Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Andrea M Molod

(Rsch AST, Climate and Radiation Std)

Andrea M Molod's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 301.614.6845
Org Code: 610.1
Mail Code 610.1
Greenbelt, MD 20771


PhD Johns Hopkins University, 2003. Dept of Earth and Planetary Sciences.Dissertation: Interactions Between the Heterogeneous Land Surface and the Atmosphere in Global Models

M. Sc. University of Maryland, 1982. Department of Meteorology. Thesis: Collision Efficiencies of Charged Ice Crystals of Different Densities with Charged Droplets

B. A. Clark University, 1979. Physics and Science, Technology and Society.


Research Physical Scientist

NASA - Greenbelt, MD

October 2016 - Present

NASA/Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Lead of Seasonal/Decadal prediction group, managing the development of the next generation atmosphere-ocean coupled seasonal prediction system. Development of GEOS-5 General Circulation Model physical parameterizations. GMAO lead of the Coupled Chemistry Model Development effort, with members of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch.

Associate Research Scientist

University of Maryland - Greenbelt, MD

September 2007 - October 2016

Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, and previously, Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, Goddard Earth Sciences and Tech. Center. Work with NASA/Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Development of GEOS-5 General Circulation Model physical parameterizations. Collaboration with scientists from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch related to boundary layer transport of chemical species.

Post-doctoral associate

Massachussetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge, MA

August 2003 - June 2007

Dept of Earth Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachussetts Institute of Technology. Development of MITgcm atmospheric model, physical parameterizations and new gridding technique.

Senior Support Scientist

Science Applications International Corporation - Laurel, MD

February 1985 - June 2003

Formerly, Senior Scientific Programmer/Analyst. Contract with the NASA/Goddard Data Assimilation Office. GCM development, parameterizations of cumulus convection, turbulence, radiative-cloud interactions, and land-surface processes.

Professional Service

2021-present: Member of WWRP/WCRP S2S Prediction Project Steering Group

2020-present: US liaison between the S2S Subgroup of the Weather Research Science Working Group (WRSWG-S2S) and the S2S Prediction Project for the S2S Project Aerosol Subproject

2014-present: Co-chair, GEOS-Chem Transport working group

2013-present: Member of the GEOS-Chem Scientific Steering Committee.

2003-present: Panelist and Reviewer, various NSF, NASA and NOAA proposal review panels, Reviewer, various Journals

Summer, 1996, 2009 - Mentor, NASA Summer Inst. in Earth Sciences

2005-2007, 2012: M.S. thesis committee, students in Dept. of Geography, Hunter College of the City University of New York

July 1993,1995,1999: Mentor, NASA Summer Institute in Sci., Tech., Eng. and Research (SISTER)



2024. "Insights into the causes and predictability of the 2022/23 California Flooding." Journal of Climate [10.1175/JCLI-D-23-0696.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Tropical cyclones in the GEOS-S2S-2 subseasonal forecasts." Weather and Forecasting [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "The Role of Tropical Easterly Jet on the Bay of Bengal’s Tropical Cyclones: Observed Climatology and Future Projection." Journal of Climate 36 (17): 5825-5840 [10.1175/jcli-d-22-0804.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Climatology of tropical cyclone precipitation in the S2S models." Weather and Forecasting 38 (9): 1759-1776 [] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Seasonal forecasting skill for the High Mountain Asia region in the Goddard Earth Observing System." Earth System Dynamics 14 (1): 147-171 [10.5194/esd-14-147-2023] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "The Simulation and Subseasonal Forecasting of Hydrological Variables: Insights from a Simple Water Balance Model." Journal of Hydrometeorology 23 (11): 1719-1736 [10.1175/jhm-d-22-0050.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Earth system model parameter adjustment using a Green's functions approach." Geoscientific Model Development 15 (5): 2309-2324 [10.5194/gmd-15-2309-2022] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Seasonality in prediction skill of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and associated dynamics in Version 2 of NASA's GEOS-S2S forecast system." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 126 (18): e2021JD034961 [10.1029/2021JD034961] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Asymmetry in Subseasonal Surface Air Temperature Forecast Error with Respect to Soil Moisture Initialization." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 (10): 2505-2519 [10.1175/jhm-d-21-0022.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Improving the Representation of Subtropical Boundary Layer Clouds in the NASA GEOS Model with the Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux Parameterization." Monthly Weather Review 149 (3): 793-809 [10.1175/mwr-d-20-0183.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Representation of tropical storms by the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2." Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 57 35-49 [10.1007/s13143-019-00169-y] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Subseasonal‐to‐Seasonal Hindcast Skill Assessment of Ridging Events Related to Drought Over the Western United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 125 (22): [10.1029/2020jd033655] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "To What Extent Biomass Burning Aerosols Impact South America Seasonal Climate Predictions?." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (16): [10.1029/2020gl088096] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Using a Simple Water Balance Framework to Quantify the Impact of Soil Moisture Initialization on Subseasonal Evapotranspiration and Air Temperature Forecasts." Journal of Hydrometeorology 21 (8): 1705-1722 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0007.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Three‐to‐Six‐Day Air–Sea Oscillation in Models and Observations." Geophysical Research Letters 47 (10): [10.1029/2019gl085837] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Windows of Opportunity for Skillful Forecasts Subseasonal to Seasonal and Beyond." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101 (5): E608-E625 [10.1175/bams-d-18-0326.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Observations Impact on El Niño/Southern Oscillation Predictions: Case Studies From the NASA GEOS Seasonal Forecast System." Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 125 (4): [10.1029/2019jc015788] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "GEOS-S2S Version 2: The GMAO high resolution coupled model and assimilation system for seasonal prediction." Journal of Geophysical Research 125 (5): [10.1029/2019JD031767] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Differences in tropical high clouds among reanalyses: origins and radiative impacts." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [10.5194/acp-2019-1187] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "A Systematic Approach to Assessing the Sources and Global Impacts of Errors in Climate Models." Journal of Climate 32 (23): 8301-8321 [10.1175/jcli-d-19-0189.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Convective entrainment rates estimated from Aura CO and CloudSat/CALIPSO observations and comparison with GEOS‐5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2019JD030846 [10.1029/2019jd030846] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Annual Cycle of Planetary Boundary Layer Heights Estimated From Wind Profiler Network Data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (12): 6207-6221 [10.1029/2018jd030102] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Tendency Bias Correction in Coupled and Uncoupled Global Climate Models with a Focus on Impacts over North America." Journal of Climate 32 (2): 639-661 [10.1175/jcli-d-18-0598.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Consequences of different air-sea feedbacks on ocean using MITgcm and MERRA-2 forcing: Implications for coupled data assimilation systems." Ocean Modelling 132 91-111 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2018.10.006] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The roles of climate change and climate variability in the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season." Scientific Reports 8 [10.1038/s41598-018-34343-5] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The impact of SST-forced and unforced teleconnections on 2015/16 El Nino winter precipitation over the western United States." Journal of Climate 31 (15): 5825-5844 [10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0218.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "GEOS-Chem High Performance (GCHP v11-02c): a next-generation implementation of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model for massively parallel applications." Geoscientific Model Development 11 (7): 2941-2953 [10.5194/gmd-11-2941-2018] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Assessing the Grell-Freitas Convection Parameterization in the NASA GEOS Modeling System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2017ms001251] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Errors and improvements in the use of archived meteorological data for chemical transport modeling: an analysis using GEOS-Chem v11-01 driven by GEOS-5 meteorology." Geoscientific Model Development 11 (1): 305-319 [10.5194/gmd-11-305-2018] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1002/2017ms001011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Large-Scale Atmospheric Transport in GEOS Replay Simulations." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9 (7): 2545-2560 [10.1002/2017ms001053] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six US modeling centers." Geoscientific Model Development 10 (9): 3207-3223 [10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Direct estimation of the global distribution of vertical velocity within cirrus clouds." Scientific Reports 7 (1): 6840 [10.1038/s41598-017-07038-6] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "An evaluation of gravity waves and gravity wave sources in the Southern Hemisphere in a 7 km global climate simulation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 143 (707): 2481-2495 [10.1002/qj.3101] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate 30 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Introduction to the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) and overview of the reanalysis systems." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (2): 1417-1452 [10.5194/acp-17-1417-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Atmospheric water balance and variability in the MERRA-2 reanalysis." J. Climate 30 (4): 1177-1196 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0338.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Large-scale controls on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity on seasonal time scales." Journal of Climate 29 6727-6749 [10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0098.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in a 7-km global climate simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 3771–3783 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0350.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Frequency and impact of summertime stratospheric intrusions over Maryland during DISCOVER-AQ (2011): New evidence from NASA's GEOS-5 simulations." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. [10.1002/2015jd024052] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Structure and Dynamics of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in MERRA-2." J. Climate 29:14 5339-5354 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0809.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Atmospheric summer teleconnections and Greenland ice sheet surface mass variations: Insights from MERRA-2." Environmental Research Letters 11 (2): [10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024002] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Quantitative Sensitivity Analysis of Physical Parameterizations for Cases of Deep Convection in the NASA GEOS-5." Journal of Climate 29 (2): 455-479 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0250.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "An assessment of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere water vapor in MERRA, MERRA2, and ECMWF reanalyses using Aura MLS observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 (22): 11,468-11,485 [10.1002/2015jd023752] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 32 (9): 1545-1561 [10.1175/jtech-d-14-00155.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Impact of planetary boundary layer turbulence on model climate and tracer transport." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 15 (13): 7269-7286 [10.5194/acp-15-7269-2015] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Development of the GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model: evolution from MERRA to MERRA2 ." Geosci. Model Dev. 8 1339-1356 [10.5194/gmd-8-1339-2015] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "The Use of a Statistical Model of Storm Surge as a Bias Correction for Dynamical Surge Models and its Applicability along the U.S. East Coast." Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 3 (1): 73-86 [10.3390/jmse3010073] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to parameterized convection in the NASA GEOS-5 model." J. Climate 28 (2): 551-573 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00104.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Comparison of GEOS-5 AGCM planetary boundary layer depths computed with various definitions." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 (13): 6717-6727 [Full Text] [10.5194/acp-14-6717-2014] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Development of two-moment cloud microphysics for liquid and ice within the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5)." Geosci. Model Dev. 7 1733-1766 [10.5194/gmd-7-1733-2014] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Observation of mountain lee waves with MODIS NIR column water vapor." Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (2): 710-716 [10.1002/2013GL058770] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): CONTROL SST Simulation." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 91A (0): 17-56 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A02] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The Aqua-Planet Experiment (APE): Response to Changed Meridional SST Profile." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 91A (0): 57-89 [10.2151/jmsj.2013-A03] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The impact of limiting ocean roughness on GEOS-5 AGCM tropical cyclone forecasts." Geophysical Research Letters 40 (2): 411-416 [10.1029/2012GL053979] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Improved boundary layer depth retrievals from MPLNET." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (17): 9870-9879 [10.1002/jgrd.50570] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "CGILS: Results from the first phase of an international project to understand the physical mechanisms of low cloud feedbacks in single column models." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 5 (4): 826-842 [10.1002/2013MS000246] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air–Sea Roughness." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 70 (7): 2137-2151 [10.1175/JAS-D-12-0242.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Constraints on the Profiles of Total Water PDF in AGCMs from AIRS and a High-Resolution Model." Journal of Climate 25 (23): 8341-8352 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00412.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Improvement of the GEOS-5 AGCM upon updating the air-sea roughness parameterization." Geophysical Research Letters 38 (18): [10.1029/2011gl048802] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Statistical Prediction of the Storm Surge Associated with Cool-Weather Storms at the Battery, New York." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 50 (2): 273-282 [10.1175/2010jamc2459.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications." J. Climate 24 (14): 3624-3648 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Response of the Antarctic stratosphere to warm pool El Niño Events in the GEOS CCM." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (18): 9659-9669 [10.5194/acp-11-9659-2011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Response of the Antarctic Stratosphere to Two Types of El Niño Events." J Atmos Sci 68 (4): 812-822 [10.1175/2011JAS3606.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "East Coast Cool-Weather Storms in the New York Metropolitan Region." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 48 (11): 2320-2330 [10.1175/2009jamc2183.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Running GCM physics and dynamics on different grids: algorithm and tests." Tellus A [10.3402/tellusa.v61i3.15602] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Scales of variability of surface vegetation: Calculation and implications for climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 114 (G2): [10.1029/2008jg000762] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Observational validation of an extended mosaic technique for capturing subgrid scale heterogeneity in a GCM." Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 59 (3): 622-632 [10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00257.x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "The Impact on a GCM Climate of an Extended Mosaic Technique for the Land–Atmosphere Coupling." Journal of Climate 17 (20): 3877-3891 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3877:tioagc>;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "A New Look at Modeling Surface Heterogeneity: Extending Its Influence in the Vertical." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4 (5): 810-825 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<0810:anlams>;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "A global assessment of the mosaic approach to modeling land surface heterogeneity." Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (D14): 4217 [10.1029/2001jd000588] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "The tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the GEOS-2 GCM." Advances in Space Research 27 (8): 1457-1465 [10.1016/s0273-1177(01)00214-9] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results." Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 81 781-796. [Journal Article/Letter]

1997. "An evaluation of deep convective mixing in the Goddard Chemical Transport Model using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project cloud parameters." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 102 (D21): 25467-25476 [10.1029/97jd02401] [Journal Article/Letter]

1996. "The Climatology of Parameterized Physical Processes in the GEOS-1 GCM and Their Impact on the GEOS-1 Data Assimilation System." Journal of Climate 9 (4): 764-785 [10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<0764:tcoppp>;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Modulation of Dynamic Heating in the Winter Extratropics Associated with the Cross-Equatorial Hadley Circulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 52 (15): 2609-2626 [10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2609:modhit>;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1995. "Vertical transport by convective clouds: Comparisons of three modeling approaches." Geophys. Res. Lett. 22: 1089-1092 [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "A GCM simulation study of the influence of Saharan evapotranspiration and surface-albedo anomalies on July circulation and rainfall." Mon. Wea. Rev. 116 (11): 2388-2400 [10.1175/1520-0493(1988)116<2388:AGSSOT>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1988. "The roles of dry convection and cloud radiation feedback processes and the influence of recent improvements in the parameterization of convection in the GLA GCM." Mon. Wea. Rev. 11 2366-2387 [Journal Article/Letter]


2022. "Climate characteristics of the atmospheric analysis increments from the GEOS S2S V3 AOGCM replayed to MERRA-2." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, NASA/TM-2021-104606 62 147 [Report]

2021. "A phenomenon-based decomposition of model-based estimates of boreal winter ENSO variability." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 55 88 [Report]

2019. "Ensemble Generation Strategies Employed in the GMAO GEOS-S2S Forecast System." NASA Technical Reports Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. NASA/TM-2019-104606 53 75 [Report]

2015. "GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide." GMAO Office Note 8 [Report]

2015. "MERRA-2: Initial Evaluation of the Climate." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 43 (NASA/TM–2015–10) 139 pp. [Report]

2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606): [Report]

Teaching Experience

Spring 2006: Teaching Fellowship - Physical Parameterizations in NWP Models, Dept. of Earth Atmos. and Planetary Sci., MIT

Professional Societies

American Geophysical Union

1999 - Present

American Meteorological Society

1988 - Present


NASA Honor Award Group Achievement Award MERRA-2 Science Team, 2019

Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Scientific Achievement Award, 2019

NASA Cash and Time Off Awards, Rating-Based and Not Rating-Based, 2018, 2019

Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Outstanding Performance Award, 2009, 2011, 2012

NASA's Earth System Science Graduate Fellowship, 2000-2003

Gilman Fellowship, Johns Hopkins University, 1999

Data Assimilation Office Outstanding Performance Award, 1998, 1995, 1986

Data Assimilation Office Most Exceptional Performance Award, 1993, 1989