Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Gavin A. Schmidt

(Chief)

 gavin.a.schmidt@nasa.gov

 212.678.5627

Org Code: 611

NASA/GISS
Mail Code: 611
New York, NY 10025

Employer: NASA

Brief Bio


Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

Research Interests


Coupled climate modeling

Earth Science: Climate

Development, application and evaluation of coupled ocean-atmosphere-composition climate models.


Paleoclimate

Earth Science: Climate

Investigation of changes in past climate and what they can reveal about model skill and future changes.


Detection and attribution of Climate change

Earth Science: Climate

Exploring the fingerprints of forced and internal changes in the climate record and in models to better understand why climate changed in the past, why it is changing now and how it might change in the future. 

Current Projects


GISS ModelE development

Climate

Construction, expansion and evaluation of the GISS ModelE coupled GCM.

Education


B.A. (Hons) Mathematics, Oxford University, 1988
PhD in Applied Mathematics, University College London, 1994

Awards


  • Honorary Doctor of Science, Bristol University, UK (2018)
  • AGU Fellow (2018)
  • Honorary Doctor of Science, Williams College, MA (2017)
  • AAAS Fellow (2017)
  • Outstanding Leadership Medal (GSFC, 2017)
  • AGU Stephen Schneider Lecturer (2013)
  • AGU Climate Communications Prize (2011)
  • EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year (2011)

Publications


Refereed

Schmidt, G. A., A. Romanou, L. A. Roach, et al. K. D. Mankoff, Q. Li, C. D. Rye, M. Kelley, J. C. Marshall, and J. J. Busecke. 2023. Anomalous Meltwater From Ice Sheets and Ice Shelves Is a Historical Forcing Geophysical Research Letters 50 (24): [10.1029/2023gl106530]

Orbe, C., D. Rind, R. L. Miller, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. Romanou, J. Jonas, G. L. Russell, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2023. Atmospheric Response to a Collapse of the North Atlantic Circulation under a Mid-Range Future Climate Scenario: A Regime Shift in Northern Hemisphere Dynamics Journal of Climate 36 (19): 6669-6693 [10.1175/jcli-d-22-0841.1]

Schmidt, G. A., G. S. Jones, and J. J. Kennedy. 2023. Comment on “Advanced Testing of Low, Medium, and High ECS CMIP6 GCM Simulations Versus ERA5‐T2m” by N. Scafetta (2022) Geophysical Research Letters 50 (18): [10.1029/2022gl102530]

Romanou, A., D. Rind, J. Jonas, et al. R. Miller, M. Kelley, G. Russell, C. Orbe, L. Nazarenko, R. Latto, and G. A. Schmidt. 2023. Stochastic Bifurcation of the North Atlantic Circulation under a Midrange Future Climate Scenario with the NASA-GISS ModelE Journal of Climate 36 (18): 6141-6161 [10.1175/jcli-d-22-0536.1]

McCray, C. D., G. A. Schmidt, D. Paquin, et al. M. Leduc, Z. Bi, M. Radiyat, C. Silverman, M. Spitz, and B. R. Brettschneider. 2023. Changing Nature of High‐Impact Snowfall Events in Eastern North America Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128 (13): [10.1029/2023jd038804]

Schmidt, G. A., T. Andrews, S. E. Bauer, et al. P. J. Durack, N. G. Loeb, V. Ramaswamy, N. P. Arnold, M. G. Bosilovich, J. Cole, L. W. Horowitz, G. C. Johnson, J. M. Lyman, B. Medeiros, T. Michibata, D. Olonscheck, D. Paynter, S. P. Raghuraman, M. Schulz, D. Takasuka, V. Tallapragada, P. C. Taylor, and T. Ziehn. 2023. CERESMIP: a climate modeling protocol to investigate recent trends in the Earth's Energy Imbalance Frontiers in Climate 5 [10.3389/fclim.2023.1202161]

Jain, S., A. A. Scaife, T. G. Shepherd, et al. C. Deser, N. Dunstone, G. A. Schmidt, K. E. Trenberth, and T. Turkington. 2023. Importance of internal variability for climate model assessment NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science 6 (1): 68 [10.1038/s41612-023-00389-0]

Casas, M. C., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. C. Orbe, K. Tsigaridis, L. S. Nazarenko, S. E. Bauer, and D. T. Shindell. 2022. Understanding Model‐Observation Discrepancies in Satellite Retrievals of Atmospheric Temperature Using GISS ModelE Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128 (1): [10.1029/2022jd037523]

Bauer, S. E., K. Tsigaridis, G. Faluvegi, et al. L. Nazarenko, R. L. Miller, M. Kelley, and G. Schmidt. 2022. The Turning Point of the Aerosol Era Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 14 (12): [10.1029/2022ms003070]

Weir, B., T. Oda, L. E. Ott, and G. A. Schmidt. 2022. Assessing progress toward the Paris climate agreement from space Environmental Research Letters 17 (11): 111002 [10.1088/1748-9326/ac998c]

Smith, D. M., N. P. Gillett, I. R. Simpson, et al. P. J. Athanasiadis, J. Baehr, I. Bethke, T. A. Bilge, R. Bonnet, O. Boucher, K. L. Findell, G. Gastineau, S. Gualdi, L. Hermanson, L. R. Leung, J. Mignot, W. A. Müller, S. Osprey, O. H. Otterå, G. G. Persad, A. A. Scaife, G. A. Schmidt, H. Shiogama, R. T. Sutton, D. Swingedouw, S. Yang, T. Zhou, and T. Ziehn. 2022. Attribution of multi-annual to decadal changes in the climate system: The Large Ensemble Single Forcing Model Intercomparison Project (LESFMIP) Frontiers in Climate 4 [10.3389/fclim.2022.955414]

Chiang, F., B. I. Cook, S. McDermid, et al. K. Marvel, G. A. Schmidt, L. S. Nazarenko, and M. Kelley. 2022. Responses of compound daytime and nighttime warm-dry and warm-humid events to individual anthropogenic forcings Environmental Research Letters 17 (8): 084015 [10.1088/1748-9326/ac80ce]

Hausfather, Z., K. Marvel, G. A. Schmidt, J. W. Nielsen-Gammon, and M. Zelinka. 2022. Climate simulations: recognize the ‘hot model’ problem Nature 605 (7908): 26-29 [10.1038/d41586-022-01192-2]

Nazarenko, L. S., N. Tausnev, G. L. Russell, et al. D. Rind, R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, S. E. Bauer, M. Kelley, R. Ruedy, A. S. Ackerman, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, G. Cesana, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, B. I. Cook, C. A. Cruz, A. D. Genio, G. S. Elsaesser, G. Faluvegi, N. Y. Kiang, D. Kim, A. A. Lacis, A. Leboissetier, A. N. LeGrande, K. K. Lo, J. Marshall, E. E. Matthews, S. McDermid, K. Mezuman, L. T. Murray, V. Oinas, C. Orbe, C. P. García‐Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, G. Tselioudis, E. Weng, J. Wu, and M. Yao. 2022. Future Climate Change under SSP Emission Scenarios with GISS‐E2.1 Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2021ms002871]

O’Connor, G. K., K. M. Cobb, H. R. Sayani, et al. A. R. Atwood, P. R. Grothe, S. Stevenson, J. K. Baum, T. Chen, D. C. Claar, N. T. Hitt, J. Lynch‐Stieglitz, R. A. Mortlock, G. A. Schmidt, and R. Walter. 2021. Coral Oxygen Isotopic Records Capture the 2015/2016 El Niño Event in the Central Equatorial Pacific Geophysical Research Letters 48 (24): pp. 1–9 [10.1029/2021gl094036]

Shindell, D., M. Ru, Y. Zhang, et al. K. Seltzer, G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, G. A. Schmidt, L. Parsons, A. Challapalli, L. Yang, and A. Glick. 2021. Temporal and spatial distribution of health, labor, and crop benefits of climate change mitigation in the United States Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118 (46): e2104061118 [10.1073/pnas.2104061118]

Lunt, D. J., D. Chandan, A. M. Haywood, et al. G. M. Lunt, J. C. Rougier, U. Salzmann, G. A. Schmidt, and P. J. Valdes. 2021. Multi-variate factorisation of numerical simulations Geoscientific Model Development 14 (7): 4307-4317 [10.5194/gmd-14-4307-2021]

Zhou, T., K. DallaSanta, L. Nazarenko, G. A. Schmidt, and Z. Jin. 2021. The impact of increasing stratospheric radiative damping on the quasi-biennial oscillation period Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21 (9): 7395-7407 [10.5194/acp-21-7395-2021]

Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. S. E. Bauer, M. Kelley, R. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, A. Ackerman, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, G. Cesana, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, B. Cook, C. A. Cruz, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Elsaesser, G. Faluvegi, N. Y. Kiang, D. Kim, A. A. Lacis, A. Leboissetier, A. N. LeGrande, K. K. Lo, J. Marshall, E. E. Matthews, S. McDermid, K. Mezuman, L. T. Murray, V. Oinas, C. Orbe, C. P. García‐Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, G. Tselioudis, E. Weng, J. Wu, and M. Yao. 2021. CMIP6 Historical Simulations (1850‐2014) with GISS‐E2.1 Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 13 e2019MS002034 [10.1029/2019ms002034]

Orbe, C., D. Rind, J. Jonas, et al. L. Nazarenko, G. Faluvegi, L. T. Murray, D. T. Shindell, K. Tsigaridis, T. Zhou, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. GISS Model E2.2: A Climate Model Optimized for the Middle Atmosphere—2. Validation of Large‐Scale Transport and Evaluation of Climate Response Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (24): [10.1029/2020jd033151]

Bush, R., A. Dutton, M. Evans, R. Loft, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. Perspectives on Data Reproducibility and Replicability in Paleoclimate and Climate Science Harvard Data Science Review 2 (4): [10.1162/99608f92.00cd8f85]

Zhou, T., K. DallaSanta, L. Nazarenko, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. The Impact of Increasing Stratospheric Radiative Damping on the QBO Period [10.5194/acp-2020-925]

Orbe, C., L. Van Roekel, Á. F. Adames, et al. A. Dezfuli, J. Fasullo, P. J. Gleckler, J. Lee, W. Li, L. Nazarenko, G. A. Schmidt, K. R. Sperber, and M. Zhao. 2020. Representation of Modes of Variability in Six U.S. Climate Models Journal of Climate 33 (17): 7591-7617 [10.1175/jcli-d-19-0956.1]

Kelley, M., G. A. Schmidt, L. S. Nazarenko, et al. S. E. Bauer, R. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, A. S. Ackerman, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, G. Cesana, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, B. I. Cook, C. A. Cruz, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Elsaesser, G. Faluvegi, N. Y. Kiang, D. Kim, A. A. Lacis, A. Leboissetier, A. N. LeGrande, K. K. Lo, J. Marshall, E. E. Matthews, S. McDermid, K. Mezuman, R. L. Miller, L. T. Murray, V. Oinas, C. Orbe, C. P. García‐Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, G. Tselioudis, E. Weng, J. Wu, and M. Yao. 2020. GISS‐E2.1: Configurations and Climatology Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (8): [10.1029/2019ms002025]

Bauer, S. E., K. Tsigaridis, G. Faluvegi, et al. M. Kelley, K. K. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Wu. 2020. Historical (1850–2014) Aerosol Evolution and Role on Climate Forcing Using the GISS ModelE2.1 Contribution to CMIP6 Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 12 (8): [10.1029/2019ms001978]

Dunne, J. P., M. Winton, J. Bacmeister, et al. G. Danabasoglu, A. Gettelman, J. Golaz, C. Hannay, G. A. Schmidt, J. P. Krasting, L. R. Leung, L. Nazarenko, L. T. Sentman, R. J. Stouffer, and J. D. Wolfe. 2020. Comparison of equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates from slab ocean, 150‐year, and longer simulations Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2020gl088852]

Sherwood, S., M. J. Webb, J. D. Annan, et al. K. C. Armour, P. M. Forster, J. C. Hargreaves, G. Hegerl, S. A. Klein, K. D. Marvel, E. J. Rohling, M. Watanabe, T. Andrews, P. Braconnot, C. S. Bretherton, G. L. Foster, Z. Hausfather, A. S. Heydt, R. Knutti, T. Mauritsen, J. R. Norris, C. Proistosescu, M. Rugenstein, G. A. Schmidt, K. B. Tokarska, and M. D. Zelinka. 2020. An assessment of Earth's climate sensitivity using multiple lines of evidence Reviews of Geophysics [10.1029/2019rg000678]

Cheng, Y., V. M. Canuto, A. M. Howard, et al. A. S. Ackerman, M. Kelley, A. M. Fridlind, G. A. Schmidt, M. S. Yao, A. Del Genio, and G. S. Elsaesser. 2020. A Second-Order Closure Turbulence Model: New Heat Flux Equations and No Critical Richardson Number Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 77 (8): 2743-2759 [10.1175/jas-d-19-0240.1]

Rye, C. D., J. Marshall, M. Kelley, et al. G. Russell, L. S. Nazarenko, Y. Kostov, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Hansen. 2020. Antarctic Glacial Melt as a Driver of Recent Southern Ocean Climate Trends Geophysical Research Letters 47 (11): [10.1029/2019gl086892]

Rind, D. H., C. Orbe, J. A. Jonas, et al. L. Nazarenko, T. Zhou, M. Kelley, A. A. Lacis, D. T. Shindell, G. S. Faluvegi, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, N. L. Tausnev, M. P. Bauer, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. GISS Model E2.2: A Climate Model Optimized for the Middle Atmosphere. Model Structure, Climatology, Variability and Climate Sensitivity Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (10): e2019JD032204 [10.1029/2019jd032204]

Schmidt, G. A. 2020. UNKNOWABILITY: HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT CANNOT BE KNOWN? Social Research An Int'l Quarterly 87 (1): 133-149

Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. Influences of Solar Forcing at Ultraviolet and Longer Wavelengths on Climate Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (7): [10.1029/2019jd031640]

Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch‐Johnson, J. Gregory, et al. T. Andrews, T. Mauritsen, C. Li, T. L. Frölicher, D. Paynter, G. Danabasoglu, S. Yang, J. Dufresne, L. Cao, G. A. Schmidt, A. Abe‐Ouchi, O. Geoffroy, and R. Knutti. 2020. Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity Estimated by Equilibrating Climate Models Geophysical Research Letters 47 (4): [10.1029/2019gl083898]

Hausfather, Z., H. F. Drake, T. Abbott, and G. A. Schmidt. 2020. Evaluating the Performance of Past Climate Model Projections Geophysical Research Letters 47 (1): [10.1029/2019gl085378]

Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch-Johnson, A. Abe-Ouchi, et al. T. Andrews, U. Beyerle, L. Cao, T. Chadha, G. Danabasoglu, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Duan, M.-A. Foujols, T. Frölicher, O. Geoffroy, J. Gregory, R. Knutti, C. Li, A. Marzocchi, T. Mauritsen, M. Menary, E. Moyer, L. Nazarenko, D. Paynter, D. Saint-Martin, G. A. Schmidt, A. Yamamoto, and S. Yang. 2019. LongRunMIP: Motivation and Design for a Large Collection of Millennial-Length AOGCM Simulations Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 100 (12): 2551-2570 [10.1175/bams-d-19-0068.1]

Jin, Z., Y. Zhang, A. Del Genio, G. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2019. Cloud scattering impact on thermal radiative transfer and global longwave radiation Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 239 106669 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.106669]

Lenssen, N. J., G. A. Schmidt, J. E. Hansen, et al. M. J. Menne, A. Persin, R. Ruedy, and D. Zyss. 2019. Improvements in the GISTEMP Uncertainty Model Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (12): 6307-6326 [10.1029/2018jd029522]

Susskind, J., G. A. Schmidt, J. N. Lee, and L. F. Iredell. 2019. Recent global warming as confirmed by AIRS Environmental Research Letters 14 (4): 044030 [10.1088/1748-9326/aafd4e]

Alexander, P. M., A. N. LeGrande, E. Fischer, et al. M. Tedesco, X. Fettweis, M. Kelley, S. M. Nowicki, and G. A. Schmidt. 2019. Simulated Greenland Surface Mass Balance in the GISS ModelE2 GCM: Role of the Ice Sheet Surface Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 124 (3): 750-765 [10.1029/2018jf004772]

Rind, D., G. A. Schmidt, J. Jonas, et al. R. Miller, L. Nazarenko, M. Kelly, and J. Romanski. 2018. Multicentury Instability of the Atlantic Meridional Circulation in Rapid Warming Simulations With GISS ModelE2 Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (12): 6331--6355 [10.1029/2017jd027149]

Schmidt, G. A., and A. Frank. 2018. The Silurian hypothesis: would it be possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record? International Journal of Astrobiology 18 (2): 142-150 [10.1017/s1473550418000095]

Marvel, K., R. Pincus, G. A. Schmidt, and R. L. Miller. 2018. Internal Variability and Disequilibrium Confound Estimates of Climate Sensitivity From Observations Geophysical Research Letters 45 (3): 1595-1601 [10.1002/2017gl076468]

Jungclaus, J. H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, et al. P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L. P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G. C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J. O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A. N. LeGrande, S. J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, A. C. Maycock, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, R. Muscheler, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, B. I. Otto-Bliesner, S. J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G. A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A. Schurer, A. I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, J. E. Smerdon, S. K. Solanki, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I. G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-J. Wu, K. L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita. 2017. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 <i>past1000</i> simulations Geoscientific Model Development 10 (11): 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017]

Jungclaus, J. H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, et al. P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L. P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J. F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G. C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J. O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A. N. LeGrande, S. J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, B. I. Otto-Bliesner, S. J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G. A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A. Schurer, A. I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, J. E. Smerdon, S. K. Solanki, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I. G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-Y. Wu, K. L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita. 2017. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 &ndash; Part 3: the Last Millennium, Scientific Objective and Experimental Design for the PMIP4 <i>past1000</i> simulations Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 10 4005-4033 [10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017]

Schmidt, G. A., D. Bader, L. J. Donner, et al. G. S. Elsaesser, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, A. Molod, R. B. Neale, and S. Saha. 2017. Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers Geoscientific Model Development 10 (9): 3207-3223 [10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017]

Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and L. S. Nazarenko. 2016. Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings Nature Climate Change 6 (4): 386–389 [10.1038/nclimate2888]

Marvel, K., G. A. Schmidt, D. Shindell, et al. C. Bonfils, A. N. LeGrande, L. Nazarenko, and K. Tsigaridis. 2015. Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models? Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (10): 104010 [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104010]

Tremblay, L. B., G. A. Schmidt, S. Pfirman, R. Newton, and P. DeRepentigny. 2015. Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 373 (2052): - [doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0168]

Marvel, K. D., G. A. Schmidt, K. Tsigaridis, and B. I. Cook. 2015. Sensitivity to factors underlying the hiatus US CLIVAR Variations 13 (3): 25-29

Schmidt, G. A., and S. Sherwood. 2015. A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling Eur. J. Phil. Sci. 5 (2): 149-169 [doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9]

Nazarenko, L., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, et al. N. L. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2015. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2 J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 7 (1): 244-267 [doi:10.1002/2014MS000403]

Schmidt, G. A. 2015. What should climate scientists advocate for? Bull. Atom. Sci. 71 (1): 70-74 [doi:10.1177/0096340214563677]

Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Lean. 2014. The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678]

Field, R. D., D. Kim, A. N. LeGrande, et al. J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572]

Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2 J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, G. A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2014. Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961]

Fischer, R. P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM) Geosci. Model Dev. 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014]

Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

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Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis. 2014. Reconciling warming trends Nature Geosci 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105]

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Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade. 2013. Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50]

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Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, et al. K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G. A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy. 2013. Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions Nature Climate change 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835]

Shindell, D. T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, et al. G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, W. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt. 2013. Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (5): 2653-2689 [10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013]

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Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2012. Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1) Geosci. Model Dev. 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012]

Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, H. J. Dowsett, and C. A. Loptson. 2012. On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification Earth Planet Sci Lett 321-322 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042]

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Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund. 2011. Tracking climate models Statistical Analy Data Mining 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126]

Legrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy Paleoceanography 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043]

Lewis, S. C., M. K. Gagan, L. K. Ayliffe, et al. J. Zhao, W. S. Hantoro, P. C. Treble, J. C. Hellstrom, A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt, and B. W. Suwargadi. 2011. High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4 Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048]

Koch, D., S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, et al. G. S. Faluvegi, J. R. McConnell, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, D. Rind, R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2011. Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry–Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses J Climate 24 (11): 2693-2714 [10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1]

Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, et al. G. A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama. 2011. Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation J Geophys Res 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209]

Carozza, D. A., L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event Geophys Res Lett 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038]

Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, et al. K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. N. Legrande, J. L. Li, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann. 2011. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011]

Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2011. Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0) Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011]

Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, R. L. Miller, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect J Geophys Res 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287]

Lacis, A. A., G. A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R. A. Ruedy. 2010. Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature Science 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653]

Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events Climate of the Past 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010]

Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, and H. J. Dowsett. 2010. Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data Nature Geosci 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706]

Schmidt, G. A. 2010. Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change J. Quaternary Sci. 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314]

Field, R. D., G. W. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ<sup>18</sup>O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region Geophys Res Lett 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408]

Usoskin, I. G., C. V. Field, G. A. Schmidt, et al. A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R. K. Ungar. 2009. Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric <sup>7</sup>Be concentrations J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333]

Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, D. M. Koch, et al. G. A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S. E. Bauer. 2009. Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions Science 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760]

Mann, M. E., G. A. Schmidt, S. K. Miller, and A. N. LeGrande. 2009. Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information Geophysical Research Letters 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354]

Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, et al. J. M. Lough, T. D. van Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki. 2009. High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects The Holocene 19 (1): 3-49 [10.1177/0959683608098952]

LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives Climate of the Past 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009]

Field, C. V., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core <sup>10</sup>Be J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217]

Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2009. Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578]

Koch, D. M., S. Menon, A. D. Del Genio, et al. R. A. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century J Climate 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1]

Schmidt, G. A. 2009. Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity Int. J. Climatol. 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831]

Wright, J. S., A. H. Sobel, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM Geophys Res Lett 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091]

Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. Solar trends and global warming J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639]

Santer, B. D., P. W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, et al. K. E. Taylor, T. M. Wigley, J. R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P. J. Gleckler, P. D. Jones, T. R. Karl, S. A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G. A. Schmidt, S. C. Sherwood, and F. J. Wentz. 2008. Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere Int. J. Climatol. 28 (13): 1703-1722 [10.1002/joc.1756]

Masson-Delmotte, V., S. Hou, A. Ekaykin, et al. J. Jouzel, A. Aristarain, R. T. Bernardo, D. Bromwich, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, S. Falourd, M. Frezzotti, H. Gallée, L. Genoni, E. Isaksson, A. Landais, M. M. Helsen, G. Hoffmann, J. Lopez, V. Morgan, H. Motoyama, D. Noone, H. Oerter, J. R. Petit, A. Royer, R. Uemura, G. A. Schmidt, E. Schlosser, J. C. Simöes, E. J. Steig, B. Stenni, M. Stievenard, M. R. van den Broeke, R. S. van de Wal, W. J. van de Berg, F. Vimeux, and J. W. White. 2008. A Review of Antarctic Surface Snow Isotopic Composition: Observations, Atmospheric Circulation, and Isotopic Modeling J. Climate 21 (13): 3359-3387 [10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1]

LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2008. Ensemble, water isotope-enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2 ka event Paleoceanography 23 (3): PA3207 [10.1029/2008PA001610]

Carlson, A. E., A. N. Legrande, D. W. Oppo, et al. R. E. Came, G. A. Schmidt, F. S. Anslow, J. M. Licciardi, and E. A. Obbink. 2008. Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet Nature Geosci 1 (9): 620-624 [10.1038/ngeo285]

Sud, Y. C., G. K. Walker, Y. Zhou, et al. G. A. Schmidt, W. K. Lau, and R. F. Cahalan. 2008. Effects of doubled CO<sub>2</sub> on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences Geophysical Research Letters 35 (12): L12707 [10.1029/2008GL033872]

Tremblay, L. B., M. M. Holland, I. V. Gorodetskaya, and G. A. Schmidt. 2007. An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science Comput Sci Eng 9 (3): 65-74 [10.1109/MCSE.2007.45]

Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, V. I. Zakharov, et al. Y. Kasai, A. Kagawa, M. Murayama, R. Imasu, G. A. Schmidt, G. Hoffmann, and J. Jouzel. 2007. Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra Atmos Ocean Opt J 20 (3): 224-228

Schmidt, G. A. 2007. The physics of climate modeling Phys Today 60 (1): 72-73.

Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, S. E. Bauer, et al. D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and D. G. Streets. 2007. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D20): D20103 [10.1029/2007JD008753]

Little, C. M., M. Oppenheimer, R. B. Alley, et al. V. Balaji, G. K. Clarke, T. L. Delworth, R. Hallberg, D. M. Holland, C. L. Hulbe, S. Jacobs, J. V. Johnson, H. Levy, W. H. Lipscomb, S. J. Marshall, B. R. Parizek, A. J. Payne, G. A. Schmidt, R. J. Stouffer, D. G. Vaughan, and M. Winton. 2007. Toward a New Generation of Ice Sheet Models Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 88 (52): 578-579 [10.1029/2007EO520002]

Harder, S. L., D. T. Shindell, G. A. Schmidt, and E. J. Brook. 2007. A global climate model study of CH 4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data Global Biogeochem. Cycles 21 (1): GB1011 [10.1029/2005GB002680]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

Romanou, A., B. Liepert, G. A. Schmidt, et al. W. B. Rossow, R. A. Ruedy, and Y. C. Zhang. 2007. 20th century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations Geophysical Research Letters 34 (5): L05713 [10.1029/2006GL028356]

Schmidt, G. A., A. N. Legrande, and G. Hoffmann. 2007. Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D10): D10103 [10.1029/2006JD007781]

Oppo, D. W., G. A. Schmidt, and A. N. Legrande. 2007. Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene Geophys Res Lett 34 (13): L13701 [10.1029/2007GL030017]

Toptygin, A. Y., K. G. Gribanov, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, and V. I. Zakharov. 2006. Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data Atmos Ocean Opt J 19 787-791.

Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, et al. E. Aguilar, G. A. Schmidt, D. M. Koch, S. E. Bauer, and R. L. Miller. 2006. Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6 (12): 4427-4459 [10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006]

Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

Miller, R. L., R. V. Cakmur, I. V. Geogdzhayev, et al. P. Ginoux, K. E. Kohfeld, D. Koch, C. Prigent, R. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and I. Tegen. 2006. Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06208 [10.1029/2005JD005796]

Koch, D., G. A. Schmidt, and C. V. Field. 2006. Sulfur, sea salt, and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D6): D06206 [10.1029/2004JD005550]

LeGrande, A. N., G. A. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, et al. C. V. Field, R. L. Miller, D. M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann. 2006. Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (4): 837-842 [10.1073/pnas.0510095103]

Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk. 2006. Modeling production and climate-related impacts on <sup>10</sup>Be concentration in ice cores J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D15): D15107 [10.1029/2005JD006410]

Henderson-Sellers, A., M. Fischer, I. Aleinov, et al. K. McGuffie, W. J. Riley, G. A. Schmidt, K. Sturm, K. Yoshimura, and O. Irannejad. 2006. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1 Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 34-58 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003]

Aleinov, I., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme Global and Planetary Change 51 (1-2): 108-120 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010]

LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2006. Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater Geophys Res Lett 33 (12): L12604 [10.1029/2006GL026011]

Shindell, D. T., G. S. Faluvegi, R. L. Miller, et al. G. A. Schmidt, J. E. Hansen, and S. Sun. 2006. Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology Geophys Res Lett 33 (24): L24706 [10.1029/2006GL027468]

Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2006. Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D18): D18101 [10.1029/2005JD006323]

Santer, B. D., T. M. Wigley, C. Mears, et al. F. J. Wentz, S. A. Klein, D. J. Seidel, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, P. J. Gleckler, J. S. Boyle, W. D. Collins, K. W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J. E. Hansen, G. S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere Science 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867]

Schmidt, G. A., G. Hoffmann, D. T. Shindell, and Y. Hu. 2005. Modeling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D21): D21314 [10.1029/2005JD005790]

Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone Geophys Res Lett 32 (4): L04803 [10.1029/2004GL021900]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. Efficacy of climate forcings J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, et al. I. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, U. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev. 2005. Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252]

Oman, L., A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G. A. Schmidt, and R. A. Ruedy. 2005. Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D13): D13103 [10.1029/2004JD005487]

Rahmstorf, S., D. Archer, D. S. Ebel, et al. O. Eugster, J. Jouzel, D. Maraun, U. Neu, G. A. Schmidt, J. Sever-Inghaus, A. J. Weaver, and J. Zachos. 2004. Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate Eos Trans AGU 85 (4): 38–41 [10.1029/2004EO040002]

Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, and G. Faluvegi. 2004. Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600 J Geophys Res 109 (D5): D05104 [10.1029/2003JD004151]

Schmidt, G. A., C. M. Bitz, U. Mikolajewicz, and L. Tremblay. 2004. Ice–ocean boundary conditions for coupled models Ocean Model 7 (1-2): 59-74 [10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1]

Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and S. Harder. 2004. A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation Geophys Res Lett 31 L23206 [10.1029/2004GL021083]

Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, R. L. Miller, M. E. Mann, and D. Rind. 2004. General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability Quaternary Science Reviews 23 (20-22): 2167-2181 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005]

Shindell, D. T., and G. A. Schmidt. 2004. Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases Geophys Res Lett 31 (18): L18209 [10.1029/2004GL020724]

Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and M. E. Mann. 2003. Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era J Climate 16 4094-4107.

Schmidt, G. A., and D. T. Shindell. 2003. Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates Paleoceanography 18 (1): 1004 [10.1029/2002PA000757]

Santer, B. D., R. Sausen, T. M. Wigley, et al. J. S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J. E. Hansen, G. A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K. E. Taylor. 2003. Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes J Geophys Res 108 (D1): 4002 [10.1029/2002JD002258]

Liu, J., G. A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, et al. D. H. Rind, G. L. Russell, and X. Yuan. 2003. Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model J Geophys Res 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167]

Mann, M. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2003. Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions Geophys Res Lett 30 (12): 1607 [10.1029/2003GL017170]

Schmidt, G. A., and S. Mulitza. 2002. Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18 Mar Micropalaentol 44 (3-4): 125-140 [10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X]

Gillett, N. P., M. R. Allen, R. E. McDonald, et al. C. A. Senior, D. T. Shindell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2002. How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases? J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D3): 4022 [10.1029/2001JD000589]

Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, R. L. Miller, and D. Rind. 2001. Northern hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D7): 7193-7210 [10.1029/2000JD900547]

Shindell, D. T., G. A. Schmidt, M. E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple. 2001. Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum Science 294 (5549): 2149-2152 [10.1126/science.1064363]

Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G. L. Russell, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Teller. 2001. Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070]

Rind, D., G. L. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller. 2001. Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production J Geophys Res 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954]

Juillet-Leclerc, A., and G. Schmidt. 2001. A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from porites Geophys Res Lett 28 (21): 4135-4138 [10.1029/2000GL012538]

Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, D. Rind, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth. 2000. Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156]

Shindell, D. T., R. L. Miller, G. A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo. 1999. Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing Nature 399 (6735): 452-455 [10.1038/20905]

Schmidt, G. A. 1999. Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model Paleoceanography 14 (4): 482-497 [10.1029/1999PA900025]

Schmidt, G. A. 1999. Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations Paleoceanography 14 (3): 422-429 [10.1029/1999PA900008]

Schmidt, G. A. 1998. Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model Geophys Res Lett 25 (8): 1201-1204 [10.1029/98GL50866]

Schmidt, G. A., and E. R. Johnson. 1997. The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dynam 84 29-52

Non-Refereed

Schmidt, G. A. 2014. On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming Science 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819]

Schmidt, G. A., and D. Archer. 2009. Climate change: Too much of a bad thing Nature 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a]

Schmidt, G. A., and A. N. Legrande. 2005. The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event Quaternary Science Reviews 24 (10-11): 1109-1110 [10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015]

Selected Public Outreach


TED talk

March 2014 - March 2014