivities from a Bulk Microphysics Scheme: Tropical Convective Systems J. Atmos. Sci. 68 (10): 2306-2320 [10.1175/JAS-D-10-05000.1]

Matsui, T., D. M. Mocko, M.-I. Lee, et al. W.-K. Tao, M. J. Suarez, and R. Pielke. 2010. Ten-year climatology of summertime diurnal rainfall rate over the conterminous U.S Geophys. Res. Lett. 37 (13): L13807 [10.1029/2010GL044139]

Shen, B.-W., W.-K. Tao, W. K. Lau, and R. Atlas. 2010. Predicting tropical cyclogenesis with a global mesoscale model: Hierarchical multiscale interactions during the formation of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008) J. Geophys. Res 115 (D14): D14102 [10.1029/2009JD013140]

Hagos, S., C. Zhang, W. Tao, et al. S. Lang, Y. Takayabu, S. Shige, M. Katsumata, W. S. Olson, and T. L’Ecuyer. 2010. Estimates of Tropical Diabatic Heating Profiles: Commonalities and Uncertainties Journal of Climate 23 (3): 542-558 [10.1175/2009JCLI3025.1]

Zhang, C., L. Jian, H. Samson, et al. W. Tao, S. Lang, N. Yukari, S. Shoichi, K. Masaki, W. S. Olson, and L. Tristan. 2010. MJO Signals in Latent Heating: Results from TRMM Retrievals J Atmos Sci 67 (11): 3488-3508 [10.1175/2010JAS3398.1]

Li, X., W. Tao, T. Matsui, C. Li, and H. Masunaga. 2010. Improving a spectral bin microphysical scheme using TRMM satellite observations Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 136 (647): 382-399 [10.1002/qj.569]

Wind, G., S. Shige, W. Tao, and N. Hirota. 2010. Shallow and Deep Latent Heating Modes over Tropical Oceans Observed with TRMM PR Spectral Latent Heating Data Journal of Climate 23 (8): 2030-2046 [10.1175/2009JCLI3110.1]

Masunaga, H., T. Matsui, W. Tao, et al. A. Hou, D. Christian, N. Teruyuki, B. Peter, W. S. Olson, S. Miho, and Y. Takashi. 2010. Satellite Data Simulator Unit: A Multisensor, Multispectral Satellite Simulator Package Bull Amer Meteor Soc 91 (12): 1625-1632 [10.1175/2010BAMS2809.1]

Shi, J. J., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, et al. R. Cifelli, A. Y. Hou, S. E. Lang, A. Tokay, N. Wang, C. D. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. A. Petersen. 2010. WRF Simulations of the 20–22 January 2007 Snow Events over Eastern Canada: Comparison with In Situ and Satellite Observations J Applied Meteor Climatol 49 (11): 2246–2266 [10.1175/2010JAMC2282.1]

Ott, L., K. E. Pickering, G. Stenchikov, et al. D. Allen, A. DeCaria, B. Ridley, R. Lin, S. Lang, and W. Tao. 2010. Production of lightning NO<sub><i>x</i></sub> and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations J. Geophys. Res. 115 (D4): D04301 [10.1029/2009JD011880]

Shen, B., W. Tao, and M. Wu. 2010. African easterly waves in 30-day high-resolution global simulations: A case study during the 2006 NAMMA period Geophys Res Lett 37 (18): L18803 [10.1029/2010GL044355]

Tao, W.-K., E. A. Lee, X. Zeng, S. Shige, and Y. Takayabu. 2010. Relating Convective and Stratiform Rain to Latent Heating Journal of Climate 23 (7): 1874-1893 [10.1175/2009JCLI3278.1]

Shige, S., Y. Takayabu, S. Kida, et al. W.-K. Tao, X. Zeng, C. Yokoyama, and T. L'Ecuyer. 2009. Spectral Retrieval of Latent Heating Profiles from TRMM PR Data. Part IV: Comparisons of Lookup Tables from Two- and Three-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations Journal of Climate 22 (20): 5577-5594 [10.1175/2009JCLI2919.1]

Lee, M.-I., I. Choi, W.-K. Tao, S. D. Schubert, and I.-S. Kang. 2009. Mechanisms of diurnal precipitation over the US Great Plains: a cloud resolving model perspective Climate Dynamics 34 (2-3): 419-437 [10.1007/s00382-009-0531-x]

Waliser, D. E., J. Li, C. P. Woods, et al. R. T. Austin, J. Bacmeister, J. Chern, A. Del Genio, J. H. Jiang, Z. Kuang, H. Meng, P. Minnis, S. E. Platnick, W. B. Rossow, G. L. Stephens, S. Sun-Mack, W.-K. Tao, A. M. Tompkins, D. G. Vane, C. Walker, and D. Wu. 2009. Cloud ice: A climate model challenge with signs and expectations of progress J. Geophys. Res. 114 D00A21 [10.1029/2008JD010015]

Grecu, M., W. S. Olson, C. Shie, T. LEcuyer, and W. Tao. 2009. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Heating Profiles Journal of Climate 22 (23): 6356-6376 [10.1175/2009JCLI3020.1]

Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, X. Li, et al. M. Zhang, A. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. E. Lang, D. O. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson. 2009. An Indirect Effect of Ice Nuclei on Atmospheric Radiation J. Atmos. Sci. 66 (1): 41-61 [10.1175/2008JAS2778.1]

Jiang, X., D. Waliser, J. Li, et al. B. Tian, W. Olson, M. Grecu, W. Tao, S. Lang, J. Tompkins, and T. L'Ecuyer. 2009. Vertical Heating Structures Associated with the MJO as Characterized by TRMM Estimates, ECMWF Reanalyses, and Forecasts: A Case Study during 1998/99 Winter Journal of Climate 22 (22): 6001-6020 [10.1175/2009JCLI3048.1]

Santanello Jr, J. A., C. Peters-Lidard, S. Kummar, C. Alonge, and W.-K. Tao. 2009. A Modeling and Observational Framework for Diagnosing Local Land–Atmosphere Coupling on Diurnal Time Scales J. Hydrometeor 10 (3): 577-599 [10.1175/2009JHM1066.1]

Zeng, X., W. Tao, M. Zhang, et al. Y. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. Li, O. David, and X. Li. 2009. A contribution by ice nuclei to global warming Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 135 (643): 1614-1629 [10.1002/qj.449]

Tao, W.-K., J.-D. Chern, R. Atlas, et al. D. Randall, M. Khairoutdinov, J. Li, D. Waliser, A. Y. Hou, X. Lin, C. D. Peters-Lidard, W. K. Lau, J. Jiang, and J. Simpson. 2009. A Multiscale Modeling System: Developments, Applications, and Critical Issues Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 90 (4): 515-534 [10.1175/2008BAMS2542.1]

Li, X., W.-K. Tao, A. Khain, J. Simpson, and D. Johnson. 2009. Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes. Part I: Comparisons Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 66 (1): 3-21 [10.1175/2008JAS2646.1]

Tao, W.-K., D. Anderson, J.-D. Chern, et al. J. Estin, A. Hou, P. Houser, R. Kakar, S. E. Lang, W. K. Lau, C. D. Peters-Lidard, X. Li, T. Matsui, M. Rienecker, M. R. Schoeberl, B. W. Shen, J. J. Shi, and X. Zeng. 2009. Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics Annales Geophysics 27 3055-3064 [10.5194/angeo-27-3055-2009]

Tao, W.-K., and M. Moncrieff. 2009. Multiscale cloud system modeling Rev. Geophys. 47 (4): RG4002 [10.1029/2008RG000276]

Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, et al. S. Xie, E. A. Lee, M. Zhang, D. O. Starr, X. Li, and J. Simpson. 2009. Diagnosing the Ice Crystal Enhancement Facort in the Tropics J Atmos Sci

Sui, C.-H., X. Li, W. K. Lau, et al. W.-K. Tao, M.-D. Chou, and M.-J. Yang. 2008. Convective-radiative-mixing processes in the Tropical Ocean-Atmosphere Recent Progress in Atmospheric Sciences with Applications to the Asia-Pacific Region 66-88 [10.1142/9789812818911_0004]

Fan, J., R. Zhang, W.-K. Tao, and K. Mohr. 2008. Effects of aerosol optical properties on deep convective clouds and radiative forcing Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 113 D08209 [10.1029/2007JD009257]

Norris, P. M., L. Oreopoulos, A. Y. Hou, W. K. Tao, and X. Zeng. 2008. Representation of 3D heterogeneous cloud fields using copulas: Theory for water clouds Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 1843-1864 10.1002/qj.321

Guo, H., Y. Liu, H. Daum, and W.-K. Tao. 2008. Characteristics of vertical velocity in marine stratocumulus: comparison of large eddy simulations with observations Environ. Res. Lett. 3 (4): 045020 [10.1088/1748-9326/3/4/045020]

Li, J.-L., D. Waliser, C. Woods, et al. J. Teixeira, J. Bacmeister, J.-D. Chern, B.-W. Shen, A. Tompkins, W.-K. Tao, and M. Kohler. 2008. Comparisons of satellites liquid water estimates to ECMWF and GMAO analyses, 20th century IPCC AR4 climate simulations, and GCM simulations Geophysical Research Letters 35 (19): L19710 [10.1029/2008GL035427]

Zhou, Y., W.-K. Tao, A. Y. Hou, et al. W. S. Olson, C.-L. Shie, K. Lau, M. Chou, X. Lin, and M. Grecu. 2007. Use of High-Resolution Satellite Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. Part I: South China Sea Monsoon Experiment J. Atmos. Sci. 64 (12): 4309-4329 [10.1175/2007JAS2281.1]

Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, M. Zhang, et al. C. Peters-Lidard, S. E. Lang, J. Simpson, S. Kumar, S. Xie, J. Eastman, C.-L. Shie, and J. Geiger. 2007. Evaluating Clouds in Long-Term Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations with Observational Data J Atmos Sci 64 4153-4329

Lang, S. E., W.-K. Tao, R. Cifelli, et al. W. S. Olson, J. Halverson, S. Rutledge, and J. Simpson. 2007. Improving Simulations of Convective Systems from TRMM LBA: Easterly and Westerly Regimes J Atmos Sci 64 (4): 1141-1164 [10.1175/JAS3879.1]

Fan, J., R. Zhang, G. Li, and W.-K. Tao. 2007. Effects of aerosols and relative humidity on cumulus clouds J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D14): D14204 [10.1029/2006JD008136]

Lang, S. E., W.-K. Tao, R. Cifelli, et al. W. S. Olson, J. Halverson, S. Rutledge, and J. Simpson. 2007. Improving simulations of convective systems from TRMM LBA: Easterly and westerly regimes J Atmos Sci 64 (1141-1164): 101175/JAS3879

Olson, W., C. Kummerow, S. Yang, et al. G. Petty, W. Tao, T. Bell, S. Braun, Y. Wang, S. Lang, D. Johnson, and C. Chiu. 2006. Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Improved method and uncertainties J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45 (5): 702-720

Matsui, T., H. Masunaga, S. Kreidenweis, et al. R. Pielke, W.-K. Tao, M. Chin, and Y. Kaufman. 2006. Satellite-based assessment of marine low cloud variability associated with aerosol, atmospheric stability, and the diurnal cycle J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D17): D17204 [10.1029/2005JD006097]

Zeng, X., W.-K. Tao, and J. Simpson. 2005. An Equation for Moist Entropy in a Precipitating and Icy Atmosphere Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 62 (12): 4293-4309 [10.1175/JAS3570.1]

Stenchikov, G., L. Ott, J. Scala, et al. W.-K. Tao, A. DeCaria, K. Pickering, D. Bartels, and T. Matejka. 2005. Simulation of the fine structure of the 12 July 1996 Stratosphere-Troposphere Experiment: Radiation Aerosols and Ozone (STERAO-A) storm accounting for effects of terrain and interaction with mesoscale flow J Geophys Res 110 (D14304): [0.1029/2004JD005582]

Li, J.-L., D. E. Waliser, J. H. Jiang, et al. D. L. Wu, W. Read, J. W. Waters, A. M. Tompkins, L. J. Donner, J.-D. Chern, W.-K. Tao, R. Atlas, Y. Gu, K. N. Liou, A. Del Genio, M. Khairoutdinov, and A. Gettelman. 2005. Comparisons of EOS MLS cloud ice measurements with ECMWF analyses and GCM simulations: Initial results Geophysical Research Letters 32 (18): L18710 [10.1029/2005GL023788]

Tao, W., D. Starr, A. Hou, P. Newman, and Y. Sud. 2004. The Cumulus Parameterization Problem: Past, Present, and Future Journal of Climate 17 (13): 2493-2525 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2493:RATCPP>2.0.CO;2]

Li, X., C.-H. Sui, W. K. Lau, and W.-K. Tao. 2004. Tropical convective responses to microphysical and radiative processes: a sensitivity study with a 2-D cloud resolving model Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 90 (3-4): 245-259 [10.1007/s00703-004-0088-5]

Lang, S. E., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, and B. Ferrier. 2003. Modeling of Convective–Stratiform Precipitation Processes: Sensitivity to Partitioning Methods J Appl Meteor 42 (4): 505–527 [10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<0505:MOCSPP>2.0.CO;2]

Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, S. E. Lang, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. O. Starr, C. Sui, Y. Wang, and P. Wetzel. 2003. Microphysics radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCM) model Meteor Atmos Phys 82 97-137

Tao, W.-K. 2003. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes Meteorological Monographs 29 (51): 107-107 [10.1175/0065-9401(2003)029<0107:CGCEGM>2.0.CO;2]

Olson, W. S., S. Yang, C. A. Kummerow, et al. Z. Haddad, W.-K. Tao, E. A. Lee, D. E. Johnson, S. A. Braun, C. Chiu, and J.-J. Wang. 2002. Estimation of precipitation and latent heating distributions by satellite passive/active microwave remote sensing Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment 50-57

Lau, W. K., C.-H. Sui, M.-D. Chou, and W.-K. Tao. 1994. Reply to Comment on paper: An inquiry into the Cirrus-Cloud Thermostat Effect for tropical sea surface temperature Geophys. Res. Lett. 21 1187-1188

Lau, W. K., C.-H. Sui, M.-D. Chou, and W.-K. Tao. 1994. An inquiry into the cirrus-cloud thermostat effect for tropical sea surface temperature Geophys Res Lett 21 (12): 1,157-1,160 [10.1029/94GL00222]