Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Brad Weir


Brad Weir's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 301.614.6033
Org Code: 610.1
Mail Code 610.1
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Brief Bio

Dr. Brad Weir is a research scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Morgan State University through the GESTAR II cooperative agreement. He is the lead developer of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Constituent Data Assimilation System (CoDAS) — a state-of-the-art statistical method for estimating atmospheric trace gas abundances based on satellite observations. His research focuses on developing and applying mathematical and statistical methods to address questions about the physics, chemistry, and biology of the Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surface. His work has appeared in Science, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the websites of National Geographic and the BBC, the NASA COVID-19 Dashboard, and the NASA/ESA/JAXA trilateral Earth Observing Dashboard.

ORCiD: 0000-0001-6160-0577


Scientist (Senior, 2021-Present)

Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Greenbelt, MD

October 2013 - Present

Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research I & II cooperative agreements:

  • Morgan State University (2021-Present)
  • Universities Space Research Association (2013-2021)

Post-doctoral Research Associate

College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University - Corvallis, OR

September 2010 - October 2013

Graduate Research Assistant

Los Alamos National Laboratory - Los Alamos, NM

June 2006 - August 2006


2003 - 2010: Ph.D., Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

1999 - 2003: B.A., Cum laude, Mathematics, New York University, New York, NY



2023. "Neutral Tropical African CO2 Exchange Estimated From Aircraft and Satellite Observations." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 37 (12): [10.1029/2023gb007804] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Flood Impacts on Net Ecosystem Exchange in the Midwestern and Southern United States in 2019." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 128 (18): [10.1029/2022jd037697] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Evaluating the consistency between OCO-2 and OCO-3 XCO2 estimates derived from the NASA ACOS version 10 retrieval algorithm." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 16 (12): 3173-3209 [10.5194/amt-16-3173-2023] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "M2‐SCREAM: A Stratospheric Composition Reanalysis of Aura MLS Data With MERRA‐2 Transport." Earth and Space Science 10 (2): e2022EA002632 [10.1029/2022ea002632] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Assessing progress toward the Paris climate agreement from space." Environmental Research Letters 17 (11): 111002 [10.1088/1748-9326/ac998c] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Airborne Lidar Measurements of XCO2 in Synoptically Active Environment and Associated Comparisons with Numerical Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 127 (16): e2021JD035664 [10.1029/2021jd035664] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Using atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domain." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22 (9): 6347-6364 [10.5194/acp-22-6347-2022] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "On the role of atmospheric model transport uncertainty in estimating the Chinese land carbon sink." Nature 603 E13-E14 [10.1038/s41586-021-04258-9] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Four years of global carbon cycle observed from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2) version 9 and in situ data and comparison to OCO-2 version 7." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 22 (2): 1097-1130 [10.5194/acp-22-1097-2022] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Multi‐Season Evaluation of CO2 Weather in OCO‐2 MIP Models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 127 (2): e2021JD035457 [10.1029/2021jd035457] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Regional impacts of COVID-19 on carbon dioxide detected worldwide from space." Science Advances 7 (45): eabf9415 [10.1126/sciadv.abf9415] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT)-America Mission." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 102 (9): E1714-E1734 [10.1175/bams-d-20-0300.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "COVID-19 Impact Monitoring for Climate Environment (Greenhouse Gases)." 2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS [10.1109/igarss47720.2021.9554328] [Proceedings]

2021. "Bias-correcting carbon fluxes derived from land-surface satellite data for retrospective and near-real-time assimilation systems." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 21 9609–9628 [10.5194/acp-21-9609-2021] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Field Evaluation of Column CO2 Retrievals from Intensity‐Modulated Continuous‐Wave Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements during the ACT‐America Campaign." Earth and Space Science 7 (12): e2019EA000847 [10.1029/2019ea000847] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "The Anomalous 2019 Antarctic Ozone Hole in the GEOS Constituent Data Assimilation System With MLS Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (18): [10.1029/2020jd033335] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Impact of a Regional US Drought on Land and Atmospheric Carbon." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 125 (8): [10.1029/2019jg005599] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Evaluation of OCO‐2 XCO2 Variability at Local and Synoptic Scales using Lidar and In Situ Observations from the ACT‐America Campaigns." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (10): [10.1029/2019jd031400] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Toward a Reanalysis of Stratospheric Ozone for Trend Studies: Assimilation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder and Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler Data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (4): [10.1029/2019jd031892] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Quantifying the Impact of Atmospheric Transport Uncertainty on CO2 Surface Flux Estimates." Global Biogeochemical Cycles 33 484-500 [10.1029/2018gb006086] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The impact of spatiotemporal variability in atmospheric CO2 concentration on global terrestrial carbon fluxes." Biogeosciences 15 5635-5652 [10.5194/bg-15-5635-2018] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 early science investigations of regional carbon dioxide fluxes." Science 358 (6360): eaam5745 [10.1126/science.aam5745] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "A potential implicit particle method for high-dimensional systems." Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 20 1047-1060 [10.5194/npg-20-1047-2013] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Implicit Estimation of Ecological Model Parameters." Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 75 (2): 223-257 [10.1007/s11538-012-9801-6] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "A vortex force analysis of the interaction of rip currents and surface gravity waves." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 116 (C5): C05001 [10.1029/2010jc006232] [Journal Article/Letter]


2022. "OCO-2 GEOS Level 3 monthly, 0.5x0.625 assimilated CO2 V10r." Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Greenbelt, MD, USA [10.5067/BGFIODET3HZ8] [Dataset]

2022. "OCO-2 GEOS Level 3 daily, 0.5x0.625 assimilated CO2 V10r." Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Greenbelt, MD, USA [10.5067/Y9M4NM9MPCGH] [Dataset]

Talks, Presentations and Posters


Constituent data assimilation plans of the GMAO at NASA Goddard

April 20, 2023

Mathematical Approaches of Atmospheric Constituents Data Assimilation and Inverse Modeling

Banff International Research Station, Banff, Alberta, Canada

Data assimilation for carbon monitoring

June 11, 2022

WMO GHG/Carbon Monitoring Workshop

World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 project: Monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide

April 22, 2022

Carbon Tracking and Reporting

Energy Conference Network, Houston, TX, USA

The GEOS-Carb reanalysis of atmospheric carbon dioxide

May 5, 2017

GMAO Seminar Series on Earth System Sceince

Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, Greenbelt, MD, USA

Implicit parameter estimation

March 17, 2013

Probabilistic Approaches to Data Assimilation for Earth Systems

Banff International Research Station, Banff, Alberta, Canada

Implicit sampling: theory and implementation

March 7, 2013

International Workshop on Particle Filters for Data Assimilation

Institute for Statistical Mathematics, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan

Implicit assimilation for marine ecological models

3, 2012

AGU Fall Meeting 2012, San Francisco, CA, USA

Abstract Id. NG41D-02


Professional Service

2024 - present: Review Editor, Frontiers in Remote Sensing

2024 - 2028: Science Adviser, AGU Eos

2023 - 2026: Secretary, AGU Nonlinear Geophysics

2021: Organizing Committee, 17th International Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Space (IWGGMS)