Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Brief Bio

 Andrew A. Lacis received his B.A. in Physics in 1963, M.S. in Astronomy in 1964, and Ph.D. in Physics in 1970, all from the University of Iowa. He was selected for the NASA traineeship program, a program established by NASA to encourage graduate students in the pursuit of scientific research and study. While a graduate student, he also did research in astrophysics and astronomy in Japan at the University of Kyoto, and at the University of Tokyo. Following his Ph.D., he was Instructor in Astronomy at the University of Iowa. In 1972, he teamed up with James E. Hansen for post-doctoral research in planetary atmospheres at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) where he worked on the development and implementation of radiative parameterizations for use in the early General Circulation Models (GCMs). This line of work resulted in the seminal 1974 paper by Lacis and Hansen on the Parameterization for Absorption of Solar Radiation in the Earth's Atmosphere, which is still being cited, having become one of the most cited papers not only at GISS, but in all of NASA (more than 800 citations according to the Science Citation Index database).

Lacis joined the NASA-GISS Civil Service Staff in 1976, and continued his work on the radiative model development for climate GCMs, including also the radiative modeling of planetary atmospheric structure as part of his participation in the Pioneer Venus and Galileo Jupiter space missions. His analysis of the Soviet Venera 8 probe measurements gave new insights on the nature of the cloud structure of Venus. In collaboration with Barbara E. Carlson, he developed a detailed (line-by-line with multiple scattering) radiative model of the Jovian atmosphere to analyze Voyager IRIS measurements. Cloud property and vertical profile retrievals from the IRIS spectra confirmed the postulated three-layer cloud Jovian structure consisting of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and liquid water clouds. The analysis also found strong correlation between the Jovian ortho-para hydrogen profile and ammonia cloud distribution suggesting paramagnetic conversion on ammonia cloud particles as the dominant ortho-para equilibration mechanism in the Jovian cloud-top region. These belt-zone ortho-para differences provide important constraints on the time scales and latitudinal dependence of vertical mixing in the Jovian atmosphere.

Lacis is perhaps best known in the international scientific community as the architect of the radiative transfer models that form the backbone of the GISS Climate Modeling Program. His radiative transfer techniques and parameterizations on the correlated k-distribution approach are described in the seminal 1991 paper by Lacis and Oinas (more than 250 citations), and are widely used throughout the research community. The correlated k-distribution approach retains the basic accuracy of line-by-line modeling of multiple scattering, thermal emission, and overlapping gaseous absorption in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres, but at a small fraction of the line-by-line computing cost, hence the obvious application to climate GCMs. The GISS GCM radiation code is also used as a radiative modeling tool, and has been incorporated into the ISCCP cloud retrieval data stream to enable direct comparison to broadband ERBE radiative flux measurements, thus enabling a satellite-measurement/radiation-model closure study of global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative flux distributions.

The GISS climate model is widely recognized as one of the best state-of-the-art GCMs. The radiative transfer code developed by Lacis is the key component that enables the GISS GCM to: (1) provide accurate representation of atmospheric radiative constituents, including the effects of multiple scattering by clouds and aerosols, overlapping absorption by atmospheric gases, and solar zenith angle and wavelength dependent surface properties; (2) maintain self-consistent treatment of solar and thermal energy balance, including the spectral dependence of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties; (3) permit realistic interactions between atmospheric dynamics and radiative constituents, including changes in size and refractive index of hygroscopic aerosols in response to changes in relative humidity; (4) incorporate flexibility to accommodate different vertical and horizontal model resolutions, and the ability to model transient changes in cloud, aerosol, and/or trace gas amount or distribution; (5) include model diagnostics which permit direct evaluation of GCM performance via model generated spectral radiances and fluxes versus satellite and ground-based observations to help identify points for further model development and improved parameterization.

Lacis also developed analytic techniques to separate, analyze, and quantify the relative strengths of the different feedback contributions due to clouds, water vapor, lapse rate, and surface albedo changes in climate modeling experiments. Since most of the climate related interactions between atmospheric constituents are radiative in nature, accurate attribution of radiative contributions is important toward understanding climate, climate change, and the prospects for controlling climate change.

Lacis has published over 150 peer-reviewed papers related to the analysis and treatment of radiative modeling issues in climate, remote sensing, and planetary atmospheric structure. He also is co-author of two state-of-the-art reference books by Mishchenko, Travis, and Lacis on radiative transfer theory and scattering, absorption, and emission of light by small particles. Lacis also teaches graduate level radiative transfer and climate process courses at Columbia University, and advises students in their graduate research programs. Lacis has a Google Scholar h-index of 68 with nearly 24,000 citation.

Lacis’ recent research activities include: (1) a NASA sponsored validation effort of the GISS GCM aerosol climatology against available satellite and ground-based data; (2) a DOE sponsored effort to retrieve aerosol optical depth, size, and single scattering information from remote sensing measurements; (3) a collaborative effort to develop a GCM radiative transfer code applicable for climate simulations of the Martian atmosphere; (4) a public information effort to analyze the radiative effects and collateral impacts of proposed geoengineering countermeasures to global warming; and (5) a NASA sponsored effort to define and refine the scientific objectives of a proposed CLARREO mission to establish a comprehensive Keeling-style long-term climate data record of satellite measured shortwave and longwave spectral radiances, which would also serve as a standard reference for comprehensive validation of global climate model performance.

Andrew A. Lacis was elected AGU Fellow for fundamental contributions in applied radiative transfer and remote sensing analysis that have greatly improved our basic understanding and ability to forecast climate change.

Research Interests

SW and LW Radiative Transfer Modeling of Earth and Planetary Atmospheres

Solar System: Atmospheres

 Radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres. Absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. Emission and absorption of thermal radiation in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres. Single and multiple scattering theory. Multi-spectral retrieval and interpretation of remote sensing measurements. Radiative-convective equilibrium and energy balance in planetary atmospheres. Climate modeling. Climate sensitivity and feedback analysis. Information content in polarimetric vs. intensity-only measurements.

Current Projects

Global Climate Modeling


SW and LW radiative heating and cooling of the Earth's atmosphere
SW and LW global energy balance of Earth
Global climate change and global warming

Planetary Atmospheres


Titan atmospheric structure
Early-Earth atmospheric structure
Venus atmospheric structure
Mars atmospheric structure


Physical Scientist

NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies - 2880 Broadway New York, NY 10025

1976 - Present

Civil Service - Senior Research Staff - Physical Scientist - Atmospheric Physics - Radiative Transfer

Senior Research Scientist

Programming Methods Inc. - 2880 Broadway New York, NY 10225

1974 - 1976

 Radiative Transfer Programmer/Researcher

Senior Research Scientist

Computer Sciences Corp. - 2880 Broadway New York, NY 10025

1972 - 1974

 Radiative Transfer Programmer/Researcher


University of Iowa - University of Iowa Iowa City, IA

1971 - 1972


Teaching Experience

 1980 – 2010 Lecturer, Columbia University
(Atmospheric Radiation)

1980 – 2010 Lecturer, Columbia University
(Radiative Processes of Climate)

1970 – 1971 Instructor, University of Iowa

Professional Societies

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

AGU Fellow: since 2011

1984 - Present


Ph.D. (Physics), University of Iowa, 1970
MS (Astronomy), University of Iowa, 1964
BA (Physics), University of Iowa, 1963

Professional Service

MAP Project review panel  2008
ACCESS Project review panel 2007

Other Professional Information

1974–1996 Co-Investigator, Pioneer Venus, Orbiter Cloud-Photopolarimeter Experiment
1977–2003 Co-Investigator, Galileo Jupiter, Photopolarimeter/Radiometer Experiment
1990–2000 Co-Investigator, Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter


2014 GISS Best Scientific Publication (peer vote)
2011 Fellow, American Geophysical Union
2010 GISS Best Scientific Publication (peer vote)
1999 GISS Peer Award
1996 NASA Quality Increase
1995 GISS Peer Award


 GCM Radiative Forcing and Feedback Analysis Project Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

GCM Radiative Forcing and Feedback Analysis Project Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program - DOE - Awarded: 1990-09-01

Dates: 1990-10-01  - 2008-09-30

 SAGE Data Utilization in Global Climate Modeling Studies

SAGE Data Utilization in Global Climate Modeling Studies - NASA - Awarded: 1993-09-01

Dates: 1993-10-01  - 1996-09-30

 SCARAB, ERBE, ISCCP Radiation Budget Project

SCARAB, ERBE, ISCCP Radiation Budget Project - NASA - Awarded: 1997-09-01

Dates: 1997-10-01  - 2000-09-30

 Aerosol Climatology Characterization for GCM Applications Earth System Science Research

Aerosol Climatology Characterization for GCM Applications Earth System Science Research - NASA - Awarded: 2003-09-01

Dates: 2003-10-01  - 2010-09-30

 CLARREO Mission GCM CLARREO LW, SW Simulators

CLARREO Mission GCM CLARREO LW, SW Simulators - NASA - Awarded: 2008-09-01

Dates: 2008-10-01  - 2010-09-30

 GISS Climate Web-based Applications for Public Outreach and Education

GISS Climate Web-based Applications for Public Outreach and Education - NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Awarded: 2012-09-01

Dates: 2012-12-01  - 2013-09-30

Special Experience

Developed PGPLOT enhanced ploting capability options
Dveloped TTUTOR radiative equilibrium energy balance/greenhouse effect simulator

Selected Publications


2014. "Application of spectral analysis techniques in the inter-comparison of aerosol data, Part 4: Synthesized analysis of multisensor satellite and ground-based AOD measurements using combined maximum covariance analysis." Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7 2531-2549 [10.5194/amt-7-2531-2014] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data: Part III. Using combined PCA to compare spatiotemporal variability of MODIS, MISR, and OMI aerosol optical depth." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (7): 4017-4042 [10.1002/2013JD020538] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Revisiting AVHRR tropospheric aerosol trends using principal component analysis." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (6): 3309-3320 [10.1002/2013JD020789] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data. Part II: Using maximum covariance analysis to effectively compare spatiotemporal variability of satellite and AERONET measured aerosol optical depth." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (1): 153-166 [10.1002/2013JD020537] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Evidence of a weakly absorbing intermediate mode of aerosols in AERONET data from Saharan and Sahelian sites." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (22): 12,661-12,672 [10.1002/2013JD020342] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change." Tellus B 65 19734 [10.3402/tellusb.v65i0.19734] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Application of spectral analysis techniques in the intercomparison of aerosol data: 1. An EOF approach to analyze the spatial-temporal variability of aerosol optical depth using multiple remote sensing data sets." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (15): 8640-8648 [10.1002/jgrd.50686] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Fast atmosphere-ocean model runs with large changes in CO2." Geophysical Research Letters 40 (21): 5787-5792 [10.1002/2013GL056755] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "El Niño–Southern Oscillation correlated aerosol Ångström exponent anomaly over the tropical Pacific discovered in satellite measurements." J. Geophys. Res. 116 (D20): D20204 [10.1029/2011JD015733] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "An optimal fitting approach to improve the GISS ModelE aerosol optical property parameterization using AERONET data." J Geophys Res 115 (D16): D16211 [10.1029/2010JD013909] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3 MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 111 (4): 540-552 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.003] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 110 (6-7): 402-408 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.01.007] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02306 [10.1029/2008JD010543] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index data." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D9): D09213 [10.1029/2008JD011278] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using MFRSR measurements." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D8): D08204 [10.1029/2007JD009388] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Long-Term Satellite Record Reveals Likely Recent Aerosol Trend." Science 315 (5818): 1543-1543 [10.1126/science.1136709] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Do sulfate and nitrate coatings on mineral dust have important effects on radiative properties and climate modeling?." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D6): D06307 [10.1029/2005JD006977] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Optical depth measurements by shadow-band radiometers and their uncertainties." Applied Optics 46 (33): 8027 [10.1364/AO.46.008027] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 106 (1-3): 325-347 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.01.007] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Using EOF analysis to qualitatively analyze, and identify inhomogeneities in, data from ground-based aerosol monitoring instruments." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D20): D20210 [10.1029/2006JD008300] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D8): D08302 [10.1029/2005JD006348] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Assessing Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE aerosol climatology using satellite and ground-based measurements: A comparison study." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D20): D20212 [10.1029/2006JD007334] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications." Science 308 (5727): 1431-1435 [10.1126/science.1110252] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D13): D13204 [10.1029/2004JD005226] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Aerosol retrievals using rotating shadowband spectroradiometer data." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D5): D05203 [10.1029/2004JD005329] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data." J Geophys Res 109 (D19): D19105 [10.1029/2003JD004457] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 88 (1-3): 139-147 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2003.12.032] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data." Geophys Res Lett 31 (4): L04118 [10.1029/2003GL019105] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Scaling properties of aerosol optical thickness retrieved from ground-based measurements." J Atmos Sci 61 1024-1039. [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Atmospheric correction and its application to an analysis of Hyperion data." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 41 (6): 1232-1245 [10.1109/TGRS.2003.813134] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (11): 6319-6324 [10.1073/pnas.0731897100] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 79-80 953-972 [10.1016/S0022-4073(02)00331-X] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Morphology-dependent resonances of nearly spherical particles in random orientation." Applied Optics 42 (27): 5551 [10.1364/AO.42.005551] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles." [Book]

2002. "Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data." J Atmos Sci 59 262-278. [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 74 (2): 195-204 [10.1016/S0022-4073(01)00232-1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations." J. Geophys. Res. 107 (D18): 4347 [10.1029/2001JD001143] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithms." J Atmos Sci 59 524-543. [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part II: Climatological applications." J Atmos Sci 59 544-566. [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Radiative cooling by stratospheric water vapor: Big differences in GCM results." Geophys Res Lett 28 (14): 2791-2794 [10.1029/2001GL013137] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models." J Atmos Sci 57 (5): 700-714 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0700:AWICAI>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Trends in tropospheric aerosol loads and corresponding impact on direct radiative forcing between 1950 and 1990: A model study." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D22): 26971-26989 [10.1029/2000JD900280] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Manifestations of morphology-dependent resonances in Mie scattering matrices." Appl Math Comput 116 (1-2): 167-179 [10.1016/S0096-3003(99)00202-7] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Retrieval of atmospheric NO2, O3, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance information from SAGE II multi-spectral extinction measurements." Appl Math Comput 116 (1-2): 133-151 [10.1016/S0096-3003(99)00200-3] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 97 (18): 9875-9880 [10.1073/pnas.170278997] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "A new three-parameter cloud/aerosol particle size distribution based on the generalized inverse Gaussian density function." Appl Math Comput 116 (1-2): 153-165 [10.1016/S0096-3003(99)00201-5] [Journal Article/Letter]

1999. "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results." Applied Optics 38 (36): 7325-7341 [10.1364/AO.38.007325] [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "GLOBAL WARMING:Global Climate Data and Models: A Reconciliation." Science 281 (5379): 930-932 [10.1126/science.281.5379.930] [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: Vector vs scalar treatment." Geophysical Research Letters 25 (2): 135-138 [10.1029/97GL03613] [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "Perspective: Climate forcings in the industrial era." Proc Natl Acad Sci 95 12753-12758 [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "Intercomparison of models representing direct shortwave radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols." J Geophys Res 103 (D14): 16979-16998 [10.1029/98JD00997] [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25679-25720 [10.1029/97JD01495] [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "Wonderland climate model." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D6): 6823-6830 [10.1029/96JD03435] [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "The missing climate forcing." Phil Trans Royal Soc London B 352 231-240 [Journal Article/Letter]

1996. "Modeling of particle size distribution and its influence on the radiative properties of mineral dust aerosol." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D14): 19237-19244 [10.1029/95JD03610] [Journal Article/Letter]

1996. "The influence on climate forcing of mineral aerosols from disturbed soils." Nature 380 (6573): 419-422 [10.1038/380419a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1996. "Possible role of dust-induced regional warming in abrupt climate change during the last glacial period." Nature 384 (6608): 447-449 [10.1038/384447a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1996. "Sensitivity of cirrus cloud albedo, bidirectional reflectance and optical thickness retrieval accuracy to ice particle shape." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D12): 16973-16985 [10.1029/96JD01155] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets: 1. Method and sensitivity to input data uncertainties." J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D1): 1149-1165 [10.1029/94JD02747] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Nonsphericity of dust-like tropospheric aerosols: Implications for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling." Geophysical Research Letters 22 (9): 1077-1080 [10.1029/95GL00798] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Low-cost long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks." Climatic Change 31 (2-4): 247-271 [10.1007/BF01095149] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Analysis of snow feedbacks in 14 general circulation models." J Geophys Res 99 (D10): 20,757-20,771 [10.1029/94JD01633] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Errors induced by the neglect of polarization in radiance calculations for rayleigh-scattering atmospheres." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 51 (3): 491-510 [10.1016/0022-4073(94)90149-X] [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data." J Climate 7 465-497 [Journal Article/Letter]

1994. "Belt-zone variations in the Jovian cloud structure." J. Geophys. Res. 99 (E7): 14623-14658 [10.1029/94JE01222] [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "Potential effects of cloud optical thickness on climate warming." Nature 366 (6456): 670-672 [10.1038/366670a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "The role of the stratosphere in climate change." Surv Geophys 14 133-165 [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "GCM simulations of volcanic aerosol forcing. Part I: Climate changes induced by steady-state perturbations." J Climate 6 1719-1742 [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "How sensitive is the world's climate?." Natl Geog Soc Res Exploration 9 142-158 [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "Uncertainties in Carbon Dioxide Radiative Forcing in Atmospheric General Circulation Models." Science 262 (5137): 1252-1255 [10.1126/science.262.5137.1252] [Journal Article/Letter]

1993. "Tropospheric gas composition and cloud structure of the Jovian north equatorial belt." J Geophys Res 98 (E3): 5251-5290 [10.1029/92JE02737] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Galileo Photopolarimeter/Radiometer experiment." Space Sci Rev 60 (1-4): 531-563 [10.1007/BF00216867] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Intercomparison and interpretation of surface energy fluxes in atmospheric general circulation models." J Geophys Res 97 (D4): 3711-3724 [10.1029/91JD03120] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Potential climate impact of Mount Pinatubo eruption." Geophys Res Lett 19 (2): 215-218 [10.1029/91GL02788] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Climate forcing by stratospheric aerosols." Geophys Res Lett 19 (15): 1607-1610 [10.1029/92GL01620] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Keeping the Sun in proportion." Nature 360 (6402): 297-297 [10.1038/360297a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "On the inclusion of the hydrogen dimer in the analysis of Voyager IRIS spectra." ApJL 394 L29-L32 [10.1086/186465] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "Ortho-para-hydrogen equilibration on Jupiter." ApJL 393 357-372 [10.1086/171510] [Journal Article/Letter]

1992. "The abundance and distribution of water vapor in the Jovian troposphere as inferred from Voyager IRIS observations." ApJL 388 648-668 [10.1086/171182] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "Sun and water in the greenhouse." Nature 349 (6309): 467-467 [10.1038/349467c0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "A description of the correlated k distribution method for modeling nongray gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres." J. Geophys. Res. 96 (D5): 9027 [10.1029/90JD01945] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "Simulations of the effect of a warmer climate on atmospheric humidity." Nature 351 (6325): 382-385 [10.1038/351382a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "Infrared cooling rate calculations in operational general circulation models: Comparisons with benchmark computations." J Geophys Res 96 (D5): 9105-9120 [10.1029/91JD00516] [Journal Article/Letter]

1991. "Interpretation of Snow-Climate Feedback as Produced by 17 General Circulation Models." Science 253 (5022): 888-892 [10.1126/science.253.5022.888] [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "Intercomparison and interpretation of climate feedback processes in 19 atmospheric general circulation models." J. Geophys. Res. 95 (D10): 16601-16615 [10.1029/JD095iD10p16601] [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "Radiative forcing of climate by changes in the vertical distribution of ozone." J. Geophys. Res. 95 (D7): 9971-9981 [10.1029/JD095iD07p09971] [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "Global, seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part II: Cloud properties and radiative effects." J. Climate 3 1204-1213> [Journal Article/Letter]

1990. "Sun and dust versus greenhouse gases: an assessment of their relative roles in global climate change." Nature 346 (6286): 713-719 [10.1038/346713a0] [Journal Article/Letter]

1989. "Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases." J. Geophys. Res. 94 (D13): 16417-16421 [10.1029/JD094iD13p16417] [Journal Article/Letter]

1989. "Global, seasonal cloud variations from satellite radiance measurements. Part I: Sensitivity of analysis." J. Climate 2 419-458> [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model." J. Geophys. Res. 93 (D8): 9341-9364 [10.1029/JD093iD08p09341] [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "The GISS Global Climate-Middle Atmosphere Model. Part I: Model structure and climatology." J. Atmos. Sci. 45 329-370 [Journal Article/Letter]

1987. "Climate-chemical interactions and effects of changing atmospheric trace gases." Rev. Geophys. 25 (7): 1441-1482 [10.1029/RG025i007p01441] [Journal Article/Letter]

1985. "Climate Response Times: Dependence on Climate Sensitivity and Ocean Mixing." Science 229 (4716): 857-859 [10.1126/science.229.4716.857] [Journal Article/Letter]

1984. "On the variability of the net longwave radiation at the ocean surface." Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 22 177-193 [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Efficient three-dimensional global models for climate studies: Models I and II." M. Weather Rev. 111 (4): 609-662 [10.1175/1520-0493(1983)111<0609:ETDGMF>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1983. "Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." Science 220 (4599): 874-875 [10.1126/science.220.4599.874-a] [Journal Article/Letter]

1981. "Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980." Geophys. Res. Lett. 8 (10): 1035-1038 [10.1029/GL008i010p01035] [Journal Article/Letter]

1981. "Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." Science 213 (4511): 957-966 [10.1126/science.213.4511.957] [Journal Article/Letter]

1980. "Climatic effects of atmospheric aerosols." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 338 575-587 [10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb17151.x] [Journal Article/Letter]

1979. "Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation." Science 203 (4382): 781-785 [10.1126/science.203.4382.781] [Journal Article/Letter]

1979. "Cloud Images from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter." Science 205 (4401): 74-76 [10.1126/science.205.4401.74] [Journal Article/Letter]

1978. "Mount Agung Eruption Provides Test of a Global Climatic Perturbation." Science 199 (4333): 1065-1068 [10.1126/science.199.4333.1065] [Journal Article/Letter]

1977. "The thermal balance of the atmosphere of venus (Chapter 8)." Space Sci. Rev. 20 (4): 389-412 [10.1007/BF02186460] [Journal Article/Letter]

1976. "A search for short-term meteorological effects of solar variability in an atmospheric circulation model." J. Geophys. Res. 81 (9): 1572-1576 [10.1029/JC081i009p01572] [Journal Article/Letter]

1976. "Greenhouse Effects due to Man-Mad Perturbations of Trace Gases." Science 194 (4266): 685-690 [10.1126/science.194.4266.685] [Journal Article/Letter]

1976. "Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide." Geophys. Res. Lett. 3 (10): 619-621 [10.1029/GL003i010p00619] [Journal Article/Letter]

1975. "Cloud structure and heating rates in the atmosphere of Venus." J. Atmos. Sci. 21 (6): 1107-1124 [10.1175/1520-0469(1975)032<1107:CSAHRI>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1974. "A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere." J. Atmos. Sci. 31 (1): 118-133 [10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0118:APFTAO>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1974. "Atmosphere of Venus: Implications of Venera 8 Sunlight Measurements." Science 184 (4140): 979-982 [10.1126/science.184.4140.979] [Journal Article/Letter]

1974. "The GISS model of the global atmosphere." J. Atmos. Sci. 31 84-117 [Journal Article/Letter]

1972. "An Analysis of the Light Curve of Pluto." ApJL 174 449-453 [10.1086/151504] [Journal Article/Letter]

1966. "Method of Correction for Instrumental Astigmatism to Determine the Center-to-Limb Variation of the Solar Ultraviolet Continuum." J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 56 (9): 1239-1243 [10.1364/JOSA.56.001239] [Journal Article/Letter]


2006. "Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering." [Book]

Selected Public Outreach

AGU BrightStars Mentoring

2013 - Present

 Mentoring high school students at AGU Fall Meeting

GEEBITT the Global Equilibrium Energy Balance Interactive Tinker Toy

August 2001 - September 2001

 NASA-GISS Summer Program for high school and coolege students - interactive FORTRAN/Spreadsheet base climate model.