Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Gavin A. Schmidt


Gavin A. Schmidt's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 212.678.5627
Org Code: 611
Mail Code 611
New York, NY 10025

Brief Bio

Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

Research Interests

Coupled climate modeling

Earth Science: Climate

Development, application and evaluation of coupled ocean-atmosphere-composition climate models.


Earth Science: Climate

Investigation of changes in past climate and what they can reveal about model skill and future changes.

Detection and attribution of Climate change

Earth Science: Climate

Exploring the fingerprints of forced and internal changes in the climate record and in models to better understand why climate changed in the past, why it is changing now and how it might change in the future. 

Current Projects

GISS ModelE development


Construction, expansion and evaluation of the GISS ModelE coupled GCM.


B.A. (Hons) Mathematics, Oxford University, 1988
PhD in Applied Mathematics, University College London, 1994


  • Honorary Doctor of Science, Bristol University, UK (2018)
  • AGU Fellow (2018)
  • Honorary Doctor of Science, Williams College, MA (2017)
  • AAAS Fellow (2017)
  • Outstanding Leadership Medal (GSFC, 2017)
  • AGU Stephen Schneider Lecturer (2013)
  • AGU Climate Communications Prize (2011)
  • EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year (2011)



2024. "Coupled Stratospheric Ozone and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Feedbacks on the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Jet Response to 4xCO2." Journal of Climate 37 (10): 2897-2917 [10.1175/jcli-d-23-0119.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2024. "Ocean heat content in 2023." Nature Reviews Earth & Environment 5 (4): 232-234 [10.1038/s43017-024-00539-9] [Journal Article/Letter]

2024. "Atmospheric CO2 emissions and ocean acidification from bottom-trawling." Frontiers in Marine Science 10 [10.3389/fmars.2023.1125137] [Journal Article/Letter]

2024. "Exploring the ENSO modulation of the QBO periods with GISS E2.2 models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 24 (1): 509-532 [10.5194/acp-24-509-2024] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Winds and Meltwater Together Lead to Southern Ocean Surface Cooling and Sea Ice Expansion." Geophysical Research Letters 50 (24): [10.1029/2023gl105948] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Anomalous Meltwater From Ice Sheets and Ice Shelves Is a Historical Forcing." Geophysical Research Letters 50 (24): [10.1029/2023gl106530] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Atmospheric Response to a Collapse of the North Atlantic Circulation under a Mid-Range Future Climate Scenario: A Regime Shift in Northern Hemisphere Dynamics." Journal of Climate 36 (19): 6669-6693 [10.1175/jcli-d-22-0841.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Comment on “Advanced Testing of Low, Medium, and High ECS CMIP6 GCM Simulations Versus ERA5‐T2m” by N. Scafetta (2022)." Geophysical Research Letters 50 (18): [10.1029/2022gl102530] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Stochastic Bifurcation of the North Atlantic Circulation under a Midrange Future Climate Scenario with the NASA-GISS ModelE." Journal of Climate 36 (18): 6141-6161 [10.1175/jcli-d-22-0536.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Changing Nature of High‐Impact Snowfall Events in Eastern North America." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128 (13): [10.1029/2023jd038804] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "CERESMIP: a climate modeling protocol to investigate recent trends in the Earth's Energy Imbalance." Frontiers in Climate 5 [10.3389/fclim.2023.1202161] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Importance of internal variability for climate model assessment." NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science 6 (1): 68 [10.1038/s41612-023-00389-0] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Understanding Model‐Observation Discrepancies in Satellite Retrievals of Atmospheric Temperature Using GISS ModelE." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128 (1): [10.1029/2022jd037523] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "The Turning Point of the Aerosol Era." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14 (12): [10.1029/2022ms003070] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Assessing progress toward the Paris climate agreement from space." Environmental Research Letters 17 (11): 111002 [10.1088/1748-9326/ac998c] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Attribution of multi-annual to decadal changes in the climate system: The Large Ensemble Single Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (LESFMIP)." Frontiers in Climate 4 [10.3389/fclim.2022.955414] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Responses of compound daytime and nighttime warm-dry and warm-humid events to individual anthropogenic forcings." Environmental Research Letters 17 (8): 084015 [10.1088/1748-9326/ac80ce] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Climate simulations: recognize the ‘hot model’ problem." Nature 605 (7908): 26-29 [10.1038/d41586-022-01192-2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Future Climate Change under SSP Emission Scenarios with GISS‐E2.1." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2021ms002871] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Coral Oxygen Isotopic Records Capture the 2015/2016 El Niño Event in the Central Equatorial Pacific." Geophysical Research Letters 48 (24): pp. 1–9 [10.1029/2021gl094036] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Temporal and spatial distribution of health, labor, and crop benefits of climate change mitigation in the United States." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118 (46): e2104061118 [10.1073/pnas.2104061118] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Multi-variate factorisation of numerical simulations." Geoscientific Model Development 14 (7): 4307-4317 [10.5194/gmd-14-4307-2021] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "The impact of increasing stratospheric radiative damping on the quasi-biennial oscillation period." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21 (9): 7395-7407 [10.5194/acp-21-7395-2021] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "CMIP6 Historical Simulations (1850‐2014) with GISS‐E2.1." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 13 e2019MS002034 [10.1029/2019ms002034] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "GISS Model E2.2: A Climate Model Optimized for the Middle Atmosphere—2. Validation of Large‐Scale Transport and Evaluation of Climate Response." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (24): [10.1029/2020jd033151] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Perspectives on Data Reproducibility and Replicability in Paleoclimate and Climate Science." Harvard Data Science Review 2 (4): [10.1162/99608f92.00cd8f85] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "The Impact of Increasing Stratospheric Radiative Damping on the QBO Period." [10.5194/acp-2020-925] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Representation of Modes of Variability in Six U.S. Climate Models." Journal of Climate 33 (17): 7591-7617 [10.1175/jcli-d-19-0956.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "GISS‐E2.1: Configurations and Climatology." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (8): [10.1029/2019ms002025] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Historical (1850–2014) Aerosol Evolution and Role on Climate Forcing Using the GISS ModelE2.1 Contribution to CMIP6." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (8): [10.1029/2019ms001978] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Comparison of equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates from slab ocean, 150‐year, and longer simulations." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2020gl088852] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "An assessment of Earth's climate sensitivity using multiple lines of evidence." Reviews of Geophysics [10.1029/2019rg000678] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "A Second-Order Closure Turbulence Model: New Heat Flux Equations and No Critical Richardson Number." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 77 (8): 2743-2759 [10.1175/jas-d-19-0240.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Antarctic Glacial Melt as a Driver of Recent Southern Ocean Climate Trends." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (11): [10.1029/2019gl086892] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "GISS Model E2.2: A Climate Model Optimized for the Middle Atmosphere. Model Structure, Climatology, Variability and Climate Sensitivity." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (10): e2019JD032204 [10.1029/2019jd032204] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "UNKNOWABILITY: HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT CANNOT BE KNOWN? ." Social Research An Int'l Quarterly 87 (1): 133-149 [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Influences of Solar Forcing at Ultraviolet and Longer Wavelengths on Climate." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (7): [10.1029/2019jd031640] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity Estimated by Equilibrating Climate Models." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (4): [10.1029/2019gl083898] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Evaluating the Performance of Past Climate Model Projections." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (1): [10.1029/2019gl085378] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "LongRunMIP: Motivation and Design for a Large Collection of Millennial-Length AOGCM Simulations." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 100 (12): 2551-2570 [10.1175/bams-d-19-0068.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Cloud scattering impact on thermal radiative transfer and global longwave radiation." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 239 106669 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.106669] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Improvements in the GISTEMP Uncertainty Model." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (12): 6307-6326 [10.1029/2018jd029522] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Recent global warming as confirmed by AIRS." Environmental Research Letters 14 (4): 044030 [10.1088/1748-9326/aafd4e] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Simulated Greenland Surface Mass Balance in the GISS ModelE2 GCM: Role of the Ice Sheet Surface." Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 124 (3): 750-765 [10.1029/2018jf004772] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Multicentury Instability of the Atlantic Meridional Circulation in Rapid Warming Simulations With GISS ModelE2." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (12): 6331--6355 [10.1029/2017jd027149] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The Silurian hypothesis: would it be possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record?." International Journal of Astrobiology 18 (2): 142-150 [10.1017/s1473550418000095] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Internal Variability and Disequilibrium Confound Estimates of Climate Sensitivity From Observations." Geophysical Research Letters 45 (3): 1595-1601 [10.1002/2017gl076468] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations." Geoscientific Model Development 10 (11): 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: the Last Millennium, Scientific Objective and Experimental Design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations." Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 10 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers." Geoscientific Model Development 10 (9): 3207-3223 [10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings." Nature Climate Change 6 (4): 386–389 [10.1038/nclimate2888] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models?." Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (10): 104010 [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104010] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover?." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 373 (2052): - [doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0168] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Sensitivity to factors underlying the hiatus." US CLIVAR Variations 13 (3): 25-29 [Full Text] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling." Eur. J. Phil. Sci. 5 (2): 149-169 [doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "What should climate scientists advocate for?." Bull. Atom. Sci. 71 (1): 70-74 [doi:10.1177/0096340214563677] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES." Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)." Geosci. Model Dev. 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5." Clim. Past 10 (1): 221-250 [10.5194/cp-10-221-2014] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Reconciling warming trends." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 185-189 [10.1038/ngeo2098] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (43): 17235-17240 [10.1073/pnas.1305332110] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning." Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (2): 243-262 [10.1029/2012JD017804] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling 66 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions." Nature Climate change 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (5): 2653-2689 [10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies." Future Internet 4 (4): 1069-1085 [10.3390/fi4041069] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H₂O retrieval simulator for climate models." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (21): 10485-10504 [10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance." Geophys Res Lett 39 (16): L16104 [10.1029/2012GL052950] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)." Geosci. Model Dev. 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification." Earth Planet Sci Lett 321-322 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period." Earth Planet Sci Lett 307 (1-2): 103-112 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Tracking climate models." Statistical Analy Data Mining 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy." Paleoceanography 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry–Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses." J Climate 24 (11): 2693-2714 [10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation." J Geophys Res 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event." Geophys Res Lett 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)." Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events." Climate of the Past 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data." Nature Geosci 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change." J. Quaternary Sci. 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region." Geophys Res Lett 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions." Science 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information." Geophysical Research Letters 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects." The Holocene 19 (1): 3-49 [10.1177/0959683608098952] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives." Climate of the Past 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century." J Climate 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity." Int. J. Climatol. 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM." Geophys Res Lett 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Solar trends and global warming." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere." Int. J. Climatol. 28 (13): 1703-1722 [10.1002/joc.1756] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "A Review of Antarctic Surface Snow Isotopic Composition: Observations, Atmospheric Circulation, and Isotopic Modeling." J. Climate 21 (13): 3359-3387 [10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Ensemble, water isotope-enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2 ka event." Paleoceanography 23 (3): PA3207 [10.1029/2008PA001610] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet." Nature Geosci 1 (9): 620-624 [10.1038/ngeo285] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Effects of doubled CO2 on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences." Geophysical Research Letters 35 (12): L12707 [10.1029/2008GL033872] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science." Comput Sci Eng 9 (3): 65-74 [10.1109/MCSE.2007.45] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra." Atmos Ocean Opt J 20 (3): 224-228 [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "The physics of climate modeling." Phys Today 60 (1): 72-73. [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D20): D20103 [10.1029/2007JD008753] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Toward a New Generation of Ice Sheet Models." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 88 (52): 578-579 [10.1029/2007EO520002] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "A global climate model study of CH 4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data." Global Biogeochem. Cycles 21 (1): GB1011 [10.1029/2005GB002680] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "20th century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations." Geophysical Research Letters 34 (5): L05713 [10.1029/2006GL028356] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D10): D10103 [10.1029/2006JD007781] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene." Geophys Res Lett 34 (13): L13701 [10.1029/2007GL030017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data." Atmos Ocean Opt J 19 787-791. [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 (12): 4427-4459 [10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06208 [10.1029/2005JD005796] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Sulfur, sea salt, and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06206 [10.1029/2004JD005550] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 837-842 [10.1073/pnas.0510095103] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D15): D15107 [10.1029/2005JD006410] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1." Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 34-58 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme." Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 108-120 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater." Geophys Res Lett 33 (12): L12604 [10.1029/2006GL026011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology." Geophys Res Lett 33 (24): L24706 [10.1029/2006GL027468] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D18): D18101 [10.1029/2005JD006323] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere." Science 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Modeling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D21): D21314 [10.1029/2005JD005790] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone." Geophys Res Lett 32 (4): L04803 [10.1029/2004GL021900] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications." Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D13): D13103 [10.1029/2004JD005487] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate." Eos Trans AGU 85 (4): 38–41 [10.1029/2004EO040002] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600." J Geophys Res 109 (D5): D05104 [10.1029/2003JD004151] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Ice–ocean boundary conditions for coupled models." Ocean Model 7 (1-2): 59-74 [10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation." Geophys Res Lett 31 L23206 [10.1029/2004GL021083] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability." Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (20-22): 2167-2181 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases." Geophys Res Lett 31 (18): L18209 [10.1029/2004GL020724] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era." J Climate 16 4094-4107. [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates." Paleoceanography 18 (1): 1004 [10.1029/2002PA000757] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes." J Geophys Res 108 (D1): 4002 [10.1029/2002JD002258] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model." J Geophys Res 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions." Geophys Res Lett 30 (12): 1607 [10.1029/2003GL017170] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18." Mar Micropalaentol 44 (3-4): 125-140 [10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases?." J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D3): 4022 [10.1029/2001JD000589] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Northern hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D7): 7193-7210 [10.1029/2000JD900547] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum." Science 294 (5549): 2149-2152 [10.1126/science.1064363] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production." J Geophys Res 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from porites." Geophys Res Lett 28 (21): 4135-4138 [10.1029/2000GL012538] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156] [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing." Nature 399 (6735): 452-455 [10.1038/20905] [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model." Paleoceanography 14 (4): 482-497 [10.1029/1999PA900025] [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations." Paleoceanography 14 (3): 422-429 [10.1029/1999PA900008] [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model." Geophys Res Lett 25 (8): 1201-1204 [10.1029/98GL50866] [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges." Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dynam 84 29-52 [Journal Article/Letter]


2014. "On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming." Science 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819] [Other]

2009. "Climate change: Too much of a bad thing." Nature 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event." Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1109-1110 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015] [Journal Article/Letter]

Selected Public Outreach

TED talk

March 2014 - March 2014