Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Gary Lloyd Russell

((AST, DATA ANALYSIS))

 gary.l.russell@nasa.gov

 212.678.5547

Org Code: 611

NASA/GISS
Mail Code: 611
New York, NY 10025

Employer: NASA

Brief Bio


Have worked on the GISS climate models since 1969 when the Mintz-Arkawa Weather Model was imported into GISS from UCLA. My most useful expertise is atmospheric and ocean dynamics, but am also knowledgable of surface interaction, condensation, radiation, and tracer transport.

Research Interests


Climate Model Computer Programming

Earth Science: Theory & Modeling

Have worked on the GISS climate models since 1969 when the Mintz-Arkawa Weather Model was imported into GISS from UCLA.  My most useful expertise is atmospheric and ocean dynamics, but am also knowledgable of surface interaction, condensation, radiation, and tracer transport.

Current Projects


Angular Momentum Scheme on a Cube-Sphere Grid

Theory & Modeling

Abstract
Standard vector calculus formulas of Cartesian three space are projected onto the surface of a sphere. This produces symmetric equations with three non-independent horizontal velocity components. Each orthogonal axis has a velocity component that rotates around its axis (eastward velocity rotates around the north-south axis) and a specific angular momentum component that is the product of the velocity component times the cosine of axis’ latitude. Angular momentum components align with the fixed axes and simplify several formulas whereas the rotating velocity components are not orthogonal and vary with location. Three symmetric coordinates allow vector resolution and calculus operations continuously over the whole spherical surface which is not possible with only two coordinates. Adding a third component to integrations may reduce numerical errors. Shallow water models using these equations have been developed for both cube-sphere and icosahedral grids.
 

Positions/Employment


Mathematician

NASA / Goddard Institute for Space Studies - 2880 Broadway New York, NY 10025

August 1978 - Present

Employment History:
1978-present: Mathematician, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
1968-1978: Programmer/Analyst for support services contractors at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, specifically:
Computer Services Corporation (1968-74),
Programming Methods, Incorporated (1974-75),
GTE Information Systems (1975-77), and
Sigma Data Services Corporation (1977-78).


Education


Education:
Ph.D. Mathematics, 1976, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025
M.A. Mathematics, 1968, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

Professional Societies


American Geophysical Union

Member

2013 - Present

Selected Publications


Refereed

Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2 J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. D. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

Hansen, J., M. Sato, G. Russell, and P. Kharecha. 2013. Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 371 (2001): 20120294 [10.1098/rsta.2012.0294]

Lacis, A. A., J. E. Hansen, G. L. Russell, V. Oinas, and J. Jonas. 2013. The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change Tellus B 65 19734 [10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.19734]

Romanou, A., W. W. Gregg, J. Romanski, et al. M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev. 2013. Natural air-sea flux of CO<sub>2</sub> in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation Ocean Modelling 66 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008]

Russell, G. L., A. A. Lacis, D. H. Rind, C. Colose, and R. F. Opstbaum. 2013. Fast atmosphere-ocean model runs with large changes in CO<sub>2</sub> Geophysical Research Letters 40 (21): 5787-5792 [10.1002/2013GL056755]

Hague, M. J., M. R. Ferrari, J. R. Miller, et al. D. A. Patterson, G. L. Russell, A. P. Farrell, and S. G. Hinch. 2011. Modelling the future hydroclimatology of the lower Fraser River and its impacts on the spawning migration survival of sockeye salmon Global Change Biology 17 (1): 87-98 [10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02225.x]

Rangwala, I., J. R. Miller, G. L. Russell, and M. Xu. 2010. Using a global climate model to evaluate the influences of water vapor, snow cover and atmospheric aerosol on warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the twenty-first century Climate Dynamics 34 (6): 859-872 [10.1007/s00382-009-0564-1]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Kharecha, et al. G. Russell, D. W. Lea, and M. Siddall. 2007. Climate change and trace gases Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 365 (1856): 1925-1954 [10.1098/rsta.2007.2052]

Russell, G. L. 2007. Step-Mountain Technique Applied to an Atmospheric C-Grid Model, or How to Improve Precipitation near Mountains Mon. Wea. Rev. 135 (12): 4060-4076 [10.1175/2007MWR2048.1]

Miller, J. R., Y. Chen, G. L. Russell, and J. A. Francis. 2007. Future regime shift in feedbacks during Arctic winter Geophys Res Lett 34 (23): L23707 [10.1029/2007GL031826]

Ferrari, M. R., J. R. Miller, and G. L. Russell. 2007. Modeling changes in summer temperature of the Fraser River during the next century J Hydrol 342 (3-4): 336-346 [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.06.002]

Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

Rangwala, I., J. Miller, G. L. Russell, and M. Xu. 2006. Analysis of global climate model experiments to elucidate past and future changes in surface insolation and warming in China Geophysical Research Letters 33 (20): L20709 [10.1029/2006GL027778]

Santer, B. D., T. M. Wigley, C. Mears, et al. F. J. Wentz, S. A. Klein, D. J. Seidel, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, M. F. Wehner, P. J. Gleckler, J. S. Boyle, W. D. Collins, K. W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J. E. Hansen, G. S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T. R. Karl, J. R. Lanzante, G. A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G. A. Schmidt. 2005. Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere Science 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867]

Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. Efficacy of climate forcings J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, et al. I. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, U. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev. 2005. Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252]

Otterman, J., R. Atlas, G. L. Russell, and H. Saaroni. 2003. Impact on regional winter climate by CO₂ increases vs. by maritime-air advection Geophys Res Lett 30 (15): 1822 [10.1029/2003GL017545]

Liu, J., G. A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, et al. D. H. Rind, G. L. Russell, and X. Yuan. 2003. Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model J Geophys Res 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167]

Chen, Y., J. R. Miller, J. A. Francis, G. L. Russell, and F. Aires. 2003. Observed and modeled relationships among Arctic climate variables J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D24): 4799 [10.1029/2003JD003824]

Otterman, J., R. Atlas, S. Chou, et al. J. C. Jusem, R. Pielke, R. Pielke, T. N. Chase, J. Rogers, G. L. Russell, S. D. Schubert, Y. C. Sud, and J. Terry. 2002. Are stronger North-Atlantic southwesterlies the forcing to the late-winter warming in Europe? Int. J. Climatol. 22 (6): 743-750 [10.1002/joc.681]

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 2002. Projected impact of climate change on the energy budget of the Arctic Ocean by a global climate model J Climate 15 3028-3042.

Lucarini, V., and G. L. Russell. 2002. Comparison of mean climate trends in the Northern Hemisphere between National Centers for Environmental Prediction and two atmosphere-ocean model forced runs J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D15): 4269 [10.1029/2001JD001247]

Leuliette, E. W., R. S. Nerem, and G. L. Russell. 2002. Detecting time variations in gravity associated with climate change J Geophys Res 107 (B6): ETG 3-1–ETG 3-7 [10.1029/2001JB000404]

Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G. L. Russell, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Teller. 2001. Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070]

Rind, D., G. L. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, et al. S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller. 2001. Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production J Geophys Res 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954]

Gregory, J. M., J. A. Church, G. J. Boer, et al. K. W. Dixon, G. M. Flato, D. R. Jackett, J. A. Lowe, S. P. O'Farrell, E. Roeckner, G. L. Russell, R. J. Stoufer, and M. Winton. 2001. Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level change 1900-2100 Climate Dynamics 18 (3-4): 225-240 [10.1007/s003820100180]

Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, D. Rind, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth. 2000. Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156]

Russell, G. L., V. Gornitz, and J. R. Miller. 2000. Regional sea level changes projected by the NASA/GISS Atmosphere-Ocean Model Climate Dynamics 16 (10-11): 789-797 [10.1007/s003820000090]

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 2000. Projected impact of climate change on the freshwater and salt budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a global climate model Geophys Res Lett 27 (8): 1183-1186 [10.1029/1999GL007001]

Covey, C., A. Abe-Ouchi, G. J. Boer, et al. B. A. Boville, U. Cubasch, L. Fairhead, G. M. Flato, H. Gordon, E. Guilyardi, X. Jiang, T. C. Johns, H. Le Treut, G. Madec, G. A. Meehl, R. L. Miller, A. Noda, S. B. Power, E. Roeckner, G. Russell, E. K. Schneider, R. J. Stouffer, L. Terray, and J. von Storch. 2000. The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models Climate Dynamics 16 (10-11): 775-787 [10.1007/s003820000081]

Ferrari, M. R., J. R. Miller, and G. L. Russell. 1999. Modeling the effect of wetlands, flooding, and irrigation on river flow: Application to the Aral Sea Water Resources Res 35 1869-1876

Russell, G. L., and D. Rind. 1999. Response to CO2 transient increase in the GISS Coupled Model: Regional coolings in a warming climate J Climate 12 531-539

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 1997. Investigating the interactions among river flow, salinity and sea ice using a global coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice model Ann Glaciol 25 121-126

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, et al. A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, and J. Zawodny. 1997. Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25679-25720 [10.1029/97JD01495]

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, et al. G. Russell, M. Sato, J. Lerner, D. Rind, and P. Stone. 1997. Wonderland climate model J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D6): 6823-6830 [10.1029/96JD03435]

Van Blarcum, S. C., J. R. Miller, and G. L. Russell. 1995. High latitude river runoff in a doubled CO2 climate Climatic Change 30 (1): 7-26 [10.1007/BF01093223]

Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, and D. Rind. 1995. A coupled atmosphere-ocean model for transient climate change studies Atmos-Ocean 33 (4): 683-730 [10.1080/07055900.1995.9649550]

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 1995. Climate change and the Arctic hydrologic cycle as calculated by a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model Ann Glaciol 21 91-95

Druyan, L., K. Shah, K. Lo, J. Marengo, and G. Russell. 1995. Impacts of model improvements on general circulation model sensitivity to sea-surface temperature forcing Int. J. Climatol. 15 (10): 1061-1086 [10.1002/joc.3370151002]

Miller, J. R., G. L. Russell, and G. Caliri. 1994. Continental-scale river flow in climate models J Climate 7 (6): 914-928 [10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0914:CSRFIC>2.0.CO;2]

Marengo, J. A., J. R. Miller, G. L. Russell, C. E. Rosenzweig, and F. Abramopoulos. 1994. Calculations of river-runoff in the GISS GGM: impact of a new land-surface parameterization and runoff routing model on the hydrology of the Amazon River Climate Dynamics 10 (6-7): 349-361 [10.1007/s003820050053]

Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1994. Stable water isotope behavior during the last glacial maximum: A general circulation model analysis J Geophys Res 99 (D12): 25,791-25,801 [10.1029/94JD01819]

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 1992. The impact of global warming on river runoff J Geophys Res 97 (D3): 2757-2764 [10.1029/91JD01700]

Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1992. Origin of July Antarctic precipitation and its influence on deuterium content: a GCM analysis Climate Dynamics 7 (4): 195-203 [10.1007/BF00206861]

Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, J. W. White, and W. S. Broecker. 1991. Simulations of the HDO and H<sub>2</sub> <sup>18</sup>O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: Sensitivity experiments for present-day conditions J. Geophys. Res. 96 (D4): 7495 [10.1029/90JD02663]

Russell, G. L., and J. R. Miller. 1990. Global river runoff calculated from a global atmospheric general circulation model Journal of Hydrology 117 (1-4): 241-254 [10.1016/0022-1694(90)90095-F]

Broecker, W. S., T.-H. Peng, J. Jouzel, and G. L. Russell. 1990. The magnitude of global fresh-water transports of importance to ocean circulation Climate Dynamics 4 (2): 73-79 [10.1007/BF00208902]

Miller, J. R., and G. L. Russell. 1989. Ocean heat transport during the last glacial maximum Paleoceanography 4 141-155

Smith, T. M., J. R. Miller, and G. L. Russell. 1989. Seasonal oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model and ocean temperature climatology Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 14 77-92 [10.1016/0377-0265(89)90006-7]

Koster, R. D., W. S. Broecker, J. Jouzel, et al. R. J. Suozzo, G. L. Russell, D. Rind, and J. W. White. 1989. The global geochemistry of bomb-produced tritium: General circulation model compared to available observations and traditional interpretations J. Geophys. Res. 94 (D15): 18305-18326 [10.1029/JD094iD15p18305]

Hansen, J., I. Fung, A. Lacis, et al. D. Rind, S. Lebedeff, R. Ruedy, G. Russell, and P. Stone. 1988. Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D8): 9341-9364 [10.1029/JD093iD08p09341]

Rind, D., R. Suozzo, N. K. Balachandran, A. Lacis, and G. Russell. 1988. The GISS Global Climate-Middle Atmosphere Model. Part I: Model structure and climatology J. Atmos. Sci. 45 329-370

Prather, M., M. McElroy, S. Wofsy, G. L. Russell, and D. Rind. 1987. Chemistry of the global troposphere: Fluorocarbons as tracers of air motion J. Geophys. Res. 92 (D6): 6579-6613 [10.1029/JD092iD06p06579]

Jouzel, J., G. L. Russell, R. J. Suozzo, et al. R. D. Koster, J. W. White, and W. Broecker. 1987. Simulations of the HDO and H<sub>2</sub><sup>18</sup>O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions J. Geophys. Res. 92 (D12): 14739-14760 [10.1029/JD092iD12p14739]

Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, W. S. Broecker, D. Rind, and P. S. Eagleson. 1986. Global sources of local precipitation as determined by the NASA/GISS GCM Geophys. Res. Lett. 13 (2): 121-124 [10.1029/GL013i002p00121]

Hansen, J., G. Russell, A. Lacis, et al. I. Fung, D. Rind, and P. Stone. 1985. Climate Response Times: Dependence on Climate Sensitivity and Ocean Mixing Science 229 (4716): 857-859 [10.1126/science.229.4716.857]

Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, and L.-C. Tsang. 1985. Seasonal oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 9 (3): 253-271 [10.1016/0377-0265(85)90022-3]

Hansen, J., G. L. Russell, D. H. Rind, et al. P. Stone, A. A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, R. A. Ruedy, and L. D. Travis. 1983. Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: Models I and II M. Weather Rev. 111 (4): 609-662 [10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2]

Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. A. Lacis, et al. S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. L. Russell. 1983. Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Science 220 (4599): 874-875 [10.1126/science.220.4599.874-a]

Miller, J. R., G. L. Russell, and L.-C. Tsang. 1983. Annual oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 7 (2): 95-109 [10.1016/0377-0265(83)90012-X]

Pinto, J. P., D. Rind, G. L. Russell, et al. J. A. Lerner, J. E. Hansen, Y. L. Yung, and S. Hameed. 1983. A general circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide J. Geophys. Res. 88 (C6): 3691-3702 [10.1029/JC088iC06p03691]

Fung, I., K. Prentice, E. Matthews, J. Lerner, and G. L. Russell. 1983. Three-dimensional tracer model study of atmospheric CO₂ : Response to seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere J. Geophys. Res. 88 (C2): 1281-1294 [10.1029/JC088iC02p01281]

Druyan, L. M., J. R. Miller, and G. L. Russell. 1983. Atmospheric general circulation model simulations with an interactive ocean: Effects of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea Atmos.-Ocean 21 (1): 94-106 [10.1080/07055900.1983.9649158]

Russell, G. L., and J. A. Lerner. 1981. A new finite-differencing scheme for tracer transport equation J. Appl. Meteorol. 20 (12): 1483-1498 [10.1175/1520-0450(1981)020<1483:ANFDSF>2.0.CO;2]

Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. A. Lacis, et al. S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. L. Russell. 1981. Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Science 213 (4511): 957-966 [10.1126/science.213.4511.957]

Somerville, R. C., P. H. Stone, M. Halem, et al. J. E. Hansen, J. S. Hogan, L. M. Druyan, G. Russell, A. A. Lacis, W. J. Quirk, and J. Tenenbaum. 1974. The GISS model of the global atmosphere J. Atmos. Sci. 31 84-117