Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes

Brief Bio

Dr. George J. Huffman is a Research Physical Scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. After completing a B.S. in Physics at The Ohio State University (1976) and a Ph.D. in Meteorology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1982), he was an Assistant Professor at University of Maryland, College Park, then moved to GSFC in 1988, where he consulted until entering government service in 2012. Dr. Huffman’s primary focus has been the design, implementation, and extension of combined (satellite-gauge) estimates of global precipitation. The resulting data sets include the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly and daily products (carried out as a contribution to the World Climate Research Program, WCRP); the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis; and the successor NASA Global Precipitation Measurements (GPM) mission’s Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). Allied work includes estimating errors and extreme precipitation event statistics. Dr. Huffman is the Project Scientist for GPM, as well as the lead for the GPM Multi-satellite Algorithm Team. His research has resulted in 145 publications, 15 as first author, and numerous presentations. As well, he is the Chief for the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Lab at GSFC. Recent awards include NASA/GSFC Special Act Team Award, Earth Sciences Division Lab Management, 2021; NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Group Award for Science, IMERG Development Team, 2019; Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, 2019; and NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 2018.

Research Interests

Satellite Precipitation

Earth Science: Precipitation

Precipitation retrievals from satellite and other sensors, including retrieval combinations and error estimation

Mesoscale/Synoptic Meteorology

Earth Science: Precipitation

Observational and theoretical mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, including cumulus convection and forecasting

Current Projects

Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)


A key goal for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to assemble data from the international constellation of precipitation-relevant satellites, intercalibrate them to the standard provided by the GPM Core Observatory, and combine them in an optimal way that provides stable, global, fine-scale precipitation maps for the entire TRMM-GPM era.  The algorithms to do this are considered national (versus "project" for the Core Observatory products). IMERG is the U.S. National product, representing a code-level merger of legacy algorithms from NASA, NOAA, and Univ. of Calif. Irvine. IMERG data fields are computed on a 0.1°x0.1° global grid (although gaps exist at high latitudes at present). The data are computed on 30-minute and monthly intervals. The Early, Late, and Final Runs are computed with latencies of 3 hours, 12 hours, and 3.5 months, with the last including precipitation gauge data. Data start 1 June 2000. The new Version 07 is slated to begin production in August 2022. IMERG datasets are the most-requested datasets in GPM.

Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)


The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX; now Global Energy and Water Exchange project) in the early 1990's to provide climate-scale, fully global precipitation products as an international community effort involving data providers and precipitation scientists.  The precipitation research group at Goddard has provided detailed product development for GPCP. The legacy Version 2.3 GPCP is computed on a 2.5°x2.5° monthly grid for 1979-present in Version 2.3 and 1°x1° daily grid for October 1996-present. A group at Univ. of Maryland College Park is leading Version 2.3 as a formal Climate Data Record (CDR) in NOAA.  Version 3 GPCP datasets (currently in V3.2) provide monthly and daily products on a 0.5°x0.5° grid for 1983-present and June 2000-present, respectively. These are computed at Goddard and archived in the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). For both collections, the datasets are fully global, emphasize data record homogeneity, and ensure consistency between the monthly and daily products for each version. The GPCP data sets are highly cited in the scientific literature.


Ph.D., Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982
Thesis: “A Cumulus Cloud Ensemble Model with Simple Mesoscale Structure

B.S., Summa cum laude and with distinction in Physics, with honors in the Liberal Arts, The Ohio State University, 1976
Senior Honors Thesis: “A Test for Limitations on a Computer-Assisted Spectrum Analysis


Research Physical Scientist (from 2019), Research Meteorologist (to 2019)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center - Greenbelt, MD

September 2012 - Present

Produce, revise, analyze GPCP Satellite-Gauge and One-Degree Daily data sets; develop, revise, analyze TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis data sets in real (3B42RT) and post-real (3B42, 3B43) time; leading IMERG, the U.S. GPM Day-1 multi-satellite algorithm; Deputy Project Scientist, then Project Scientist for GPM and Deputy Chief, then Chief for the Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Lab. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.

Chief Research Scientist (starting 2006), Technical Area Manager (to 2006)

Science Systems and Applications, Inc. - Lanham, MD (on-site at GSFC)

August 1993 - August 2012

Managed Severe Storms Research Program, later Mesoscale Atmospheric Research Support, later Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch Support (up to 26 employees), then several small science support contracts, all at NASA/GSFC; designed and implemented SGM global rainfall estimation; estimate RMS error; produced GPCP and Pathfinder data sets using SGM concepts for 1979 to (delayed) present; developed, revised TRMM algorithms 3B42 and 3B43; developed GPCP One-Degree Daily data set for 1997 to (delayed) present; developed near-real-time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, extended to Version 6 and then Version 7 of 3B42, 3B43; began leading GPM Day-1 multi-satellite algorithm. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.

Visiting Research Scientist

Universities Space Research Association - Columbia, MD (on-site at GSFC)

March 1989 - August 1993

Led overall planning, design, direction, and implementation for NASA/GSFC Severe Storms Branch computing and AOIPS image processing system (1989-1991). Held prime responsibility for implementation of Goddard Scattering Algorithm, Version 2, and Adjusted Geosynchronous Precipitation Index; designed and implemented SGM global rainfall estimation (1991-1993).


Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park - College Park, MD

September 1988 - May 1990

Taught undergraduate and graduate classes in synoptic meteorology.

Senior Meteorologist

General Sciences Corporation - Laurel, MD (on-site at GSFC)

July 1988 - March 1989

Provided high-level planning, design, and programming on GEMPAK; assisted university GEMPAK sites with implementation of new features.

Acting State Climatologist

Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Maryland College Park - College Park, MD

February 1988 - June 1992

Coordinated, planned, and supervised routine activities, such as data collection and filling user data requests for Maryland climatological data.

Visiting Scientist

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - Boulder, CO

July 1987 - June 1988

Focused and coordinated user-related aspects of planning for USSDM alpha and beta testing; tested TAE user interface for use with Unidata software.

Assistant Professor

Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park - College Park, MD

January 1982 - June 1988

Developed and led synoptic meteorology research, instruction, and activities. Funded on projects as P.I. and Co-I.

Teaching Experience

Developed and taught undergraduate and graduate courses in synoptic, mesoscale, and dynamic meteorology, including weather forecasting.  Department of Meteorology, Univ. of Maryland College Park, Jan. 1982-May 1990.

Professional Societies

American Meteorological Society


1976 - Present

American Geophysical Society

1994 - Present

European Geophysical Union

2008 - Present

Asia-Oceania Geosciences Society

2012 - Present

Professional Service

Project Scientist for Global Precipitation Measurement mission, 2022 to the present, previously Deputy Project Scientist, 2014-2022.

GPM Mentorship Program, 2021-present.

Invited expert for Improving Urban Water Management in Western and Central Asia Workshop Serial (2021-2024), organized by UNESCO components ICWRGC, RCUWM; session moderator for Workshop 2, Day 2, 24 November 2021. [virtual]

Invited panelist for AGU Precipitation Panel Early Career/Student Event, AGU Annual Meeting, 1 December 2020, San Francisco, CA. [virtual]

Invited panelist on “Water Budgets at Intermediate Scales”, Earth Obs. for Water Cycle Science 2020, 16-18 November 2020, Versailles, France. [virtual]

Invited subject matter expert in the U.S. Forest Service – NASA Ideas Forum, 9-10 November 2020. [virtual]

Scientific Committee for the Hydrospace/GEOGloWS Workshop, 2021, Frascati, Italy, 2020.

Subject Matter Expert in the GES DISC Earthdata User Forum, 2017.

Program committee for Opportunities to Apply Rem. Sens. in Boreal/Arctic Wildfire Mgmt. and Sci., 4-6 April 2017, Fairbanks, AK.

Invited panelist on “Estimating Surface Precipitation from Space” in the 97th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Meteor. Soc., Obs. Symp.: Progress, Problems, and Prospects, 22-26 January 2017, Seattle, WA.

National Sci. and Tech. Council/Comm. on Environ./USGEO/Satellite Needs Working Group, 2016-present.

Invited panelist on “Observations, Modeling, Predictability, and Prediction of the Region” in the U.S. CLIVAR Observing and Modeling Climate Variability in the Intra-Americas Seas and Impacts on the Continental Americas and the Caribbean, 9-11 September 2015, Virtual Workshop.

GSFC Scientific Colloquium Committee, 2015-present.

Program committee for the User GPM Data Workshop, 8-9 June 2015, Hyattsville, MD, organized by the Applied Sciences Program in the Earth Science Division at NASA HQ.

Co-Convenor (with R.F. Adler [ESSIC]) for Session 1.8 of 7th Internat. Sci. Conf. on the Global Water and Energy Cycle, 14-17 July 2014, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center User Working Group, 2013-present

Program committee for the User GPM Data Workshop, 28-29 October 2013, College Park, MD, organized by the Applied Sciences Program in the Earth Science Division at NASA HQ.

Chair, Working Group on Algorithm Development at the 3rd NOAA User Workshop on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Proving Ground, 2-4 April 2013, College Park, MD.

Co-convenor for the AGU Chapman Conf. on Rem. Sens. of the Terr. Water Cycle, 19-23 February 2012, Waikoloa, HI; assoc. ed. for resulting monograph.

Invited session chair for Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) Science Symposium, 1-5 August 2011, Melbourne, Australia.

WMO/CGMS International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG), 2004-present; Co-Chair, 2009-2010.

Group on Earth Observations (GEO), Co-Leader and Point of Contact (PoC) for Precipitation Task (WA-08-01d),

2009-2011; Integrated Water Cycle Products and Services (WA-01:C1) Co-Chair for Integrated Data Products, 2012-2016; GEOGloWS Precipitation Lead, 2016-present.

NASA PMM Science Team, 2007-present.

NOAA GOES-R Algorithm Working Group, Hydrology Team, 2007-2014.

NASA/USGS Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum project writing team, 2004-2005.

Associate Editor for AMS Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2003-present.

NASA International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project II (ISLSCP II) Ad hoc Science Advisory Group, 2000-2006.

NASA/NOAA/Unidata CONDUIT Steering Committee, 1999-2003.

Surface Site Coordinator, NASA TRMM Kwajalein Experiment, 1999.

NASA TSDIS Science Users Group, 1992-1998.

Planning Committee, NCAR Summer Workshop on Synoptic Meteorology Instruction, 1988.

Unidata Phase III Implementation Working Group, 1986-1988; LDM Design Subgroup, 1987-1988; CDF Subgroup, 1987-1988; USSDM Task Force, 1988.

Program Chair, 6th Annual TAE Users’ Conf., 8-10 October 1986, Pasadena, CA.

Unidata Local Hardware/Software System Working Group, 1984-1985; LOHSS Local Software Shell Committee, 1985.

DC Chapter of the AMS; President (1986-1988), Vice-President (1985-1986), Treasurer (1984-1985), Corresponding Secretary (1982-1984).

AMS Board on Meteorology and Oceanographic Education in Universities, 1983-1985.

Reviewer in last three years for: NASA, NOAA, NSF.

Reviewer in last three years for: Advances in Meteorology, Atmospheric Research, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Dynamics of the Oceans and Atmosphere, Earth and Space Science, Heliyon, Hydrological Sciences Journal, International Journal of Climatology, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Journal of Climate, Journal of Geophysical Research–Atmospheres, Journal of Hydrology, Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies, Journal of Hydrometeorology, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing of the Environment, Scientific Data, Surveys in Geophysics, Water, Weather and Forecasting.

Selected Public Outreach

Public Displays

2008 - Present

Panelist in the Atmospheric Science section “Meet an Expert” session at AOGS 2021, 4 August 2021, Singapore [virtual]; Ask-A-Scientist at Explore@NASAGoddard (NASA/GSFC open house, 2015); participated in planning and staffing the GPM table at USAID Frontiers in Development Forum, 18-19 September 2014, Reagan Building, Washington, DC; science expert at GPM booth at Earth Day Celebration, 21 April 2014, Union Station, Washington, DC; science expert at GPM booth at the Second USA Science and Engineering Festival, 27-29 April 2012, Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC; PMM expert at Explore@NASA (NASA/GSFC open house, 2011); LaunchFest Expert at LaunchFest (NASA/GSFC open house, 2008).

Citizen Science

2008 - 2008

Member of NASA EOS/Terra Citizen Scientist development group, Precipitation, 2008.

General Educational Materials

2000 - Present

Participated in development of popular-level videos and animations:

  • NASA Goddard Media Studios, 2017: Monitoring Hurricane Matthew.
  • NASA Goddard Media Studios, 2017: NASA Studies Hurricane Matthew.
  • NASA Goddard Media Studios, 2017: Slicing through Hurricane Matthew.
  • NASA Goddard Media Studios, 2016: Why Do Raindrop Sizes Matter In Storms?
  • NASA Hyperwall, 2016:El Niño Precipitation Anomaly.
  • NASA Sci. Vis. Studio, 2016: Monsoons: Wet, Dry, Repeat…
  • NASA Sci. Vis. Studio, 2015: Near Real-Time Global Precipitation from the Global Precipitation Measurement Constellation. [Updated every hour about 6 hours after observation time, currently active.]


Presented general-level introductions to precipitation datasets:

  • Huffman, G.J., 2021:  Overview of Integrated Multi-Satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and Data Products.  IPWG and GPM Applications Training Webinar Series, 8 September 2021.  [virtual]
  • Mehta, A.V., G.J. Huffman, 2016: Data Product Updates and Demonstration of Web-tools for Data Search, Analysis, Visualization, and Download. ARSET Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications Webinar Series, 15 March 2016.
  • Huffman, G.J., 2015: Insights on the Day-1 Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) Data Sets. ARSET Webinar, 31 March 2015. /sites/default/files/water/GPM/GPM_week3_March31%20English.pdf

Developed seasonal diurnal-cycle visualizations of precipitation for the years 1998-2006 for: Laing, A., J.-L. Evans, 2008: Introduction to Tropical Meteorology, 1st Edition, Version 1.1.2, COMET, Univ. Corp. Atmos. Res. (available at, in Section Diurnal Cycle (available at ch6/moistprecip_ 6_3_7_1.html).

Developed/presented non-specialist level lecture, handouts, and lab on “Precipitation Estimates from Remote Sensing” for the AMS Short Course on Remote Sensing Methods and Applications in Air-Sea Interaction, 9 February 2003, Long Beach, CA.

NASA PMM web site ask-a-question respondent, 2014-present.

NASA Earth Observatory Ask-A-Scientist writer, 2000-2006.

Formal Education Materials

1985 - Present

Presented a guest lecture on combined-sensor precipitation datasets for the UMBC course Physics 650 "Precipitation Science" on 27 March 2018.

Participant/organizer for pre-college teacher training activities: Huffman, G.J., 2017: Precipitation Measurement Mission. Teacher Webinar, NASA-Rio de Janeiro Application Project, 31 October 2017. p8idqzmvdldp/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal. Janney, D., G.J. Huffman, 2016: Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Weather. NSTA Web Seminars, 5 May 2016, available at Science expert (develop/present 2-hr lecture/lab) for Eyes in the Sky II Summer Workshop (19-25 July 2010, Greenbelt, MD), Eyes in the Sky project (2010), Science expert in Citizen Science project (2008-2009). “Job shadowee” for Ann Arundel Public Schools Summer Teacher Institute at GSFC (2007). Presented in the Maryland Science Center TerraLink Teachers’ Thursdays lecture series (2005). Reviewed grade 5-6 Earth Science curriculum modules for the Challenger Center for Space Science Education (2002). Reviewed Summer Teacher Program draft Q&A for selected Earth Science visualizations (2001). Mentor for a teacher in the NASA/GSFC Summer Internship program (1995). Lectured for NASA/U.Md. Teacher Ambassador program (1994-95). Reviewed training and lesson-plan manuals for MAPS-NET (1994-1995). Organized a 1-day enrichment seminar for Washington County middle school science teachers (1985).


1987 - Present

Mentor for: 2 graduate students in the GPM Mentorship Program (2022); a graduate student in the NASA/GSFC Graduate Student Summer Program (2008); undergraduates in the NASA/GSFC Summer Institute for Meteorological and Hydrological Sciences (1993, 1998); high school students in the Howard County Schools Mentor program (1987-1988), NASA/GSFC SHARP (1991), Goddard High School Intern Program (2006). Presented Earth Science visualizations to the DC Public Schools Higher Achievement/Scholar site visit (2001).


Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, 2019.

NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 2018.

NASA Team Excellence Award presented to the Satellite Needs Assessment Team, 2017.

NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal, 2015.

NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the GPM Post-Launch Team, 2015.

NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Award for Science presented to the GPM Algorithm Team, 2015.

NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the GPM Team, 2014.

AGU 2013 Editor’s Citation for Excellence in Refereeing for Journal of Geophysical Research -- Atmospheres, 2014.

NASA/GSFC Robert H. Goddard Honor Award for Science, 2014.

NASA Group Achievement Award presented to the MYNASA DATA Team, 2012.

AGU 2008 Editor’s Citation for Excellence in Refereeing for Journal of Geophysical Research -- Atmospheres, 2009.

AMS Journal of Hydrometeorology Editor’s Award, 2009.

NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres Science Research Award, 2007.

NASA/GSFC Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch, Exceptional Technical Support Award, 2004.

NASA/GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres, Contractor Award for Outstanding Performance in Science, 2002.

NASA/GSFC Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch, Outstanding Achievement Award, 1996.



2023. "Implementing the GEOSS water strategy: from observations to decisions." International Journal of Digital Earth 16 (1): 1439-1468 [10.1080/17538947.2023.2202420] [Journal Article/Letter]

2023. "Evaluation of Snowfall Retrieval Performance of GPM Constellation Radiometers Relative to Spaceborne Radars." Journal of Hydrometeorology 24 (3): 389-405 [10.1175/jhm-d-22-0052.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "How Well Do Multisatellite Products Capture the Space–Time Dynamics of Precipitation? Part II: Building an Error Model through Spectral System Identification." Journal of Hydrometeorology 23 (9): 1383-1399 [10.1175/jhm-d-22-0041.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Validation of IMERG Oceanic Precipitation over Kwajalein." Remote Sensing 14 (15): 3753 [10.3390/rs14153753] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Improved Estimates of Pentad Precipitation Through the Merging of Independent Precipitation Data Sets." Water Resources Research 57 (12): e2021WR030330 [10.1029/2021wr030330] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "The Global Satellite Precipitation Constellation: Current Status and Future Requirements." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 102 (10): E1844-E1861 [10.1175/bams-d-20-0299.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Introducing and evaluating the Climate Hazards center IMErg with Stations (CHIMES) - Timely station-enhanced Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1-52 [10.1175/bams-d-20-0245.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "How well do multi-satellite products capture the space-time dynamics of precipitation? Part I: five products assessed via a wavenumber-frequency decomposition." Journal of Hydrometeorology [10.1175/jhm-d-21-0075.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Comparisons of IMERG Version 06 Precipitation At and Between Passive Microwave Overpasses in the Tropics." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 (8): 2117-2130 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0226.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "SHARPEN: A Scheme to Restore the Distribution of Averaged Precipitation Fields." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 (8): 2105-2116 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0225.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Comparison of Monthly IMERG Precipitation Estimates with PACRAIN Atoll Observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 (7): 1745-1753 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0202.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Evaluation of GEOS Precipitation Flagging for SMAP Soil Moisture Retrieval Accuracy." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 1317-1332 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0038.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Assessment of the Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for Snowfall Retrieval in High Latitudes Using CloudSat and Machine Learning." Journal of Hydrometeorology 22 1591-1608 [10.1175/jhm-d-20-0240.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Linear and Nonlinear Trend Analyzes in Global Satellite‐Based Precipitation, 1998–2017." Earth's Future 9 (4): [10.1029/2020ef001835] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "Toward the New Generation of Products." The Joint IPWG/GEWEX Precipitation Assessment [10.13021/gewex.precip.3.1] [Article in Book]

2020. "Histogram Anomaly Time Series: A Compact Graphical Representation of Spatial Time Series Data Sets." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 101 (12): E2133-E2137 [10.1175/bams-d-20-0130.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "PPDIST, global 0.1° daily and 3-hourly precipitation probability distribution climatologies for 1979–2018." Scientific Data 7 (1): 302 [10.1038/s41597-020-00631-x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission (IMERG)." Satellite Precipitation Measurement 343-353 [10.1007/978-3-030-24568-9_19] [Article in Book]

2019. "IMERG V06: Changes to the Morphing Algorithm." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 36 (12): 2471-2482 [10.1175/jtech-d-19-0114.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Diurnal Cycle of IMERG V06 Precipitation." Geophysical Research Letters 46 (22): 13584-13592 [10.1029/2019gl085395] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "A spatial‐temporal extreme precipitation database from GPM IMERG." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2019JD030449 [10.1029/2019jd030449] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Grid box-level evaluation of IMERG over Brazil at various space and time scales." Atmospheric Research 218 231-244 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.12.001] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Earth Observations and Integrative Models in Support of Food and Water Security." Remote Sensing in Earth Systems Sciences [10.1007/s41976-019-0008-6] [Journal Article/Letter]

2019. "Daily evaluation of 26 precipitation datasets using Stage-IV gauge-radar data for the CONUS." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 23 (1): 207-224 [10.5194/hess-23-207-2019] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Using GRACE to Estitmate Snowfall Accumulation and Assess Gauge Undercatch Corrections in High Latitudes." Journal of Climate 31 (21): 8689-8704 [10.1175/jcli-d-18-0163.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): Unified Precipitation Estimation from Space." Springer Remote Sensing/Photogrammetry 175-193 [10.1007/978-3-319-72583-3_7] [Article in Book]

2018. "The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's scientific achievements and societal contributions: reviewing four years of advanced rain and snow observations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 144 27-48 [10.1002/qj.3313] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Analysis (New Version 2.3) and a Review of 2017 Global Precipitation." Atmosphere 9 (4): 138 [10.3390/atmos9040138] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "To What Extent is the Day 1 GPM IMERG Satellite Precipitation Estimate Improved as Compared to TRMM TMPA‐RT?." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 123 (3): 1694-1707 [10.1002/2017jd027606] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Moist convection: a key to tropical wave–moisture interaction in Indian monsoon intraseasonal oscillation." Climate Dynamics [10.1007/s00382-018-4103-9] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "The activities of the international precipitation working group." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 144 (S1): 3-15 [10.1002/qj.3214] [Journal Article/Letter]

2018. "Statistical Modeling of Extreme Precipitation with TRMM Data." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 57 (1): 15-30 [10.1175/jamc-d-17-0023.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Global-scale evaluation of 22 precipitation datasets using gauge observations and hydrological modeling." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (12): 6201-6217 [10.5194/hess-21-6201-2017] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission for Science and Society." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (8): 1679-1695 [10.1175/bams-d-15-00306.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models." Atmospheric Research 197 1-20 [10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.06.021] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Validation of IMERG precipitation in Africa." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (2017): 2817-2825 [10.1175/JHM-D-17-0139.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Bias Correction of Long-Term Satellite Monthly Precipitation Product (TRMM 3B43) over the Conterminous United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (9): 2491-2509 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0025.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Global Precipitation: Means, Variations and Trends During the Satellite Era (1979–2014)." Surveys in Geophysics 38 21 pp. [10.1007/s10712-017-9416-4] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "NASA’s Remotely-sensed Precipitation: A Reservoir for Applications Users." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (6): 1169-1184 [10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00296.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Precipitation characteristics in West and East Africa from satellite and in situ observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (6): 1799-1805 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0068.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Approximating Long-Term Statistics Early in the Global Precipitation Measurement Era." Earth Interactions 21 (3): 1-10 [10.1175/ei-d-16-0025.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "Evaluation of Quantitative Precipitation Estimations (QPE) through Hydrological Modelling in IFloodS Focal Basins." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (2): 529-553 [10.1175/JHM-D-15-0149.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2017. "So, how much of the Earth’s surface is covered by rain gauges?." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (1): 69-78 [10.1175/bams-d-14-00283.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "State of the Climate in 2015." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 97 (8): Si-S275 [10.1175/2016bamsstateoftheclimate.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Climatology and Interannual Variability of Quasi-Global Intense Precipitation Using Satellite Observations." J. Climate 29 (15): 5447-5468 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0662.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Status of high-latitude precipitation estimates from observations and reanalyses." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121 (9): 4468-4486 [10.1002/2015jd024546] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Statistical Properties of Global Precipitation in the NCEP GFS Model and TMPA Observations for Data Assimilation." Monthly Weather Review 144 (2): 663-679 [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0150.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2016. "Long-term changes/trends in surface temperature and precipitation during the satellite era (1979–2012)." Climate Dynamics 46 (3-4): 1091-1105 [10.1007/s00382-015-2634-x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "The Observed State of the Energy Budget in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate 28 (21): 8319–8346 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00556.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century." Journal of Climate 28 (21): 8289–8318 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00555.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Inroads of Remote Sensing into Hydrologic Science During the WRR Era." Water Resources Research 51 (9): 7309–7342 [10.1002/2015WR017616] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Assessment of precipitation anomalies in California using TRMM and MERRA data ." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 8206–8215 [10.1002/2015JD023573] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Challenges in Quantifying Changes in the Global Water Cycle." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 (7): 1097-1115 [10.1175/bams-d-13-00212.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Mapping TRMM TMPA Into Average Recurrence Interval for Monitoring Extreme Precipitation Events." J. Appl. Meteor. & Climatol 54 (5): 979-995 [10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0269.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Satellite view of quasi-equilibrium states in tropical convection and precipitation microphysics." Geophysical Research Letters 42 (6): 1959–1968 [10.1002/2015GL063261] [Journal Article/Letter]

2015. "Global view of real-time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis: implication to its successor Global Precipitation Measurement mission." Bull. Ameri. Meteor. Soc. 96 283-296 [10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00017.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Evaluation of Real-Time Satellite Precipitation Data for Global Drought Monitoring." J. Hydrometeor 15 (4): 1651-1660 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0128.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Consistency of Estimated Global Water Cycle Variations over the Satellite Era." J. Climate 27 (16): 6135-6154 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00384.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "An examination of the nature of global MODIS cloud regimes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 (13): 8362-8383 [10.1002/2013JD021409] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "An Updated TRMM Composite Climatology of Tropical Rainfall and Its Validation." J. Climate 27 (1): 273-284 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00331.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "An Update on the Oceanic Precipitation Rate and Its Zonal Distribution in Light of Advanced Observations from Space." J. Climate 27 (11): 3957-3965 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00679.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "An Error Model for Uncertainty Quantification in High-Time-Resolution Precipitation Products." J. Hydrometeor. 15 (3): 1274-1292 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-0112.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2014. "Real-time global flood estimation using satellite-based precipitation and a coupled land surface and routing model." Water Resour. Res. 50 (3): 2693-2717 [10.1002/2013WR014710] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Statistical and hydrological evaluation of TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis over the Wangchu Basin of Bhutan: Are the latest satellite precipitation products 3B42V7 ready for use in ungauged basins?." J. Hydrol. 499 91-99 [Full Text] [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.06.042] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Comparison of Precipitation Derived from the ECMWF Operational Forecast Model and Satellite Precipitation Datasets." J. Hydrometeor. 14 (5): 1463-1482 [Full Text] [10.1175/JHM-D-12-0182.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Evaluation of the successive V6 and V7 TRMM multisatellite precipitation analysis over the Continental United States." Water Resour. Res. 49 (12): 8174-8186 [10.1002/2012WR012795] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "First evaluation of the climatological calibration algorithm in the real-time TMPA precipitation estimates over two basins at high and low latitudes." Water Resour. Res. 49 (5): 2461-2472 [10.1002/wrcr.20246] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Modeling errors in daily precipitation measurements: Additive or multiplicative?." Geophys. Res. Lett. 40 (10): 2060-2065 [10.1002/grl.50320] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States." J. Climate 26 (3): 772-788 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00718.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Correction to “Co-variation of temperature and precipitation in CMIP5 models and satellite observations”." Geophysical Research Letters 39 (17): [10.1029/2012gl053452] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Assessment of evolving TRMM-based multisatellite real-time precipitation estimation methods and their impacts on hydrologic prediction in a high latitude basin." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D9): D09108 [10.1029/2011JD017069] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Global precipitation measurement: Methods, datasets and applications." Atmos. Res. 104-105 70-97 [Full Text] [10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.10.021] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years." J. Hydrometeor. 13 (5): 1536-1551 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-02.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Intercomparison of High-Resolution Precipitation Products Over Northwest Europe." J. Hydrometeor. 13 (1): 67-83 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-042.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Co-variation of temperature and precipitation in CMIP5 models and satellite observations." Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 (13): L13803 [10.1029/2012GL052093] [Journal Article/Letter]

2012. "Estimating Climatological Bias Errors for the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP)." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51 (1): 84-99 [10.1175/JAMC-D-11-052.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Correcting rainfall using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals: The Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART)." Water Resour. Res. 47 (8): W08521 [10.1029/2011WR010576] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Potential Utility of the Real-Time TMPA-RT Precipitation Estimates in Streamflow Prediction." J. Hydrometeor. 12 (3): 444-455 [10.1175/2010JHM1353.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

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2011. "The Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System." J. Hydrometeorology 12 (5): 750-765 [10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Global precipitation measurement." Meteor. Appl. 18 (3): 334-353 [10.1002/met.284] [Journal Article/Letter]

2011. "Evaluation of TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) performance in the Central Andes region and its dependency on spatial and temporal resolution." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (8): 2649-2663 [10.5194/hess-15-2649-2011] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Capacity Building for Disaster Prevention in Vulnerable Regions of the World: Development of a Prototype Global Flood/Landslide Prediction System." Disaster Advances 3 (3): 14-19 [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "REFAME: Rain Estimation Using Forward-Adjusted Advection of Microwave Estimates." J. Hydrometeor. 11 (6): 1305-1321 [10.1175/2010JHM1248.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Transfer of Satellite Rainfall Uncertainty from Gauged to Ungauged Regions at Regional and Seasonal Time Scales." J. Hydrometeor 11 (6): 1263–1274 [10.1175/2010JHM1296.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Applications of TRMM-based multi-satellite precipitation estimation for global runoff simulation: Prototyping a global flood monitoring system (Chapter 15)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology 245-265 [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_15] [Article in Book]

2010. "The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) (Chapter 1)." Satellite Rainfall Applications for Surface Hydrology 3-22 [10.1007/978-90-481-2915-7_1] [Article in Book]

2009. "Component analysis of errors in satellite-based precipitation estimates." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2009JD011949] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Comparison of GPCP Monthly and Daily Precipitation Estimates with High-Latitude Gauge Observations." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 48 (9): 1843–1857 [10.1175/2009JAMC2147.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Improving the global precipitation record: GPCP Version 2.1." Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 (17): L17808 [10.1029/2009GL040000] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "Improving Satellite-Based Rainfall Accumulation Estimates Using Spaceborne Surface Soil Moisture Retrievals." J. Hydrometeor. 10 (1): 199-212 [10.1175/2008JHM986.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "PERSIANN-MSA: A Precipitation Estimation Method from Satellite-Based Multispectral Analysis." J. Hydrometeor. 10 (6): 1414-1429 [10.1175/2009JHM1139.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2009. "A Ten-Year Tropical Rainfall Climatology Based on a Composite of TRMM Products." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 87A 281-293 [10.2151/jmsj.87A.281] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Investigating Error Metrics for Satellite Rainfall Data at Hydrologically Relevant Scales." J. Hydrometeor. 9 (3): 563-575 [10.1175/2007JHM925.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Relationships between global precipitation and surface temperature on interannual and longer timescales (1979–2006)." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D22): D22104 [10.1029/2008JD010536] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Flood and landslide applications of near real-time satellite rainfall products." Nat Hazards 43 (2): 285-294 [10.1007/s11069-006-9106-x] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "A World of Rain." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 30-35 [Article in Book]

2007. "Precipitation Extremes Estimated by GPCP and TRMM: ENSO Relationships." J. Hydrometeor. 8 (4): 678-689 [10.1175/JHM601.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Satellite Remote Sensing for Global Landslide Monitoring." EOS Trans. AGU 88 (37): 357-358 [10.1029/2007EO370001] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Tropical Rainfall Variability on Interannual-to-Interdecadal and Longer Time Scales Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product." J. Climate 20 (15): 4033-4046 [10.1175/JCLI4227.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "A first approach to global runoff simulation using satellite rainfall estimation." Water Resour. Res. 43 (8): W08502 [10.1029/2006WR005739] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales." J. Hydrometeor. 8 (1): 38-55 [10.1175/JHM560.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Use of satellite remote sensing data in the mapping of global landslide susceptibility." Nat Hazards 43 (2): 245-256 [10.1007/s11069-006-9104-z] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "An Experimental Global Prediction System for Rainfall-Triggered Landslides Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geospatial Datasets." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 45 (6): 1671-1680 [10.1109/TGRS.2006.888436] [Journal Article/Letter]

2007. "Chapter 23: Global Rainfall Analyses at Monthly and 3-hr Time Scales." Measuring Precipitation from Space: EURAINSAT and the Future 291-306 [10.1007/978-1-4020-5835-6_23] [Article in Book]

2006. "Estimating Bias of Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates." J. Hydrometeor. 7 (5): 841-856 [10.1175/JHM524.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Comments on “El Niño: Catastrophe or Opportunity”." J. Climate 19 (24): 6439-6442 [10.1175/JCLI4009.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "ISLSCP Initiative II global data sets: Surface boundary conditions and atmospheric forcings for land-atmosphere studies." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D22): D22S01 [10.1029/2006JD007366] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Revisiting a hydrological analysis framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 rainfall, net radiation, and runoff fields." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D22): D22S05 [10.1029/2006JD007182] [Journal Article/Letter]

2006. "Evaluation of the potential of NASA multi-satellite precipitation analysis in global landslide hazard assessment." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (22): L22402 [10.1029/2006GL028010] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "A Detailed Evaluation of GPCP 1° Daily Rainfall Estimates over the Mississippi River Basin." J. Appl. Meteor. 44 (5): 665-681 [10.1175/JAM2233.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "The Hurricane–Flood–Landslide Continuum." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 86 (9): 1241-1247 [10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1241] [Journal Article/Letter]

2005. "Satellite-Based Estimation of Precipitation Using Microwave Sensors (Chapter 64)." Encycl. of Hydrological Sci. 5 (64): 965-980 [10.1002/0470848944.hsa055] [Article in Book]

2004. "African easterly waves and their association with precipitation." J. Geophys. Res. 109 (D4): D04101 [10.1029/2003JD003967] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Statistical evaluation of MPA-RT high-resolution precipitation estimates from satellite platforms over the central and eastern Mediterranean." Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (6): L06116 [10.1029/2003GL019142] [Journal Article/Letter]

2004. "Westerly wind events and precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean as predictors for El Niño: Climatology and case study for the 2002–2003 El Niño." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 109 (D20): D20104 [10.1029/2004JD004663] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Error Uncertainty Analysis of GPCP Monthly Rainfall Products: A Data-Based Simulation Study." J. Appl. Meteor. 42 (12): 1837-1848 [10.1175/1520-0450(2003)042<1837:EUAOGM>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "GPCP Pentad Precipitation Analyses: An Experimental Dataset Based on Gauge Observations and Satellite Estimates." J. Climate 16 (13): 2197-2214 [10.1175/2769.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "Summer synoptic-scale waves over West Africa observed by TRMM." Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (14): 1729 [10.1029/2003GL017402] [Journal Article/Letter]

2003. "The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)." J. Hydrometeor 4 (6): 1147-1167 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1147:TVGPCP>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2002. "Precipitation anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and their relation to the initiation of El Niño." Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (10): 1441 [10.1029/2001GL013399] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Evolution of tropical and extratropical precipitation anomalies during the 1997-1999 ENSO cycle." Int. J. Climatol. 21 (8): 961-971 [10.1002/joc.643] [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Global Precipitation at One-Degree Daily Resolution from Multi-Satellite Observations." J. Hydrometeor. 2 (1): 36-50 [Journal Article/Letter]

2001. "Latitudinally and Seasonally Dependent Zenith-Angle Corrections for Geostationary Satellite IR Brightness Temperatures." J. Appl. Meteor. 40 (4): 689-703 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<0689:LASDZA>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Assimilation of SSM/I-Derived Surface Rainfall and Total Precipitable Water for Improving the GEOS Analysis for Climate Studies." Mon. Wea. Rev. 128 (3): 509-537 [10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<0509:AOSIDS>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)." Earth Obs. and Remote Sensing 4 71-90 [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "The Status of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) after Two Years in Orbit." J. Appl. Meteor. 39 (12): 1965-1982 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<1965:TSOTTR>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

2000. "Tropical Rainfall Distributions Determined Using TRMM Combined with Other Satellite and Rain Gauge Information." J. Appl. Meteor. 39 (12): 2007-2023 [10.1175/1520-0450(2001)040<2007:TRDDUT>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

1998. "A Comparison of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Precipitation and the GPCP Raingauge-Satellite Combined Data Set with Observational Error Considerations." J. Climate 11 (11): 2960-2979 [10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<2960:ACOTNN>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

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1997. "Estimates of Root-Mean-Square Random Error for Finite Samples of Estimated Precipitation." J. Appl. Meteor. 36 (9): 1191-1201 [10.1175/1520-0450(1997)036<1191:EORMSR>2.0.CO;2] [Journal Article/Letter]

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Other Professional Information


Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, E.J. Nelkin, R.F. Adler, A. Behrangi, 2022:  GPCP Version 3.2 Daily Precipitation Data Set (GPCPDAY 3.2).  See for status, data, and documentation.

Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, E.J. Nelkin, R.F. Adler, A. Behrangi, 2022:  GPCP Version 3.2 Satellite-Gauge (SG)Combined Precipitation Data Set (GPCPMON 3.2).  See keywords=GPCPMON_3.2&page=1 for status, data, and documentation.

Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, D. Braithwaite, K. Hsu, R. Joyce, E.J. Nelkin, J.Tan, P. Xie , 2019, last updated 2021:  GPM Version 06 IMERG Data Sets.  NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD.  See for status and half-hourly (IMERGHH) and monthly (3IMERGM; Final Run only) data.  The Early, Late, and Final Runs cover June 2000 – (delayed) present.  The site hot-links to the documentation.

Adler, R.F. (lead developer), G.J. Huffman, R.R. Ferraro, P. Xie, L. Chiu, U. Schneider, D.T. Bolvin, E.J. Nelkin, M. Sapiano, 2016, last updated 2021:  GPCP Version 2.3 Combined Precipitation Data Set.  UMCP/ESSIC, College Park, MD. files 1979-delayed present and 8 pp. documentation.

  • Secondary (reformatted) archive at| and 10 pp. documentation.

Huffman, G.J. (lead developer), D.T. Bolvin, R.F. Adler, 2015, last updated 2021:  GPCP Version 1.3 1-Degree Daily (1DD) Precipitation Data Set. WDC-A, NCDC, Asheville, NC. See , 1 daily field in month files for 1997-delayed present and 27 pp. documentation, 6 programming examples.

  • Secondary (reformatted) archive at| and 8 pp. documentation.