Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Brief Bio


    Claire L. Parkinson has been a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center since July 1978 and a Senior Fellow at Goddard since 2005. Her research emphasis has been on polar sea ice and its connections to the rest of the climate system and to climate change, with a particular emphasis on satellite remote sensing. This work has involved satellite data set generation and analysis, including the determination of decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage since the 1970s and examination of their regional variabilities and impacts, plus the quantification and analysis of the very different time series of sea ice changes in the Antarctic. Claire has also developed a computer model of sea ice, has done field work in both the Arctic and the Antarctic, and is the lead author of an atlas of Arctic sea ice from satellite data and a coauthor of two other sea ice atlases.

Since May 1993, Claire has additionally been the Project Scientist for the Aqua satellite mission, which launched in May 2002 and is transmitting data on many atmospheric, ocean, land, and ice variables. She has also written an introductory book on examining the Earth with satellite imagery, has coauthored with Warren Washington a university textbook on climate modeling, has coedited two books on satellite observations related to global change, and is lead editor of a Data Products Handbook for NASA's Earth Observing System and lead editor of a NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook. In 2010 she published a book titled Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix about climate change and her concerns regarding the possibility of implementation of potentially dangerous geoengineering projects. In 2011 she led a ‘Women of Goddard’ outreach effort that included production of a book on Women of Goddard: Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics and a set of six related posters. Outside of her NASA work, she has written a book on the history of western science from 1202 to 1930.

Claire is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and Phi Beta Kappa. 

Research Interests


Sea ice monitoring from satellite observations

Earth Science: Sea Ice

Claire's work on sea ice monitoring involves the development and analysis of satellite-derived sea ice data sets and the use of those data sets to quantify the changes in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers over the course of the satellite record.


Climate change

Earth Science: Climate

Claire's work on climate change involves analysis of past, ongoing, and modeled future climate change, including placing polar-sea-ice changes into the context of changes in the broader climate system. It also involves consideration of the unintended consequences that might occur if proposals to intentionally alter climate change (geoengineering) were to be implemented.

Current Projects


The Earth-observing Aqua satellite mission

Remote Sensing

Claire Parkinson is Project Scientist for the Aqua satellite, which is in orbit around the Earth, collecting data on the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, land, and ice. The satellite was launched in May 2002 and carries six Earth-observing instruments, four of which continue to transmit valuable science data, well beyond the satellite's six-year design life. The data are used by hundreds of scientists around the world and in a variety of practical applications.


Sea ice research

Sea Ice

Claire uses satellite data to determine the state and changes in the sea ice covers of the Arctic and Antarctic. Her ongoing work is helping to clarify major decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage since the 1970s, much smaller increases in Antarctic sea ice coverage until 2014, followed by rapid decreases, and the connections between the sea ice changes and the rest of the climate system.

Positions/Employment


Research Scientist

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Greenbelt, Maryland.

July 1978 - Present

Research Scientist focused on sea ice research since July 1978; Senior Scientist since 1987; Aqua Project Scientist since 1993; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Senior Fellow since 2005.


Research Assistant

National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) - Boulder, Colorado.

June 1976 - June 1978

Ph.D. dissertation research, developing a dynamic/thermodynamic computer model of sea ice for the Arctic and Antarctic regions, funded through the National Science Foundation.


Teaching Assistant and Instructor

Department of Geography, Ohio State University - Columbus, Ohio.

January 1973 - May 1976

Graduate student teaching assistant, initially teaching lab/recitation sections for a course primarily taught by a university professor, and transitioning after the first year into the role of primary instructor for an introductory physical geography course, teaching classes typically of 60 or more students.


Research Assistant

Institute of Polar Studies, Ohio State University - Columbus, Ohio.

September 1972 - December 1974

Research assistant engaged in computer programming, field work in Antarctica, and data analysis.

Education


          Ph.D. in Geography/Climatology from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1977. Thesis: A Numerical Simulation of the Annual Cycle of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic.

          M.A. in Geography/Climatology from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1974.

          B.A. in Mathematics from Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, 1970 (with highest honors).

 

Professional Societies


American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Fellow since 2011; member of the Steering Committee of the Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences Section, 2008-2011; member of the AAAS Council, 2008-2011; member of the Committee on Council Affairs, 2009-2011; member of the Science Journalism Awards Screening Committee, 2002-2012.

2004 - Present


American Meteorological Society

Fellow since 2001; member of the Committee on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 1984-1986; member of the Committee on the History of Atmospheric Sciences, 1988-1990, chair in 1990; member of the Atmospheric Research Awards Committee, 2012-2014, chair in 2014; member of the Oceanographic Research Awards Committee, 2014; member of the Awards Oversight Committee, 2014.

1980 - Present


American Philosophical Society

Member of the Library Committee 2011-2019, and of the expanded Library & Museum Committee, 2019 - Present.

2010 - Present


American Polar Society

2009 - Present


National Academy of Engineering

Member of the Charles Stark Draper Prize Selection Committee, 2012-2014, and chair of a due-diligence subcommittee, 2014.

2009 - Present


National Academy of Sciences

Member of the Polar Research Board, 2017-2020; member of the Auditing Committee, 2018 - Present.

2016 - Present


Oceanography Society

Lifetime member since 1989.

1988 - Present


Phi Beta Kappa

Fellow since 1997.

1969 - Present


American Academy of Arts & Sciences

Fellow since 2018; member of the Class I, Section 4 (Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Earth Sciences) Membership Panel, 2020-2021.

2018 - Present

Awards



Election to Phi Beta Kappa, Wellesley College, 1969.

Election to Sigma Xi, Wellesley College, 1970.

Lewis Atterbury Stimson Award in Mathematics, Wellesley College, 1970.

Charles Clifford Huntington Award in Geography, Ohio State University, 1976.

Exceptional Performance Award, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1979.


NASA Group Achievement Award to the authors of Antarctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976, NASA, 1982.


Peer Award for Best Paper, Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1984.


Inclusion of sole-authored Breakthroughs in Library Journal’s list of 100 outstanding science and technology books of 1985.


Peer Award for Leadership, for the book Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976, Laboratory for Oceans, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1988.


Peer Award for Outstanding Education/Outreach, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1997.


Outstanding Teamwork Award and ‘Best of the Best’ Teamwork Award, presented to the 1999 NASA North Pole Expedition Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000.

Elected a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, 2000 (effective 2001).


NASA Exceptional Service Medal for educational outreach, 2001.

2002 Laurels Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Space (one of four recipients, for the Aqua spacecraft mission), Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2003. 


NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal for leadership as the Aqua Project Scientist, 2003.

Richard P. Goldthwait Polar Medal, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, 2004.


Elected a Goddard Senior Fellow, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2005.


NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Excellence in Outreach Award, 2006.


American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 2006 Space Systems Award, awarded to 18 key members of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, 2006.


NASA Distinguished Performance Awards, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022.


NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal for exceptional dedication in advancing NASA’s Earth science missions, 2008.


Election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, 2009.


Election to the American Philosophical Society, 2010.


Elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2010 (effective 2011).

Remote Sensing Prize, American Meteorological Society, 2011.


First place in the Environment category of ForeWord Reviews’ Book of the Year Awards, for the book Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix, 2011.


Certificate of Appreciation for Service to the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society as a 2013 Best Reviewer for the Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (JSTARS), 2013.

William Nordberg Memorial Award for Earth Science, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2015.

Election to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 2016.

Elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2016.

Elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2018.

Inducted into the Maryland Women's Hall of Fame, 2020.

Roger Revelle Medal, American Geophysical Union, 2020.

NASA Distinguished Service Medal, 2020.

William T. Pecora Group Award, accepted on behalf of the Aqua satellite mission, 2022.

 

 

Professional Service


Chair, Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere session, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS '81), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Washington, D.C., June 8-10, 1981.

Associate Editor, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society Newsletter, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1982-1984.

Member, Science Advisory Group for SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) Investigations over Greenland and Antarctica, 1985-1986.

Member, Scientific Colloquium Committee, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1986-1999.

Chair, Sea Ice Session, American Meteorological Society's Second Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, Madison, Wisconsin, March 1988.

Associate Editor, Annals of Glaciology, International Glaciological Society, vol. 14, 1989.

Member, Sea Ice Specialists Panel, Office of Senator Albert Gore, United States Senate, 1990.

Scientific Editor, Journal of Glaciology, International Glaciological Society, 1990-1992.

Member, Advisory Panel on Climate and Global Change, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1990-1995.

Member, Review Panel for Research on the Voyage of the Sovetskiy Soyuz across the Arctic Basin, National Science Foundation, 1991.

Cochair, Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, New Carrollton, Maryland, November 19-21, 1991.

NASA Affiliate for the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education program at Ohio State University, 1991-1996.

Member, Climate Research Committee, National Academy of Sciences, 1994-1996.

Member, Review Panel for the Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, 1996.

Member, Earth Observing System (EOS) Science Executive Committee, 1996-2000.

Cochair, Contribution of Satellites to Global Climate Modeling session, annual spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), Baltimore, Maryland, May 30, 1997.

Member, Ph.D. Committee for Valerie Louis, University of Maryland, 1997-2003.

Chair, meetings of the Aqua Science Working Group, 1997-2004.

Member, Ph.D. Committee for Keith Henderson, Ohio State University (and Adjunct Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio State University), 1998-2002.

Chair, plenary session on Variability in the Earth System, Earth Observing System (EOS) Investigators’ Working Group (IWG) meeting, San Antonio, Texas, October 30, 2001.

A contributing author for the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report and a reviewer for the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.

Chair, Aqua plenary session, Earth Observing System (EOS) Investigators’ Working Group (IWG) meeting, Ellicott City, Maryland, November 18, 2002.

Member, Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Science Operations Readiness Review Board, 2002.

Rapporteur, Breakout Group 1: Climate Change Science Program Elements, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders, Washington, D.C., 2002.

Guest Editor, Aqua Special Issue, Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2002-2003.

Co-convener of five Aqua sessions at the December 8-12, 2003 annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, and co-chair of three of those sessions, December 9-10, 2003.

Chair, session on Time Variations and Teleconnections II, International Conference on the “Central Arctic: Battleground of Natural and Man-Made Climate Forcing,” Palisades, New York, January 8, 2004.

Member, Panel on Climate Variability and Change for the Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, 2005-2006.

Member, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Future Planning Effort Red Team Review Panel, 2007-2008.

Member of committees for various professional societies (see section titled Professional Societies), continuing.


Special Experience


Glaciological field work in Antarctica, December 1973-February 1974. 

Sea ice field work in the Bering Sea, February-March 1981. 

Leader of a group effort to produce an atlas of Arctic sea ice from satellite passive-microwave data, 1984-1987. 


Project Scientist of the Earth-observing Aqua satellite mission, May 1993 - December 2022.

Chief Scientist, NASA Expedition to Resolute Bay, Eureka, and the North Pole, April 1999.

Selected Public Outreach


Earth & Sky Radio

1998 - 2013

Member, Science Advisory Board, Earth & Sky Radio, 1998-2013.

Soundprint Media Center

1998 - 2008

Member, Science Advisory Board for radio documentaries, Soundprint Media Center, 1998-2008.


CD-ROM "Welcome to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise"

1998 - 1999

Member, Oversight Committee for the educational CD-ROM “Welcome to NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise,” NASA, 1998-1999; final product released in August 1999.


The Earth Observatory

1999 - 2006

Member, Editorial Board for NASA's Earth Observatory, a popular, award-winning internet website (recognized by Popular Science as one of the 50 best science and technology websites; repeat winner of the Webby's People’s Voice Award; and 2003 winner of the Webby Award for Education from the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences), 1999-2006.


The JASON Project

2001 - 2002

Host researcher for JASON XIII: Frozen Worlds, 2001-2002, the thirteenth annual educational program of the JASON Project, led by Dr. Robert Ballard.


Aqua webcasts

2001 - 2003

Scientist host for eight live web casts about the Aqua spacecraft, before and after the 2002 Aqua launch, December 2001 – March 2003.


Children's Museum of Indianapolis Traveling Exhibit

2005 - 2006

Science advisor and one of several featured scientists in a Children’s Museum of Indianapolis traveling exhibit (October 2006 – December 2011) entitled “National Geographic Maps: Tools for Adventure,” 2005-2006.

American Museum of Natural History Polar Exhibit

2006 - 2007

Science advisor to a polar exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, 2006-2007.

United Nations "Antarctica On Thin Ice" Exhibit

2006 - 2007

Sole science advisor to the photographic exhibit “Antarctica On Thin Ice” that opened at the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City on December 17, 2007.


Women of Goddard

2011 - 2011

Leader of a collaborative outreach effort between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Maryland Women’s Heritage Center, highlighting exciting career possibilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics through a sampling of the careers of the women of NASA Goddard, resulting in a “Women of Goddard” book and six associated posters, 2011.


Educational Videos on the Use of Math to Analyze Climate Change, Using the Example of Polar Sea Ice

2013 - 2014

Writer and on-camera presenter for three 17-20-minute videos instructing middle and high school math students on the use of math in the analysis of satellite sea ice data, 2013-2014. The three videos are titled “Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Coverages, as Derived from Satellite Data,” "Determining Trends in Yearly Average Sea Ice Extents," and "Determining Trends in Sea Ice Extent Monthly Deviations."


FEMA Volunteer

November 2017 - December 2017

Volunteer, full time for six weeks in the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Surge Capacity Force, assisting in the recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma. 

Selected Publications


Refereed

Parkinson, C. L. 2022. Arctic sea ice coverage from 43 years of satellite passive-microwave observations Frontiers in Remote Sensing 3 [10.3389/frsen.2022.1021781]

Parkinson, C. L. 2022. The Earth‐Observing Aqua Satellite Mission: 20 Years and Counting Earth and Space Science 9 (9): [10.1029/2022ea002481]

Parkinson, C. L., and N. E. DiGirolamo. 2021. Sea ice extents continue to set new records: Arctic, Antarctic, and global results Remote Sensing of Environment 267 112753 [10.1016/j.rse.2021.112753]

Parkinson, C. L. 2020. Engineering in the Detection of Climate Change The Bridge 50 (1): 7-15

Duncan, B. N., L. E. Ott, J. B. Abshire, et al. L. Brucker, M. L. Carroll, J. Carton, J. C. Comiso, E. P. Dinnat, B. C. Forbes, A. Gonsamo, W. W. Gregg, D. K. Hall, I. Ialongo, R. Jandt, R. A. Kahn, A. Karpechko, S. R. Kawa, S. Kato, T. Kumpula, E. Kyrölä, T. V. Loboda, K. C. McDonald, P. M. Montesano, R. Nassar, C. S. Neigh, C. L. Parkinson, B. Poulter, J. Pulliainen, K. Rautiainen, B. M. Rogers, C. S. Rousseaux, A. J. Soja, N. Steiner, J. Tamminen, P. C. Taylor, M. A. Tzortziou, H. Virta, J. S. Wang, J. D. Watts, D. M. Winker, and D. L. Wu. 2020. Space‐Based Observations for Understanding Changes in the Arctic‐Boreal Zone Reviews of Geophysics 58 (1): 2019RG000652 [10.1029/2019rg000652]

Parkinson, C. L. 2019. A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (29): 14414-14423 [10.1073/pnas.1906556116]

Parkinson, C. L. 2018. Polar sea ice coverage, its changes, and its broader climate impacts Our Warming Planet: Topics in Climate Dynamics 273-294 [doi:10.1142/10256]

Parkinson, C. L. 2017. Satellite contributions to climate change studies Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 161 (3): 208-225

Ainley, D. G., G. Ballard, J. T. Eastman, et al. C. W. Evans, N. Nur, and C. L. Parkinson. 2016. Changed prevalence, not absence, explains toothfish status in McMurdo Sound Antarctic Science 29 (2): 165-171 [10.1017/s0954102016000584]

Porter, S. E., C. L. Parkinson, and E. Mosley-Thompson. 2016. Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121 (23): 13,886-13,900 [10.1002/2016jd025626]

Parkinson, C. L., and N. E. DiGirolamo. 2016. New visualizations highlight new information on the contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice trends since the late 1970s Remote Sensing of Environment 183 198-204 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.020]

Parkinson, C. L. 2014. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends Journal of Climate 27 (24): 9377–9382 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00605.1]

Parkinson, C. L. 2014. Changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice as a microcosm of global climate change Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 100 (1): 1-18

Parkinson, C. L. 2014. Spatially mapped reductions in the length of the Arctic sea ice season Geophysical Research Letters 41 (12): 4316-4322 [10.1002/2014GL060434]

Ainley, D. G., N. Nur, J. T. Eastman, et al. G. Ballard, C. L. Parkinson, C. W. Evans, and A. L. DeVries. 2013. Decadal trends in abundance, size and condition of Antarctic toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2011 Fish and Fisheries 14 (3): 343-363 [10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00474.x]

Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2013. On the 2012 record low Arctic sea ice cover: Combined impact of preconditioning and an August storm Geophysical Research Letters 40 (7): 1356-1361 [10.1002/grl.50349]

Parkinson, C. L. 2013. Summarizing the First Ten Years of NASA's Aqua Mission IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 6 (3): 1179-1188 [10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2239608]

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. Floating ice: Sea ice Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century 1386 (A): 345-380 + 415-424.

Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2012. Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010 The Cryosphere 6 (4): 881-889 [10.5194/tc-6-881-2012]

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010 The Cryosphere 6 (4): 871-880 [10.5194/tc-6-871-2012]

Garrott, R. A., J. J. Rotella, D. B. Siniff, C. L. Parkinson, and G. E. Stauffer. 2012. Environmental variation and cohort effects in an Antarctic predator Oikos 121 (7): 1027-1040 [10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19673.x]

Boisvert, L. N., T. Markus, C. L. Parkinson, and T. Vihma. 2012. Moisture fluxes derived from EOS aqua satellite data for the north water polynya over 2003–2009 Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (D6): D06119 [10.1029/2011JD016949]

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, N. DiGirolamo, and A. Ivanoff. 2012. Intersensor Calibration Between F13 SSMI and F17 SSMIS for Global Sea Ice Data Records IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 9 (2): 233-236 [10.1109/LGRS.2011.2166754]

Parkinson, C. L. 2010. Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix 411 pp.

Ballard, G., V. Toniolo, D. G. Ainley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, K. R. Arrigo, and P. N. Trathan. 2010. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries Ecology 91 (7): 2056-2069 [10.1890/09-0688.1]

Huang, N. E., Z. Wu, J. E. Pinzon, et al. C. L. Parkinson, S. R. Long, K. Blank, P. Gloersen, and X. Chen. 2009. Reductions of noise and uncertainty in annual global surface temperature anomaly data Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis 1 (3): 447-460 [10.1142/S1793536909000151]

Parkinson, C. L. 2008. Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences Second Edition. 80-90.

Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. Arctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C2): C02S05 [10.1029/2007JC004255]

Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006 Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C7): C07004 [10.1029/2007JC004564]

Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2008. Antarctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C2): C02S06 [10.1029/2007JC004253]

Comiso, J. C., C. L. Parkinson, R. A. Gersten, and L. V. Stock. 2008. Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover Geophysical Research Letters 35 (1): L01703 [10.1029/2007GL031972]

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2008. Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006 Journal of Geophysical Research 113 C07003 [10.1029/2007JC004558]

Parkinson, C. L. 2007. Changes in polar sea ice coverage Sudden and Disruptive Climate Change: Exploring the Real Risks and How We Can Avoid Them 49-62

Ukita, J., M. Honda, H. Nakamura, et al. Y. Tachibana, D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, H. Koide, and K. Yamamoto. 2007. Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability: lag structure and its implications Tellus A 59 (2): 261-272 [10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00223.x]

Koeln, G. T., Y. Naficy, and C. L. Parkinson. 2007. Chronicling the destruction of Eden: The draining of the Iraqi marshes Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 312-319.

Parkinson, C. L. 2007. The Great White Ocean: The Arctic's changing sea ice cover Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 226-231.

Parkinson, C. L. 2007. Bound together: Arctic sea ice, ocean, and atmosphere Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 232-237

Parkinson, C. L. 2006. Earth's cryosphere: Current state and recent changes Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 33-60 [10.1146/annurev.energy.31.041105.095552]

Parkinson, C. L., K. Y. Vinnikov, and D. J. Cavalieri. 2006. Evaluation of the simulation of the annual cycle of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverages by 11 major global climate models Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (C7): C07012 [10.1029/2005JC003408]

Stirling, I., and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populatious of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic Arctic 59 (3): 261-275.

Vinnikov, K. Y., D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. A model assessment of satellite observed trends in polar sea ice extents Geophysical Research Letters 33 (5): L05704 [10.1029/2005GL025282]

Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2005. An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling Second Edition 353 pp.

Parkinson, C. L. 2004. Southern Ocean sea ice and its wider linkages: insights revealed from models and observations Antarctic Science 16 (4): 387-400 [10.1017/S0954102004002214]

Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2004. Satellite-observed changes in the Arctic Physics Today 57 (8): 38-44.

Parkinson, C. L. 2003. Arctic Ocean Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change 1 199-201

Parkinson, C. L. 2003. Aqua: An Earth-observing satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41 (2): 173-183 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808319]

Vaughan, D. G., G. J. Marshall, W. M. Connolley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, R. Mulvaney, D. A. Hodgson, J. C. King, C. J. Pudsey, and J. Turner. 2003. Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula Climatic Change 60 (3): 243-274 [10.1023/A:1026021217991]

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, and K. Y. Vinnikov. 2003. 30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability Geophysical Research Letters 30 (18): 1970 [10.1029/2003GL018031]

Parkinson, C. L. 2002. Agassiz, Louis Encyclopedia of Global Change: Environmental Change and Human Society 1 10-12.

Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, and P. Gloersen. 2002. Variability of Antarctic sea ice 1979–1998 Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (C5): 9-1 - 9-19. [10.1029/2000JC000733]

Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2002. Analysis of seasonal cycles in climatic trends with application to satellite observations of sea ice extent Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 24-1 - 24-4 [10.1029/2001GL014481]

Parkinson, C. L. 2002. Trends in the length of the Southern Ocean sea-ice season, 1979-99 Annals of Glaciology 34 435-440.

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2002. A 21 year record of Arctic sea-ice extents and their regional, seasonal and monthly variability and trends Annals of Glaciology 34 (1): 441-446 [10.3189/172756402781817725]

Parkinson, C. L. 2001. Satellite passive microwave measurements of sea ice Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences 5 2531-2539.

Parkinson, C. L., D. Rind, R. J. Healy, and D. G. Martinson. 2001. The impact of sea ice concentration accuracies on climate model simulations with the GISS GCM Journal of Climate 14 (12): 2606-2623.

Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 2000. Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent: Response to comments by Moritz and Bitz Science 288 927a.

Parkinson, C. L. 2000. Variability of Arctic sea ice: The view from space, an 18-year record Arctic 53 (4): 341-358.

Parkinson, C. L. 2000. Recent trend reversals in Arctic sea ice extents: Possible connections to the North Atlantic Oscillation Polar Geography 24 (1): 1-12.

Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 1999. Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent Science 286 1934-1937.

Parkinson, C. L., D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H. J. Zwally, and J. C. Comiso. 1999. Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996 Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856. [10.1029/1999JC900082]

Gloersen, P., C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers: 1978-1996 Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,827-20,835.

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. Deriving long-term time series of sea ice cover from satellite passive-microwave multisensor data sets Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C7): 15,803-15,814. [10.1029/1999JC900081]

Parkinson, C. L. 1998. Length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1988-1994 Antarctic Sea Ice Physical Properties, Interactions and Variability 173-186.

Parkinson, C. L. 1997. Ice sheets and sea level rise PUMAS (Practical Uses of Math and Science): The On-Line Journal of Math and Science Examples 02_10_97_1.

Parkinson, C. L. 1997. Earth from Above: Using Color-Coded Satellite Images to Examine the Global Environment 176 pp.

Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, C. L. Parkinson, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes Science 278 1104-1106.

Comiso, J. C., D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, and P. Gloersen. 1997. Passive microwave algorithms for sea ice concentration: A comparison of two techniques Remote Sensing of the Environment 60 (3): 357-384.

Rind, D., R. J. Healy, C. L. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1997. The Role of sea ice in 2×CO<sub>2</sub> climate model sensitivity: Part II: Hemispheric dependencies Geophysical Research Letters 24 (12): 1491-1494 [10.1029/97GL01433]

Parkinson, C. L. 1996. Sea ice Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 2 669-675.

Parkinson, C. L. 1996. James Croll Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 1 207-208.

Parkinson, C. L. 1996. Louis Agassiz Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 1 19-20.

Parkinson, C. L. 1995. Satellite sensing of Antarctic sea ice Space and Atmospheric Sciences in Antarctica 87-105.

Parkinson, C. L. 1995. Recent sea ice advances in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait and retreats in the Bellingshausen Sea Annals of Glaciology 21 348-352.

Rind, D., R. Healy, C. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1995. The role of sea ice in 2 x CO2 climate model sensitivity. Part 1: The total influence of sea ice thickness and extent Journal of Climate 8 (3): 449-463.

Parkinson, C. L. 1994. Spatial patterns in the length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1979-1986 Journal of Geophysical Research 99 (C8): 16,327-16,339.

Foster, J. L., and C. L. Parkinson. 1993. Indications and effects of human activities Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change 425-443.

Parkinson, C. L., and P. Gloersen. 1993. Global sea ice coverage Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change 371-383.

Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1993. Satellite passive microwave observations and analysis of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978-1987 Annals of Glaciology 17 149-154.

Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1992. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations and Analysis NASA SP-511 290 pp.

Parkinson, C. L. 1992. Interannual variability of monthly Southern Ocean sea ice distributions Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C4): 5349-5363.

Parkinson, C. L. 1992. Southern Ocean sea-ice distributions and extents Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 338 (1285): 243-250.

Parkinson, C. L. 1992. Spatial patterns of increases and decreases in the length of the sea ice season in the north polar region, 1979–1986 Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C9): 14,377-14,388 [10.1029/92JC01367]

Parkinson, C. L. 1991. Interannual variability of monthly sea ice distributions in the north polar region Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change 1 71-78.

Parkinson, C. L. 1991. Strengths and weaknesses of sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change 1 17-21.

Parkinson, C. L. 1991. Interannual variability of the spatial distribution of sea ice in the north polar region Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C3): 4791-4801.

Parkinson, C. L. 1990. Search for the Little Ice Age in Southern Ocean sea-ice records Annals of Glaciology 14 221-225.

Parkinson, C. L. 1990. The impact of the Siberian High and Aleutian Low on the sea-ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk Annals of Glaciology 14 226-229.

Parkinson, C. L. 1989. Dangers of multiyear averaging in analyses of long-term climate trends Climate Dynamics 4 (1): 39-44. [10.1007/BF00207398]

Parkinson, C. L. 1989. On the value of long-term satellite passive microwave data sets for sea ice/climate studies GeoJournal 18 9-20.

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1989. Arctic sea ice 1973–1987: Seasonal, regional, and interannual variability Journal of Geophysical Research 94 (C10): 14,499-14,523 [10.1029/JC094iC10p14499]

Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice I: Effect of orbital insolation changes Climate Dynamics 3 85-91.

Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice II: Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange Climate Dynamics 3 93-103.

Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations NASA SP-489 296 pp.

Parkinson, C. L. 1987. Paradigm transitions in mathematics Philosophia Mathematica II (2): 127-150.

Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1987. On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and the fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk seas Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (C7): 7141-7162.

Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. Seasonal and regional variations of Northern Hemisphere sea ice as illustrated with satellite passive-microwave data for 1974 Annals of Glaciology 9 119-126.

Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling 422 pp.

Ling, C. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. Arctic sea ice extent and drift, modeled as a viscous fluid Ocean Science and Engineering 11 (1-2): 71-98

Parkinson, C. L. 1985. Breakthroughs: A Chronology of Great Achievements in Science and Mathematics 576 pp.

Parkinson, C. L., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1984. Response of Antarctic sea ice to uniform atmospheric temperature increases Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Maurice Ewing Series 5 254-264.

Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, et al. W. J. Campbell, F. D. Carsey, and P. Gloersen. 1983. Antarctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations NASA SP-459 206 pp.

Martin, S., P. Kauffman, and C. Parkinson. 1983. The movement and decay of ice edge bands in the winter Bering Sea Journal of Geophysical Research 88 2803-2812.

Parkinson, C. L. 1983. On the development and cause of the Weddell polynya in a sea ice simulation Journal of Physical Oceanography 13 501-511.

Parkinson, C. L., and A. J. Gratz. 1983. On the seasonal sea ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk Journal of Geophysical Research 88 2793-2802.

Zwally, H. J., C. L. Parkinson, and J. C. Comiso. 1983. Variability of Antarctic sea ice and changes in carbon dioxide Science 220 (4601): 1005-1012.

Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1982. Interannual sea-ice variations and sea-ice/atmosphere interactions in the Southern Ocean, 1973-1975 Annals of Glaciology 3 249-254.

Crawford, J. P., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. Wintertime microwave observations of the North Water polynya Oceanography from Space 839-844.

Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. Large-scale variations in observed Antarctic sea ice extent and associated atmospheric circulation Monthly Weather Review 109 (11): 2323-2336.

Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1980. Summary of a large-scale sea-ice model Sea Ice Processes and Models 224-233.

Parkinson, C. L., and G. F. Herman. 1980. Sea ice simulations based on fields generated by the GLAS GCM Monthly Weather Review 108 2080-2091.

Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1979. A large-scale numerical model of sea ice Journal of Geophysical Research 84 (C1): 311-337 [10.1029/JC084iC01p00311]

Parkinson, C. L., and W. W. Kellogg. 1979. Arctic sea ice decay simulated for a CO2-induced temperature rise Climatic Change 2 (2): 149-162 [10.1007/BF00133221]

Non-Refereed

Hart, M. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 2013. The Newton Awards: A History of Genius in Science and Technology 523 pp.

Parkinson, C. L. 2012. Moustafa T. Chahine, 1935-2011 National Academy of Engineering of the United States of America Memorial Tributes 46-51.

Parkinson, C. L. 2012. Aqua 10 years after launch The Earth Observer 24 (6): 4-17

Parkinson, C. L. 2007. Review of ‘ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance’ Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 (2): 255-257.

Graham, S. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2003. Aqua mission sponsors 2003 engineering competition The Earth Observer 15 (3): 21-22

Parkinson, C. L., M. T. Chahine, C. D. Kummerow, and V. V. Salomonson. 2003. Foreword to the EOS Aqua Special Issue IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41 (2): 172.

Parkinson, C. L. 2002. Satellite imagery for environmental reporting Nieman Reports: The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University 56 (4): 86-89.

Parkinson, C. L., and L. J. Ruark. 2000. Journey to the end of the Earth: An expedition to the North Pole Wellesley Magazine 84 (4): 24-29.

Parkinson, C. L. 1997. PM Science Working Group meeting on spacecraft maneuvers The Earth Observer 9 (3): 3-6.

Parkinson, C. L. 1994. Review of "Glaciers of Europe" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75 (5): 860-862.

Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1987. Satellite-derived ice data sets No. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976 NASA Technical Memorandum 87825 39 pp.

Parkinson, C. L. 1979. A simple parameterization for salt flux to the upper ocean owing to freezing and melting at the surface Antarctic Journal of the United States 14 (5): 103-104

Parkinson, C. L. 1978. A Numerical Simulation of the Annual Cycle of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic NCAR Cooperative Thesis No. 46 191 pp.