Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Terry Anthony Hurford



Org Code: 690

Mail Code: 690
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Employer: NASA

Brief Bio

Terry Hurford is a planetary scientist in the Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry Laboratory at NASA GSFC. He studies the geology and geophysics of icy satellites. His work has linked the formation of tectonic features to tidal stresses that are active on these bodies. For example, on Enceladus his work has led to the understanding that diurnal changes in stress can modulate the on-going eruption of material from fractures called Tiger Stripes in the south polar region.

Current Projects

Development of the SUBLIME Seismometer for Future Lunar Missions


Nov 2019 - Present

Project PI

This project will develop a MET seismometer to TRL 6 for future Lunar investigations.

Broadband InfraRed Compact High Resolution Exploration Spectrometer (BIRCHES)

Remote Sensing

Jun 2015 – Present

Instrument PI for BIRCHES, which is a near-infrared instrument on the Lunar IceCube cubesat mission

Mission PI is Pamela Clark at JPL

Europa Imaging System (EIS) on the Clipper Mission

Remote Sensing

Oct 2014 – Present

CoI on the EIS team.  This instrument will image the surface of Europa from the Clipper mission spacecraft.

PI Elizabeth Turtle at APL

Observatory for Planetary Investigations form the Stratosphere (OPIS) mission

Technology & Missions

Oct 2013 – Oct 2014

Project PI

Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (Cassini - CIRS)

Remote Sensing

Aug 2008 – 2018

Team Affiliate


Planetary Scientist

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Greenbelt, MD

October 2008 - Present

Discipline Scientist, Outer Planets Research Program


May 2010 - October 2014

NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow


September 2005 - September 2008


August 1998 - August 2005 - Ph.D., Planetary Science, University of Arizona
August 1993 - May 1998 - B.S., Astronomy and Physics with Honors, University of Arizona



Olsen, K. G., T. A. Hurford, N. Schmerr, et al. K. M. Brunt, S. Zipparo, M.-H. Huang, H. Cole, and R. C. Aster. 2021. Projected seismic activity at the Tiger Stripe Fractures on Enceladus, Saturn from an analog study of tidally modulated icequakes within the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets []

Renaud, J. P., W. G. Henning, P. Saxena, et al. M. Neveu, A. Bagheri, A. Mandell, and T. Hurford. 2021. Tidal Dissipation in Dual-body, Highly Eccentric, and Nonsynchronously Rotating Systems: Applications to Pluto–Charon and the Exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e The Planetary Science Journal 2 (1): 4 [10.3847/psj/abc0f3]

Hurford, T. A., W. G. Henning, R. Maguire, et al. V. Lekic, N. Schmerr, M. Panning, V. Bray, M. Manga, S. Kattenhorn, L. Quick, and A. Rhoden. 2020. Seismicity on tidally active solid-surface worlds Icarus 338 113466 [10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113466]

Paganini, L., G. L. Villanueva, L. Roth, et al. A. M. Mandell, T. A. Hurford, K. D. Retherford, and M. J. Mumma. 2019. A measurement of water vapour amid a largely quiescent environment on Europa Nature Astronomy [10.1038/s41550-019-0933-6]

Howett, C., J. Spencer, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2019. Maps of Tethys’ thermophysical properties Icarus 321 705-714 [10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.018]

Hendrix, A. R., T. A. Hurford, L. M. Barge, et al. M. T. Bland, J. S. Bowman, W. Brinckerhoff, B. J. Buratti, M. L. Cable, J. Castillo-Rogez, G. C. Collins, S. Diniega, C. R. German, A. G. Hayes, T. Hoehler, S. Hosseini, C. J. Howett, A. S. McEwen, C. D. Neish, M. Neveu, T. A. Nordheim, G. W. Patterson, D. A. Patthoff, C. Phillips, A. Rhoden, B. E. Schmidt, K. N. Singer, J. M. Soderblom, and S. D. Vance. 2019. The NASA Roadmap to Ocean Worlds Astrobiology 19 (1): 1-27 [10.1089/ast.2018.1955]

Hewagama, T., J. M. Bauer, K. Hughes, et al. D. Jennings, K. Brown, P. E. Clark, M. Daly, L. Feaga, D. Folta, N. Gorius, T. Hurford, M. Mumma, T. Livengood, C. Nixon, J. Sunshine, G. Villanueva, A. Zucherman, B. Malphrus, and S. Aslam. 2018. Overview of Primitive Object Volatile Explorer (PrOVE) CubeSat or Smallsat concept CubeSats and NanoSats for Remote Sensing II [10.1117/12.2321264]

Howett, C. J., J. R. Spencer, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2018. Limits on Dione's Activity Using Cassini/CIRS Data Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2018gl078161]

Saxena, P., J. P. Renaud, W. G. Henning, M. Jutzi, and T. Hurford. 2018. Relevance of tidal heating on large TNOs Icarus 302 245-260 [10.1016/j.icarus.2017.11.023]

Guzman, M., R. Lorenz, D. Hurley, et al. W. Farrell, J. Spencer, C. Hansen, T. Hurford, J. Ibea, P. Carlson, and C. P. McKay. 2018. Collecting amino acids in the Enceladus plume International Journal of Astrobiology 18 (1): 47-59 [10.1017/s1473550417000544]

Davila, A., C. McKay, D. Willson, J. L. Eigenbrode, and T. A. Hurford. 2018. Follow the Plume: Organic Molecules and Habitable Conditions in the Subsurface Ocean of Enceladus White Paper

Rhoden, A. R., W. Henning, T. A. Hurford, D. A. Patthoff, and R. Tajeddine. 2017. The implications of tides on the Mimas ocean hypothesis Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 122 (2): 400-410 [10.1002/2016je005097]

Aslam, S., M. Amato, N. Bowles, et al. S. Calcutt, T. Hewagama, J. Howard, C. Howett, W.-T. Hsieh, T. Hurford, J. Hurley, P. Irwin, D. E. Jennings, E. Kessler, B. Lakew, M. Loeffler, M. Mellon, A. Nicoletti, C. A. Nixon, N. Putzig, G. Quilligan, J. Rathbun, M. Segura, J. Spencer, J. Spitale, and G. West. 2016. Dual-telescope multi-channel thermal-infrared radiometer for outer planet fly-by missions Acta Astronautica 128 628-639 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.08.009]

Howett, C., J. Spencer, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2016. Thermal properties of Rhea's poles: Evidence for a meter-deep unconsolidated subsurface layer Icarus 272 140-148 [10.1016/j.icarus.2016.02.033]

Hurford, T. A., E. Asphaug, J. N. Spitale, et al. D. Hemingway, A. R. Rhoden, W. G. Henning, B. G. Bills, S. A. Kattenhorn, and M. Walker. 2016. Tidal disruption of Phobos as the cause of surface fractures Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 121 (6): 1054-1065 [10.1002/2015je004943]

Cook-Hallett, C., J. W. Barnes, S. A. Kattenhorn, et al. T. Hurford, J. Radebaugh, B. Stiles, and M. Beuthe. 2015. Global contraction/expansion and polar lithospheric thinning on Titan from patterns of tectonism Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 120 (6): 1220-1236 [10.1002/2014je004645]

Rhoden, A. R., T. A. Hurford, L. Roth, and K. Retherford. 2015. Linking Europa’s plume activity to tides, tectonics, and liquid water Icarus 253 169-178 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.02.023]

Spitale, J. N., T. A. Hurford, A. R. Rhoden, E. E. Berkson, and S. S. Platts. 2015. Curtain eruptions from Enceladus’ south-polar terrain Nature 521 (7550): 57-60 [10.1038/nature14368]

Rhoden, A. R., W. Henning, T. A. Hurford, and D. P. Hamilton. 2015. The interior and orbital evolution of Charon as preserved in its geologic record Icarus 246 11-20 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.030]

Howett, C., J. Spencer, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2014. Thermophysical property variations across Dione and Rhea Icarus 241 239-247 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.05.047]

Henning, W. G., and T. Hurford. 2014. TIDAL HEATING IN MULTILAYERED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS The Astrophysical Journal 789 (1): 30 [10.1088/0004-637x/789/1/30]

Hurford, T. A., and K. M. Brunt. 2014. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa Earth and Planetary Science Letters 401 275-283 [10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.015]

Rhoden, A. R., and T. A. Hurford. 2013. Lineament azimuths on Europa: Implications for obliquity and non-synchronous rotation Icarus 226 (1): 841-859 [10.1016/j.icarus.2013.06.029]

Howett, C., J. Spencer, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2012. PacMan returns: An electron-generated thermal anomaly on Tethys Icarus 221 (2): 1084-1088 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.10.013]

Hurford, T., P. Helfenstein, and J. Spitale. 2012. Tidal control of jet eruptions on Enceladus as observed by Cassini ISS between 2005 and 2007 Icarus 220 (2): 896-903 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.06.022]

Rhoden, A. R., G. Wurman, E. M. Huff, M. Manga, and T. A. Hurford. 2012. Shell tectonics: A mechanical model for strike-slip displacement on Europa Icarus 218 (1): 297-307 [10.1016/j.icarus.2011.12.015]

Barnes, J. W., L. Lemke, R. Foch, et al. C. P. McKay, R. A. Beyer, J. Radebaugh, D. H. Atkinson, R. D. Lorenz, S. Le Mouélic, S. Rodriguez, J. Gundlach, F. Giannini, S. Bain, F. M. Flasar, T. Hurford, C. M. Anderson, J. Merrison, M. Ádámkovics, S. A. Kattenhorn, J. Mitchell, D. M. Burr, A. Colaprete, E. Schaller, A. J. Friedson, K. S. Edgett, A. Coradini, A. Adriani, K. M. Sayanagi, M. J. Malaska, D. Morabito, and K. Reh. 2011. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance Experimental Astronomy 33 (1): 55-127 [10.1007/s10686-011-9275-9]

Howett, C., J. Spencer, P. Schenk, et al. R. Johnson, C. Paranicas, T. Hurford, A. Verbiscer, and M. Segura. 2011. A high-amplitude thermal inertia anomaly of probable magnetospheric origin on Saturn’s moon Mimas Icarus 216 (1): 221-226 [10.1016/j.icarus.2011.09.007]

Rhoden, A. R., T. A. Hurford, and M. Manga. 2011. Strike-slip fault patterns on Europa: Obliquity or polar wander? Icarus 211 636 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.002]

Rhoden, A. R., B. Militzer, E. M. Huff, et al. T. A. Hurford, M. Manga, and M. A. Richards. 2010. Constraints on Europa’s rotational dynamics from modeling of tidally-driven fractures Icarus 210 (2): 770-784 [10.1016/j.icarus.2010.07.018]

Tobie, G., B. Giese, T. A. Hurford, et al. R. M. Lopes, F. Nimmo, F. Postberg, K. D. Retherford, J. Schmidt, J. R. Spencer, T. Tokano, and E. P. Turtle. 2010. Surface, Subsurface and Atmosphere Exchanges on the Satellites of the Outer Solar System Space Science Reviews 153 (1-4): 375-410 [10.1007/s11214-010-9641-3]

Hurford, T., B. Bills, P. Helfenstein, et al. R. Greenberg, G. Hoppa, and D. Hamilton. 2009. Geological implications of a physical libration on Enceladus Icarus 203 (2): 541-552 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.04.025]

Hurford, T., A. Sarid, R. Greenberg, and B. Bills. 2009. The influence of obliquity on europan cycloid formation Icarus 202 (1): 197-215 [10.1016/j.icarus.2009.02.036]

Hurford, T. A., P. Helfenstein, G. V. Hoppa, R. Greenberg, and B. G. Bills. 2007. Eruptions arising from tidally controlled periodic openings of rifts on Enceladus Nature 447 (7142): 292-294 [10.1038/nature05821]

Hurford, T., A. Sarid, and R. Greenberg. 2007. Cycloidal cracks on Europa: Improved modeling and non-synchronous rotation implications Icarus 186 (1): 218-233 [10.1016/j.icarus.2006.08.026]

Sarid, A. R., R. Greenberg, and T. A. Hurford. 2006. Crack azimuths on Europa: Sequencing of the northern leading hemisphere Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (E8): E08004 [10.1029/2005je002524]

Hurford, T., R. Beyer, B. Schmidt, et al. B. Preblich, A. Sarid, and R. Greenberg. 2005. Flexure of Europa's lithosphere due to ridge-loading Icarus 177 (2): 380-396 [10.1016/j.icarus.2005.06.019]

Hurford, T. A. 2005. Tides and tidal stress: Applications to Europa

Greenberg, R., G. V. Hoppa, G. Bart, and T. Hurford. 2003. Tidal Stress Patterns on Europa's Crust Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 87 (1): 171-188

Sarid, A. R., R. Greenberg, G. V. Hoppa, et al. T. A. Hurford, B. Tufts, and P. Geissler. 2002. Polar Wander and Surface Convergence of Europa's Ice Shell: Evidence from a Survey of Strike-Slip Displacement Icarus 158 (1): 24-41 [10.1006/icar.2002.6873]

Hoppa, G. V., B. Randall Tufts, R. Greenberg, et al. T. Hurford, D. O'Brien, and P. E. Geissler. 2001. Europa's Rate of Rotation Derived from the Tectonic Sequence in the Astypalaea Region Icarus 153 (1): 208-213 [10.1006/icar.2001.6663]

Hurford, T. A., and R. Greenberg. 2000. Tidal Evolution by elongated primaries: Implications for the Ida/Dactyl System Geophysical Research Letters 27 (11): 1595-1598 [10.1029/1999GL010956]

Petit, J.-M., D. D. Durda, R. Greenberg, T. Hurford, and P. Geissler. 1997. The Long-Term Dynamics of Dactyl's Orbit Icarus 130 (1): 177-197 [10.1006/icar.1997.5788]


Eigenbrode, J. L., R. Gold, C. McKay, T. A. Hurford, and A. Davila. 2018. Searching for Life in an Ocean World: The Enceladus Life Signatures and Habitability (ELSAH) mission concept 42nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly