Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Gary Lloyd Russell


Gary Lloyd Russell's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 212.678.5547
Org Code: 611
Mail Code 611
New York, NY 10025

Brief Bio

Have worked on the GISS climate models since 1969 when the Mintz-Arkawa Weather Model was imported into GISS from UCLA. My most useful expertise is atmospheric and ocean dynamics, but am also knowledgable of surface interaction, condensation, radiation, and tracer transport.

Research Interests

Climate Model Computer Programming

Earth Science: Theory & Modeling

Have worked on the GISS climate models since 1969 when the Mintz-Arkawa Weather Model was imported into GISS from UCLA.  My most useful expertise is atmospheric and ocean dynamics, but am also knowledgable of surface interaction, condensation, radiation, and tracer transport.

Current Projects

Angular Momentum Scheme on a Cube-Sphere Grid

Theory & Modeling

Standard vector calculus formulas of Cartesian three space are projected onto the surface of a sphere. This produces symmetric equations with three non-independent horizontal velocity components. Each orthogonal axis has a velocity component that rotates around its axis (eastward velocity rotates around the north-south axis) and a specific angular momentum component that is the product of the velocity component times the cosine of axis’ latitude. Angular momentum components align with the fixed axes and simplify several formulas whereas the rotating velocity components are not orthogonal and vary with location. Three symmetric coordinates allow vector resolution and calculus operations continuously over the whole spherical surface which is not possible with only two coordinates. Adding a third component to integrations may reduce numerical errors. Shallow water models using these equations have been developed for both cube-sphere and icosahedral grids.



NASA / Goddard Institute for Space Studies - 2880 Broadway New York, NY 10025

August 1978 - Present

Employment History:
1978-present: Mathematician, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies
1968-1978: Programmer/Analyst for support services contractors at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, specifically:
Computer Services Corporation (1968-74),
Programming Methods, Incorporated (1974-75),
GTE Information Systems (1975-77), and
Sigma Data Services Corporation (1977-78).


Ph.D. Mathematics, 1976, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025
M.A. Mathematics, 1968, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

Professional Societies

American Geophysical Union


2013 - Present

Selected Publications


2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 371 (2001): 20120294 [10.1098/rsta.2012.0294] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change." Tellus B 65 19734 [10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.19734] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling 66 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Fast atmosphere-ocean model runs with large changes in CO2." Geophysical Research Letters 40 (21): 5787-5792 [10.1002/2013GL056755] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Modelling the future hydroclimatology of the lower Fraser River and its impacts on the spawning migration survival of sockeye salmon." Global Change Biology 17 (1): 87-98 [10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02225.x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Using a global climate model to evaluate the influences of water vapor, snow cover and atmospheric aerosol on warming in the Tibetan Plateau during the twenty-first century." Climate Dynamics 34 (6): 859-872 [10.1007/s00382-009-0564-1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Climate change and trace gases." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 365 (1856): 1925-1954 [10.1098/rsta.2007.2052] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Step-Mountain Technique Applied to an Atmospheric C-Grid Model, or How to Improve Precipitation near Mountains." Mon. Wea. Rev. 135 (12): 4060-4076 [10.1175/2007MWR2048.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Future regime shift in feedbacks during Arctic winter." Geophys Res Lett 34 (23): L23707 [10.1029/2007GL031826] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Modeling changes in summer temperature of the Fraser River during the next century." J Hydrol 342 (3-4): 336-346 [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.06.002] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Analysis of global climate model experiments to elucidate past and future changes in surface insolation and warming in China." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (20): L20709 [10.1029/2006GL027778] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Amplification of Surface Temperature Trends and Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere." Science 309 (5740): 1551-1556 [10.1126/science.1114867] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications." Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Impact on regional winter climate by CO₂ increases vs. by maritime-air advection." Geophys Res Lett 30 (15): 1822 [10.1029/2003GL017545] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model." J Geophys Res 108 (C2): 3053 [10.1029/2001JC001167] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Observed and modeled relationships among Arctic climate variables." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D24): 4799 [10.1029/2003JD003824] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Are stronger North-Atlantic southwesterlies the forcing to the late-winter warming in Europe?." Int. J. Climatol. 22 (6): 743-750 [10.1002/joc.681] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Projected impact of climate change on the energy budget of the Arctic Ocean by a global climate model." J Climate 15 3028-3042. [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Comparison of mean climate trends in the Northern Hemisphere between National Centers for Environmental Prediction and two atmosphere-ocean model forced runs." J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D15): 4269 [10.1029/2001JD001247] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Detecting time variations in gravity associated with climate change." J Geophys Res 107 (B6): ETG 3-1–ETG 3-7 [10.1029/2001JB000404] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphereocean model: 1. North Atlantic Deep Water response." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D21): 27335-27353 [10.1029/2000JD000070] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model: 2. A bipolar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production." J Geophys Res 106 (D21): 27355-27366 [10.1029/2001JD000954] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Comparison of results from several AOGCMs for global and regional sea-level change 1900-2100." Climate Dynamics 18 (3-4): 225-240 [10.1007/s003820100180] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D11): 14891-14898 [10.1029/2000JD900156] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Regional sea level changes projected by the NASA/GISS Atmosphere-Ocean Model." Climate Dynamics 16 (10-11): 789-797 [10.1007/s003820000090] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Projected impact of climate change on the freshwater and salt budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a global climate model." Geophys Res Lett 27 (8): 1183-1186 [10.1029/1999GL007001] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "The seasonal cycle in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models." Climate Dynamics 16 (10-11): 775-787 [10.1007/s003820000081] [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Modeling the effect of wetlands, flooding, and irrigation on river flow: Application to the Aral Sea." Water Resources Res 35 1869-1876 [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Response to CO2 transient increase in the GISS Coupled Model: Regional coolings in a warming climate." J Climate 12 531-539 [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "Investigating the interactions among river flow, salinity and sea ice using a global coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice model." Ann Glaciol 25 121-126 [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25679-25720 [10.1029/97JD01495] [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "Wonderland climate model." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D6): 6823-6830 [10.1029/96JD03435] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "High latitude river runoff in a doubled CO2 climate." Climatic Change 30 (1): 7-26 [10.1007/BF01093223] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "A coupled atmosphere-ocean model for transient climate change studies." Atmos-Ocean 33 (4): 683-730 [10.1080/07055900.1995.9649550] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Climate change and the Arctic hydrologic cycle as calculated by a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model." Ann Glaciol 21 91-95 [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Impacts of model improvements on general circulation model sensitivity to sea-surface temperature forcing." Int. J. Climatol. 15 (10): 1061-1086 [10.1002/joc.3370151002] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Continental-scale river flow in climate models." J Climate 7 (6): 914-928 [10.1175/1520-0442(1994)007<0914:CSRFIC>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Calculations of river-runoff in the GISS GGM: impact of a new land-surface parameterization and runoff routing model on the hydrology of the Amazon River." Climate Dynamics 10 (6-7): 349-361 [10.1007/s003820050053] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Stable water isotope behavior during the last glacial maximum: A general circulation model analysis." J Geophys Res 99 (D12): 25,791-25,801 [10.1029/94JD01819] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "The impact of global warming on river runoff." J Geophys Res 97 (D3): 2757-2764 [10.1029/91JD01700] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Origin of July Antarctic precipitation and its influence on deuterium content: a GCM analysis." Climate Dynamics 7 (4): 195-203 [10.1007/BF00206861] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "Simulations of the HDO and H2 18O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: Sensitivity experiments for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res. 96 (D4): 7495 [10.1029/90JD02663] [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "Global river runoff calculated from a global atmospheric general circulation model." Journal of Hydrology 117 (1-4): 241-254 [10.1016/0022-1694(90)90095-F] [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "The magnitude of global fresh-water transports of importance to ocean circulation." Climate Dynamics 4 (2): 73-79 [10.1007/BF00208902] [Journal Article/Letter]

1989. "Ocean heat transport during the last glacial maximum." Paleoceanography 4 141-155 [Journal Article/Letter]

1989. "Seasonal oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model and ocean temperature climatology." Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 14 77-92 [10.1016/0377-0265(89)90006-7] [Journal Article/Letter]

1989. "The global geochemistry of bomb-produced tritium: General circulation model compared to available observations and traditional interpretations." J. Geophys. Res. 94 (D15): 18305-18326 [10.1029/JD094iD15p18305] [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model." J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D8): 9341-9364 [10.1029/JD093iD08p09341] [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "The GISS Global Climate-Middle Atmosphere Model. Part I: Model structure and climatology." J. Atmos. Sci. 45 329-370 [Journal Article/Letter]

1987. "Chemistry of the global troposphere: Fluorocarbons as tracers of air motion." J. Geophys. Res. 92 (D6): 6579-6613 [10.1029/JD092iD06p06579] [Journal Article/Letter]

1987. "Simulations of the HDO and H218O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res. 92 (D12): 14739-14760 [10.1029/JD092iD12p14739] [Journal Article/Letter]

1986. "Global sources of local precipitation as determined by the NASA/GISS GCM." Geophys. Res. Lett. 13 (2): 121-124 [10.1029/GL013i002p00121] [Journal Article/Letter]

1985. "Climate Response Times: Dependence on Climate Sensitivity and Ocean Mixing." Science 229 (4716): 857-859 [10.1126/science.229.4716.857] [Journal Article/Letter]

1985. "Seasonal oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model." Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 9 (3): 253-271 [10.1016/0377-0265(85)90022-3] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: Models I and II." M. Weather Rev. 111 (4): 609-662 [10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." Science 220 (4599): 874-875 [10.1126/science.220.4599.874-a] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Annual oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model." Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 7 (2): 95-109 [10.1016/0377-0265(83)90012-X] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "A general circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide." J. Geophys. Res. 88 (C6): 3691-3702 [10.1029/JC088iC06p03691] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Three-dimensional tracer model study of atmospheric CO₂ : Response to seasonal exchanges with the terrestrial biosphere." J. Geophys. Res. 88 (C2): 1281-1294 [10.1029/JC088iC02p01281] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Atmospheric general circulation model simulations with an interactive ocean: Effects of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea." Atmos.-Ocean 21 (1): 94-106 [10.1080/07055900.1983.9649158] [Journal Article/Letter]

1981. "A new finite-differencing scheme for tracer transport equation." J. Appl. Meteorol. 20 (12): 1483-1498 [10.1175/1520-0450(1981)020<1483:ANFDSF>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1981. "Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." Science 213 (4511): 957-966 [10.1126/science.213.4511.957] [Journal Article/Letter]

1974. "The GISS model of the global atmosphere." J. Atmos. Sci. 31 84-117 [Journal Article/Letter]