Randal D. Koster

Randal D. Koster

  • (AST, EARTH SCI REMOTE SENSING)
  • 301.614.5781 | 301.614.5808
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 610.1
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Koster has worked at NASA/GSFC since September of 1987, first as a member of the Hydrological Sciences Branch, and currently as a member of the GMAO. His early work focused on the analysis of global water isotope geochemistry. Most of his tenure at GSFC, though, has been dedicated to two research thrusts: (i) the development of improved treatments of land surface physics for Earth system models, and (ii) the analysis of interactions between the land and atmosphere, using these models. He has examined many questions regarding land-atmosphere feedback, including: Can knowledge of soil moisture conditions at the beginning of a seasonal weather forecast improve the forecast? Can we find evidence in the observational record that variability in land surface states has an effect on rainfall, air temperature, and other atmospheric variables? He has coordinated multi-institutional analyses of land-atmosphere feedback for GEWEX and CLIVAR, components of the World Climate Research Programme. He serves on the SMAP Science Team, focusing on making sure that SMAP satellite-based soil moisture data is useful for climate studies and other applications.
    With the advent of the GMAO in 2003, Koster has been given the responsibility of coordinating the land surface modeling activities at GSFC into a single land surface modeling system. This ever-evolving system is used extensively by the GMAO and is available for use by the NASA community.
    In addition, Koster served for several years as a lecturer for the climate program at George Mason University.


    Research Interests

    Large-scale land surface modeling


    Effects of land surface processes on climate variability and subseasonal prediction


    Education

    B.Sc. (Honors), 1982: California Institute of Technology
    M.Sc., 1985: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Sc.D., 1988: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Positions/Employment

    1987 - 2003

    Research Scientist, Hydrological Sciences Branch

    NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    2003 - Present

    Research Scientist, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

    NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

    Teaching Experience

    Lecturer, George Mason University's Climate Dynamics Program (Co-developed and taught, for several years, a graduate level class on Land-Climate Interactions)

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 1983 - Present
    Fellow
    American Meteorological Society, 2000 - Present
    Fellow

    Professional Service

    (Recent and Current)

    WCRP/CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction (mid-to-late 2000s)

    WCRP/GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere Systems Study panel (mid-to-late 2000s)

    Organizer of multi-institutional GLACE and GLACE-2 projects (mid-to-late 2000s)

    US CLIVAR Predictability, Predictions, and Applications Interface Panel (mid-2000s)

    Authors’ team: CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product 1.3, Re-Analysis (2008)

    NRC panel on ``Assessment of Climate Predictability on Intraseasonal-to-Interannual Timescales'' (2010)

    SMAP Science Definition Team, Science Team (Current)

    NOAA Climate Test Bed Science Advisory Board (Current)

    NOAA/MAPP Drought Task Force (Current)

    Extensive reviewing work (panels, papers, proposals, etc.)


    Awards

    AMS Hydrologic Sciences Medal, 2016

    Horton Lecturer, American Meteorological Society, 2014

    AGU Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing, 1991

    AMS Editor's Award, J. Hydrometeorology, 2007

     

    Publications

    Refereed

    Draper, C. S., R. H. Reichle, and R. D. Koster. 2018. "Assessment of MERRA-2 Land Surface Energy Flux Estimates." Journal of Climate, 31 (2): 671-691 [10.1175/jcli-d-17-0121.1]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., L. Chen, J. Wu, et al. C.-S. Shin, B. Huang, B. A. Cash, M. G. Bosilovich, S. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, J. A. Santanello, M. B. Ek, G. Balsamo, E. Dutra, and D. M. Lawrence. 2018. "Verification of Land–Atmosphere Coupling in Forecast Models, Reanalyses, and Land Surface Models Using Flux Site Observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 19 (2): 375-392 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0152.1]

    Lee, E., F. Zeng, R. D. Koster, et al. B. Weir, L. E. Ott, and B. Poulter. 2018. "The impact of spatiotemporal variability in atmospheric CO2 concentration on global terrestrial carbon fluxes." Biogeosciences, 15: 5635-5652 [10.5194/bg-15-5635-2018]

    Reichle, R. H., Q. Liu, R. D. Koster, et al. C. S. Draper, S. P. Mahanama, and G. S. Partyka. 2017. "Land Surface Precipitation in MERRA-2." Journal of Climate, 30 (5): 1643-1664 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0570.1]

    Koster, R. D., R. H. Reichle, and S. P. Mahanama. 2017. "A Data-Driven Approach for Daily Real-Time Estimates and Forecasts of Near-Surface Soil Moisture." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18 (3): 837-843 [10.1175/jhm-d-16-0285.1]

    Reichle, R. H., C. S. Draper, Q. Liu, et al. M. Girotto, S. P. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, and G. J. De Lannoy. 2017. "Assessment of MERRA-2 Land Surface Hydrology Estimates." Journal of Climate, 30 (8): 2937-2960 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0720.1]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate, 30: 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    Koster, R. D., A. K. Betts, P. A. Dirmeyer, et al. M. Bierkens, K. E. Bennett, S. J. Déry, J. P. Evans, R. Fu, F. Hernandez, L. R. Leung, X. Liang, M. Masood, H. Savenije, G. Wang, and X. Yuan. 2017. "Hydroclimatic variability and predictability: a survey of recent research." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 21 (7): 3777-3798 [10.5194/hess-21-3777-2017]

    Reichle, R. H., G. J. De Lannoy, Q. Liu, et al. J. V. Ardizzone, A. Colliander, A. Conaty, W. Crow, T. J. Jackson, L. A. Jones, J. S. Kimball, R. D. Koster, S. P. Mahanama, E. B. Smith, A. Berg, S. Bircher, D. Bosch, T. G. Caldwell, M. Cosh, C. D. Holifield Collins, K. H. Jensen, S. Livingston, E. Lopez-Baeza, J. Martínez-Fernández, H. McNairn, M. Moghaddam, A. Pacheco, T. Pellarin, J. Prueger, T. Rowlandson, M. Seyfried, P. Starks, Z. Su, M. Thibeault, R. van der Velde, J. Walker, X. Wu, and Y. Zeng. 2017. "Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using In Situ Measurements." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18 (10): 2621-2645 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0063.1]

    Tao, J., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, B. A. Forman, and Y. Xue. 2017. "Evaluation and Enhancement of Permafrost Modeling With the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 9: 2771-2795 [10.1002/2017ms001019]

    Reichle, R. H., G. J. De Lannoy, Q. Liu, et al. R. D. Koster, J. Kimball, W. Crow, J. V. Ardizzone, P. Chakraborty, D. W. Collins, A. L. Conaty, M. Girotto, L. Jones, J. Kolassa, H. P. Lievens, R. A. Lucchesi, and E. B. Smith. 2017. "Global Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using Assimilation Diagnostics." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18: 3217-3237 [10.1175/JHM-D-17-0130.1]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., J. Wu, H. E. Norton, et al. W. A. Dorigo, S. M. Quiring, T. W. Ford, J. A. Santanello, M. G. Bosilovich, M. B. Ek, R. D. Koster, G. Balsamo, and D. M. Lawrence. 2016. "Confronting Weather and Climate Models with Observational Data from Soil Moisture Networks over the United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17 (4): 1049-1067 [10.1175/jhm-d-15-0196.1]

    Schubert, S. D., R. E. Stewart, H. Wang, et al. M. Barlow, E. H. Berbery, W. Cai, M. P. Hoerling, K. K. Kanikicharla, R. D. Koster, B. Lyon, A. Mariotti, C. R. Mechoso, O. V. Müller, B. Rodriguez-Fonseca, R. Seager, S. I. Senevirante, L. Zhang, and T. Zhou. 2016. "Global Meteorological Drought: A Synthesis of Current Understanding with a Focus on SST Drivers of Precipitation Deficits." J. Climate, 29 (11): 3989-4019 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0452.1]

    Koster, R. D., L. Brocca, W. T. Crow, M. S. Burgin, and G. J. De Lannoy. 2016. "Precipitation estimation using L-band and C-band soil moisture retrievals." Water Resources Research, 52 (9): 7213-7225 [10.1002/2016wr019024]

    Koster, R. D., Y. Chang, H. Wang, and S. D. Schubert. 2016. "Impacts of Local Soil Moisture Anomalies on the Atmospheric Circulation and on Remote Surface Meteorological Fields During Boreal Summer: A Comprehensive Analysis over North America." J. Climate, 29 (20): 7345-7364 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0192.1]

    Rodell, M., H. K. Beaudoing, R. D. Koster, et al. C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. S. Famiglietti, and V. Lakshmi. 2016. "Chapter 92: Large-Scale and Global Hydrology." Handbook of Applied Hydrology, New York: 92.1-92.7, ISBN: 978-0-07-183509-1.

    Schubert, S., Y. Chang, H. Wang, R. Koster, and M. Suarez. 2016. "A Modeling Study of the Causes and Predictability of the Spring 2011 Extreme US Weather Activity." J. Climate, 29 (21): 7869-7887 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0673.1]

    Collow, A., M. G. Bosilovich, and R. D. Koster. 2016. "Large Scale Influences on Summertime Extreme Precipitation in the Northeastern United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology, JHM-D-16-0091.1 [10.1175/jhm-d-16-0091.1]

    Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. A. Santanello, et al. R. H. Reichle, C. S. Draper, R. D. Koster, G. S. Nearing, and M. F. Jasinski. 2015. "Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 12: 5967 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/hessd-12-5967-2015]

    Koster, R. 2015. "“Efficiency Space”: A Framework for Evaluating Joint Evaporation and Runoff Behavior*." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96 (3): 393-396 [10.1175/bams-d-14-00056.1]

    Yasunari, T. J., R. D. Koster, W. K. Lau, and K.-M. Kim. 2015. "Impact of snow darkening via dust, black carbon, and organic carbon on boreal spring climate in the Earth system." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos, 120 (11): 5485–5503 [10.1002/2014JD022977]

    Koster, R. D., and G. K. Walker. 2015. "Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16 (4): 1456–1465 [10.1175/JHM-D-14-0205.1]

    Yoshida, Y., J. Joiner, C. J. Tucker, et al. J. Berry, J. E. Lee, G. K. Walker, R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, A. I. Lyapustin, and Y. Wang. 2015. "The 2010 Russian drought impact on satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from modeling and comparisons with parameters derived from satellite reflectances." Remote Sensing of Environment, 166: 163–177 [10.1016/j.rse.2015.06.008]

    Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. A. Santanello, et al. R. H. Reichle, C. S. Draper, R. D. Koster, G. Nearing, and M. F. Jasinski. 2015. "Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19 (11): 4463-4478 [10.5194/hess-19-4463-2015]

    De Lannoy, G. J., R. Koster, R. H. Reichle, S. Mahanama, and Q. Liu. 2014. "An updated treatment of soil texture and associated hydraulic properties in a global land modeling system." J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys, 6: 957-979 [10.1002/2014MS000330]

    Koster, R., Y. Chang, and S. D. Schubert. 2014. "A mechanism for land-atmosphere feedback involving planetary wave structures." J. Climate, 27: 9290-9301 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1]

    Koster, R. D., G. Walker, G. J. Collatz, and P. E. Thornton. 2014. "Hydroclimatic Controls on the Means and Variability of Vegetation Phenology and Carbon Uptake." J. Climate, 27 (14): 5632-5652 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00477.1]

    Wang, H., S. D. Schubert, R. Koster, et al. R. D. Koster, Y.-G. Ham, and M. J. Suarez. 2014. "On the Role of SST Forcing in the 2011 and 2012 Extreme U.S. Heat and Drought: A Study in Contrasts." J. Hydrometeor., 15 (3): 1255-1273 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-069.1]

    Schubert, S. D., H. Wang, R. D. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 2014. "Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts." J. Climate, 27 (9): 3169-3207 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00360.1]

    Koster, R. D., G. K. Walker, S. P. Mahanama, and R. H. Reichle. 2014. "Soil Moisture Initialization Error and Subgrid Variability of Precipitation in Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting." J. Hydrometeor., 15 (1): 69-88 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-050.1]

    Yamada, T. J., S. Kanae, T. Oki, and R. D. Koster. 2013. "Seasonal variation of land-atmosphere coupling strength over the West African monsoon region in an atmospheric general circulation model." Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques, 58: 1276-1286 [DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2013.81491]

    Orth, R., R. D. Koster, and S. I. Seneviratne. 2013. "Inferring Soil Moisture Memory from Streamflow Observations Using a Simple Water Balance Model." J. Hydrometeor., 14 (6): 1773-1790 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-099.1]

    Puma, M. J., R. D. Koster, and B. I. Cook. 2013. "Phenological versus meteorological controls on land-atmosphere water and carbon fluxes." J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 118 (1): 14-29 [10.1029/2012JG002088]

    Koster, R. D., and S. P. Mahanama. 2012. "Land Surface Controls on Hydroclimatic Means and Variability." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13 (5): 1604-1620 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-050.1]

    Mahanama, S., B. Livneh, R. D. Koster, D. Lettenmaier, and R. H. Reichle. 2012. "Soil Moisture, Snow, and Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13 (1): 189-203 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-046.1]

    Guo, Z., P. A. Dirmeyer, T. DelSole, and R. D. Koster. 2012. "Rebound in Atmospheric Predictability and the Role of the Land Surface." Journal of Climate, 25: 4744-4749 [DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00651.1]

    van den Hurk, B., F. Doblas-Reyes, G. Balsamo, et al. R. D. Koster, S. Seneviratne, and H. Camargo. 2012. "Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe." Climate Dynamics, 38: 349-362 [DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2]

    Seneviratne, S. I., and R. D. Koster. 2012. "A Revised Framework for Analyzing Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Data: Derivation and Interpretation." J. Hydrometeorol., 13 (1): 404-412 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-044.1]

    Yasunari, T., R. D. Koster, W. K. Lau, et al. T. Aoki, Y. C. Sud, T. Yamazaki, H. Motoyoshi, and Y. Kodama. 2012. "Correction to “Influence of dust and black carbon on the snow albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 land surface model”." J. Geophys. Res., 117 (D18): [10.1029/2012JD018691]

    Li, B., M. Rodell, B. F. Zaitchik, et al. R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, and T. M. van Dam. 2012. "Assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage into a land surface model: Evaluation and potential value for drought monitoring in western and central Europe." Journal of Hydrology, 446-447: 103-115 [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.04.035]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, et al. R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, J. Joiner, R. D. Koster, R. Lucchesi, A. Molod, T. Owens, S. Pawson, P. Pegion, C. R. Redder, R. H. Reichle, F. R. Robertson, A. G. Ruddick, M. Sienkiewicz, and J. Woollen. 2011. "MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications." J. Climate, 24 (14): 3624-3648 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, T. J. Yamada, et al. G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J. H. Jeong, W. S. Lee, Z. Li, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. van den Hurk, F. Vitart, and W. F. Wood. 2011. "The Second Phase of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment: Soil Moisture Contributions to Subseasonal Forecast Skill." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12: 805-822 [DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1365.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, G. J. De Lannoy, et al. B. A. Forman, Q. Liu, S. P. Mahanama, and A. Toure. 2011. "Assessment and Enhancement of MERRA Land Surface Hydrology Estimates." Journal of Climate, 24 (24): 6322-6338 [10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05033.1]

    Koster, R. D. 2011. "Climate science: Storm instigation from below." Nature Geoscience, 4 (7): 427-428 [10.1038/ngeo1192]

    Yasunari, T. J., R. D. Koster, K. M. Lau, et al. T. Aoki, Y. C. Sud, T. Yamazaki, H. Motoyoshi, and Y. Kodama. 2011. "Influence of dust and black carbon on the snow albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 land surface model." J. Geophys. Res., 116 (D2): D02210 [10.1029/2010JD014861]

    Entekhabi, D., E. G. Njoku, P. E. ONeill, et al. K. H. Kellogg, W. T. Crow, W. N. Edelstein, J. K. Entin, S. D. Goodman, T. J. Jackson, J. Johnson, J. Kimball, J. R. Piepmeier, R. D. Koster, N. Martin, K. C. McDonald, M. Moghaddam, S. Moran, R. H. Reichle, J. C. Shi, M. W. Spencer, S. W. Thurman, L. Tsang, and J. Van Zyl. 2010. "The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission." Proc. IEEE, 98 (5): Vancouver, Canada: 704-716 [10.1109/jproc.2010.2043918]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, T. J. Yamada, et al. G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J. H. Jeong, D. M. Lawrence, W. S. Lee, Z. Li, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. van den Hurk, F. Vitart, and W. F. Wood. 2010. "Contribution of land surface initialization to subseasonal forecast skill: First results from a multi-model experiment." Geophysical Research Letters, 37: 0-0 [DOI: 10.1029/2009GL041677]

    Entekhabi, D., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, and W. T. Crow. 2010. "Performance Metrics for Soil Moisture Retrievals and Application Requirements." J. Hydrometeor, 11 (3): 832-840 [10.1175/2010JHM1223.1]

    Reichle, R. H., S. V. Kumar, S. P. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, and Q. Liu. 2010. "Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Skin Temperature Observations into Land Surface Models." J. Hydrometeor, 11 (5): 1103-1122 [10.1175/2010JHM1262.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, B. Livneh, B. P. Letternmaier, and R. H. Reichle. 2010. "Skill in streamflow forecasts derived from large-scale estimates of soil moisture and snow." Nature Geoscience, 3 (9): 613-616 [10.1038/NGEO944]

    Wang, H., S. Schubert, M. Suarez, and R. D. Koster. 2010. "The Physical Mechanisms by Which the Leading Patterns of SST Variability Impact U.S. Precipitation." Journal of Climate, 23 (7): 1815-1836 [10.1175/2009JCLI3188.1]

    Wang, A., T. J. Bohn, S. P. Mahanama, D. Lettenmaier, and R. D. Koster. 2009. "Multimodel Ensemble Reconstruction of Drought over the Continental United States." Journal of Climate, 22: 2694-2712 [DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2586.1]

    Koster, R. D., H. Wang, S. D. Schubert, M. J. Suarez, and S. P. Mahanama. 2009. "Drought-Induced Warming in the Continental United States under Different SST Regimes." Journal of Climate, 22: 5385-5400 [DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI3075.1]

    Wu, M.-L. C., O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, et al. M. J. Suarez, R. D. Koster, and P. J. Pegion. 2009. "African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance." Journal of Climate, 22: 4459-4480 [DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2584.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2009. "Analyzing the Concurrence of Meteorological Droughts and Warm Periods, with Implications for the Determination of Evaporative Regime." Journal of Climate, 22: 3331-3341 [DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2718.1]

    Kumar, S., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, W. T. Crow, and C. Peters-Lidard. 2009. "Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations." J. Hydrometeor, 10 (6): 1534-1547 [10.1175/2009JHM1134.1]

    Schubert, S., D. Gutzler, H. Wang, et al. A. Dai, T. Delworth, C. Deser, K. Findell, R. Fu, W. Higgins, M. Hoerling, B. Kirtman, R. Koster, A. Kumar, D. Legler, D. Lettenmaier, B. Lyon, V. Magana, K. Mo, S. Nigam, P. Pegion, A. Phillips, R. Pulwarty, D. Rind, A. Ruiz-Barradas, J. Schemm, R. Seager, R. Stewart, M. Suarez, J. Syktus, M. Ting, C. Wang, S. Weaver, and N. Zeng. 2009. "A U.S. CLIVAR Project to Assess and Compare the Responses of Global Climate Models to Drought-Related SST Forcing Patterns: Overview and Results." Journal of Climate, 22 (19): 5251-5272 [10.1175/2009JCLI3060.1]

    Koster, R. D., Z. Guo, R. Yang, et al. P. A. Dirmeyer, K. Mitchell, and M. J. Puma. 2009. "On the nature of soil moisture in land surface models." J Climate, 22: 4322-4335 [Full Text (Link)]

    Reichle, R. H., W. T. Crow, R. D. Koster, H. O. Sharif, and S. P. Mahanama. 2008. "Contribution of soil moisture retrievals to land data assimilation products." Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (1): L01404 [10.1029/2007GL031986]

    Kumar, S. V., R. H. Reichle, C. D. Peters-Lidard, et al. R. D. Koster, X. Zhan, W. T. Crow, J. B. Eylander, and P. R. Houser. 2008. "A land surface data assimilation framework using the land information system: Description and applications." Advances in Water Resources, 31 (11): 1419-1432 [10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.01.013]

    Mahanama, S. P., R. D. Koster, R. H. Reichle, and M. J. Suarez. 2008. "Impact of Subsurface Temperature Variability on Surface Air Temperature Variability: An AGCM Study." J. Hydrometeor., 9 (4): 804-815 [10.1175/2008JHM949.1]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. Bacmeister. 2008. "Potential Predictability of Long-Term Drought and Pluvial Conditions in the U.S. Great Plains." Journal of Climate, 21 (4): 802-816 [10.1175/2007JCLI1741.1]

    Mahanama, S. P., R. D. Koster, R. H. Reichle, and L. Zubair. 2008. "The role of soil moisture initialization in subseasonal and seasonal streamflow prediction – A case study in Sri Lanka." Advances in Water Resources, 31 (10): 1333-1343 [10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.06.004]

    Koster, R., T. Bell, R. Reichle, M. Suarez, and S. Schubert. 2008. "Using Observed Spatial Correlation Structures to Increase the Skill of Subseasonal Forecasts." Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 (6): 1923-1930 [10.1175/2007MWR2255.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, P. Liu, et al. S. P. Mahanama, E. G. Njoku, and M. Owe. 2007. "Comparison and assimilation of global soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)." J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D9): D09108 [10.1029/2006JD008033]

    Schubert, S. D., R. D. Koster, M. Hoerling, et al. R. Seager, D. P. Lettenmaier, A. Kumar, and D. Gutzler. 2007. "Predicting drought on seasonal-to-decadal time scales." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88: 1625-1630 [DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-10-1625]

    Yamada, T. J., R. D. Koster, S. Kanae, and T. Oki. 2007. "Estimation of predictability with a newly derived index to quantify similarity among ensemble members." Monthly Weather Review, 135: 2674-2687 [DOI: 10.1175/MWR3418.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, P. Liu, et al. S. Mahanama, E. Njoku, and M. Owe. 2007. "Comparison and assimilation of global soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)." J Geophys Res, 112 (D09108): 14 pp [10.1029/2006JD008033]

    Crow, W. T., D. Entekhabi, R. D. Koster, and R. H. Reichle. 2006. "Multiple spaceborne water cycle observations would aid modeling." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 87 (15): 149–153 [10.1029/2006EO150002]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., R. D. Koster, and Z. Guo. 2006. "Do global models properly represent the feedback between land and atmosphere?" Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7: 1177-1198 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM532.1]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and S. D. Schubert. 2006. "Distinct hydrological signatures in observed historical temperature fields." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7: 1061-1075 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM530.1]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, and R. D. Koster. 2006. "Improving Short-term Climate Forecasts with Satellite Observations." 2006 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Vols 1-8: 3498-3501 [DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2006.897]

    Koster, R. D., B. Fekete, G. J. Huffman, and P. Stackhouse. 2006. "Revisiting a hydrological analysis framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 rainfall, net radiation, and runoff fields." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D22): D22S05 [10.1029/2006JD007182]

    Guo, Z., P. Dirmeyer, R. D. Koster, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, J. McGregor, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2006. "GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part II: Analysis." J. Hydrometeor., 7 (4): 611-625 [10.1175/JHM511.1]

    Koster, R. D., Z. Guo, P. Dirmeyer, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, H. Davies, C. T. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. M. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, Y. C. Sud, C. Taylor, D. Verseghy, A. Pitman, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2006. "GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview." J. Hydrometeor., 7 (4): 590-610 [10.1175/JHM510.1]

    Seneviratne, S., R. D. Koster, Z. Guo, et al. P. Dirmeyer, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, D. M. Mocko, K. Oleson, and D. Verseghy. 2006. "Soil moisture memory in AGCM simulations: Analysis of Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data." J. Hydrometeor., 7 (5): 1090-1112 [10.1175/JHM533.1]

    Crow, W. T., R. D. Koster, and R. H. Reichle. 2005. "Relevance of time-varying and time-invariant retrieval error sources on the utility of spaceborne soil moisture products." Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (24): L24405 [10.1029/2005GL024889]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2005. "Global assimilation of satellite surface soil moisture retrievals into the NASA Catchment land surface model." Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (2): L02404 [10.1029/2004GL021700]

    Mahanama, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2005. "AGCM biases in evaporation regime: Impacts on soil moisture memory and land-atmosphere feedback." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 6: 656-669 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM446.1]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. T. Bacmeister. 2004. "Causes of Long-Term Drought in the U.S. Great Plains." J. Climate, 17 (3): 485-503 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0485:COLDIT>2.0.CO;2]

    Boone, A., F. Habets, J. Noilhan, et al. D. Clark, P. Dirmeyer, S. Fox, Y. Gusev, I. Haddeland, R. D. Koster, D. Lohmann, S. P. Mahanama, K. Mitchell, O. Nasonova, G. Y. Niu, A. J. Pitman, J. Polcher, A. B. Shmakin, K. Tanaka, B. van den Hurk, S. Verant, D. Verseghy, P. Viterbo, and Z. L. Yang. 2004. "The Rhone-aggregation land surface scheme intercomparison project: An overview." Journal of Climate, 17: 187-208 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0187:TRLSSI>2.0.CO]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2004. "Bias reduction in short records of satellite soil moisture." Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (19): L19501 [10.1029/2004GL020938]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, J. R. Dong, and A. Berg. 2004. "Global Soil Moisture from Satellite Observations, Land Surface Models, and Ground Data: Implications for Data Assimilation." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5 (3): 430-442 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0430:GSMFSO>2.0.CO;2]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. T. Bacmeister. 2004. "On the cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl." Science, 303: 1855-1859 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1095048]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, P. Liu, et al. U. Jambor, A. Berg, M. Kistler, R. H. Reichle, M. Rodell, and J. Famiglietti. 2004. "Realistic Initialization of Land Surface States: Impacts on Subseasonal Forecast Skill." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5 (6): 1049-1063 [10.1175/JHM-387.1]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2004. "Suggestions in the observational record of land-atmosphere feedback operating at seasonal time scales." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 5: 567-572 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0567:SITORO>2.0.CO]

    Entekhabi, D., P. Houser, E. G. Njoku, et al. P. E. O'Neill, M. Spencer, T. Doiron, Y. Kim, J. A. Smith, R. Girard, S. Belair, W. Crow, T. J. Jackson, Y. H. Kerr, J. S. Kimball, R. D. Koster, K. C. McDonald, T. Pultz, S. W. Running, J. Shi, E. Wood, and J. van Zyl. 2004. "The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 42 (10): 2184-2195.

    Koster, R. D., P. Dirmeyer, Z. Guo, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2004. "Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation." Science, 305 (5687): 1138-1140 [10.1126/science.1100217]

    Mahanama, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models." J. Hydrometeor, 4 (6): 1134-1146 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1134:IOSMMI>2.0.CO;2]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, R. W. Higgins, and M. J. Suarez. 2003. "Observational evidence that soil moisture variations affect precipitation." Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (5): 1241 [10.1029/2002GL016571]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Assessing the Impact of Horizontal Error Correlations in Background Fields on Soil Moisture Estimation." J. Hydrometeor, 4 (6): 1229-1242 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1229:ATIOHE>2.0.CO;2]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2003. "Impact of land surface initialization on seasonal precipitation and temperature prediction." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 4: 408-423 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<408:IOLSIO>2.0.CO]

    Mahanam, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models." J Hydrometeorol, 4 (6): 1134-1146.

    Bowling, L. C., D. P. Lettenmaier, B. Nijssen, et al. J. Polcher, R. D. Koster, and D. Lohmann. 2003. "Simulation of high-latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS Phase 2 (e) 3: Equivalent model representation and sensitivity experiments." Global and Planetary Change, 38 (1-2): 55-71 [10.1016/S0921-8181(03)00005-5]

    Reichle, R. H., J. P. Walker, R. D. Koster, and P. R. Houser. 2002. "Extended versus Ensemble Kalman Filtering for Land Data Assimilation." J. Hydrometeor, 3 (6): 728-740 [10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0728:EVEKFF>2.0.CO;2]

    Shaman, J., M. Stieglitz, V. Engel, R. D. Koster, and C. Stark. 2002. "Representation of subsurface storm flow and a more responsive water table in a TOPMODEL-based hydrology model." Water Resources Research, 38: 1156 [DOI: 10.1029/2001WR000636]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, and S. M. Hassanizadeh. 2002. "Land data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter: assessing model error parameters using innovations." Computational Methods in Water Resources Vols 1 and 2, 47: 1387-1394.

    Koster, R. D., P. A. Dirmeyer, A. N. Hahmann, et al. R. Ijpelaar, L. Tyahla, P. Cox, and M. J. Suarez. 2002. "Comparing the degree of land-atmosphere interaction in four atmospheric general circulation models." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 3: 363-375 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0363:CTDOLA>2.0.CO]

    Guillevic, P., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, et al. L. Bounoua, G. J. Collatz, S. O. Los, and S. P. Mahanama. 2002. "Influence of the inter annual variability of vegetation on the surface energy balance - a global sensitivity study." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 3 (6): 617-629.

    Reichle, R. H., J. P. Walker, R. D. Koster, and P. R. Houser. 2002. "Extended versus Ensemble Kalman Filtering for Land Data Assimilation." J Hydrometerol, 3: 728-740.

    Stieglitz, M., A. Ducharne, R. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 2001. "The impact of detailed snow physics on the simulation of snow cover and subsurface thermodynamics at continental scales." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2: 228-242 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0228:TIODSP>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2001. "Soil moisture memory in climate models." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 2: 558-570 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0558:SMMICM>2.0.CO]

    Sud, Y. C., D. M. Mocko, G. Walker, and R. D. Koster. 2001. "Influence of land surface fluxes on precipitation: Inferences from simulations forced with four ARM-CART SCM datasets." J. Climate, 14 (17): 3666-3691 [10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3666:IOLSFO>2.0.CO;2]

    Delaygue, G., V. Masson, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. Healy. 2000. "The origin of Antarctic precipitation: a modelling approach." Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 52: 19-36 [DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00951.x]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., F. J. Zeng, A. Ducharne, J. Morrill, and R. D. Koster. 2000. "The sensitivity of surface fluxes to soil water content in three land surface schemes." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 1: 121-134 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2000)001<0121:TSOSFT>2.0.CO]

    Delaygue, G., J. Jouzel, V. Masson, R. D. Koster, and E. Bard. 2000. "Validity of the isotopic thermometer in central Antarctica: limited impact of glacial precipitation seasonality and moisture origin." Geophysical Research Letters, 27: 2677-2680 [DOI: 10.1029/2000GL011530]

    Jouzel, J., G. Hoffmann, R. D. Koster, and V. Masson. 2000. "Water isotopes in precipitation: data/model comparison for present-day and past climates." Quaternary Science Reviews, 19: 363-379 [DOI: 10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00069-4]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, A. Ducharne, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar. 2000. "A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model 1. Model structure." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 105: 24809-24822 [DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900327]

    Ducharne, A., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar. 2000. "A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model 2. Parameter estimation and model demonstration." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 105: 24823-24838 [DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900328]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and M. Heiser. 2000. "Variance and predictability of precipitation at seasonal-to-interannual timescales." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 1: 26-46 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2000)001<0026:VAPOPA>2.0.CO]

    Pitman, A. J., A. Henderson-Sellers, C. E. Desborough, et al. Z. L. Yang, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, R. E. Dickinson, N. Gedney, R. D. Koster, E. Kowalczyk, D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, J. Noilhan, J. Polcher, W. Qu, A. Robock, C. Rosenzweig, C. A. Schlosser, A. B. Shmakin, J. Smith, M. J. Suarez, D. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, and Y. Xue. 1999. "Key results and implications from phase 1(c) of the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parametrization Schemes." Climate Dynamics, 15: 673-684 [DOI: 10.1007/s003820050309]

    Entekhabi, D., G. R. Asrar, A. K. Betts, et al. K. J. Beven, R. L. Bras, C. J. Duffy, T. Dunne, R. D. Koster, D. P. Lettenmaier, D. B. Mclaughlin, W. J. Shuttleworth, M. T. van Genuchten, M. Y. Wei, and E. F. Wood. 1999. "An agenda for land surface hydrology research and a call for the second international hydrological decade." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80: 2043-2058 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2043:AAFLSH>2.0.CO]

    Ducharne, A., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, P. Kumar, and M. Stieglitz. 1999. "A catchment-based land surface model for GCMs and the framework for its evaluation." Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere, 24: 769-773 [DOI: 10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00078-7]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1999. "A simple framework for examining the interannual variability of land surface moisture fluxes." Journal of Climate, 12: 1911-1917 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1911:ASFFET>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., T. Oki, and M. J. Suarez. 1999. "The offline validation of land surface models: Assessing success at the annual timescale." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 77: 257-263.

    Wood, E. F., D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, et al. D. Lohmann, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 1. Experiment description and summary intercomparisons." Global and Planetary Change, 19: 115-135 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00044-7]

    Liang, X., E. F. Wood, D. P. Lettenmaier, et al. D. Lohmann, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, C. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 2. Spatial and temporal analysis of energy fluxes." Global and Planetary Change, 19: 137-159 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00045-9]

    Lohmann, D., D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, et al. E. F. Wood, A. Oone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, C. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 3. Spatial and temporal analysis of water fluxes." Global and Planetary Change, 19: 161-179 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00046-0]

    Armengaud, A., R. D. Koster, J. Jouzel, and P. Ciais. 1998. "Deuterium excess in Greenland snow: Analysis with simple and complex models." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 103: 8947-8953 [DOI: 10.1029/98JD00274]

    Qu, W., A. HendersonSellers, A. J. Pitman, et al. T. H. Chen, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, L. Dumenil, M. Ek, N. Gedney, Y. M. Gusev, J. Kim, R. Koster, E. A. Kowalczyk, J. Lean, D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, H. T. Mengelkamp, K. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. Robock, C. Rosenzweig, J. Schaake, C. A. Schlosser, J. P. Schulz, A. B. Shmakin, D. L. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, Z. L. Yang, and Q. Zeng. 1998. "Sensitivity of latent heat flux from PILPS land-surface schemes to perturbations of surface air temperature." J Atmos Sci, 55: 1909-1927.

    Jouzel, J., R. B. Alley, K. M. Cuffey, et al. W. Dansgaard, P. Grootes, G. Hoffmann, S. J. Johnsen, R. D. Koster, D. Peel, C. A. Shuman, M. Stievenard, M. Stuiver, and J. White. 1997. "Validity of the temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores." Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 102: 26471-26487 [DOI: 10.1029/97JC01283]

    Scott, R., D. Entekhabi, R. D. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 1997. "Timescales of land surface evapotranspiration response." Journal of Climate, 10: 559-566 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0559:TOLSER>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and P. C. Milly. 1997. "The interplay between transpiration and runoff formulations in land surface schemes used with atmospheric models." Journal of Climate, 10: 1578-1591 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1578:TIBTAR>2.0.CO]

    Chen, T. H., A. Henderson-Sellers, P. C. Milly, et al. A. J. Pitman, A. C. Beljaars, J. Polcher, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. Dai, C. E. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, L. Dümenil, M. Ek, J. R. Garratt, N. Gedney, Y. M. Gusev, J. Kim, R. D. Koster, E. A. Kowalczyk, K. Laval, J. Lean, D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, H. T. Mengelkamp, K. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. Robock, C. E. Rosenzweig, J. Schaake, C. A. Schlosser, J. P. Schulz, Y. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. L. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, Y. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. Zeng. 1997. "Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes." J Climate, 10 (6): 1194-1215 [10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2]

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. G. J. Collatz, F. Corprew, F. Dazlich, F. G. Hall, Y. Derr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, J. McManus, D. Myers, K. J. Sun, and P. Try. 1996. "The ISLSCP Initiative I Global Datasets: Surface Boundary Conditions and Atmospheric Forcings for Land-Atmosphere Studies." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77 (9): 1987-2005 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<1987:TIIIGD>2.0.CO;2]

    Jouzel, J., and R. D. Koster. 1996. "A reconsideration of the initial conditions used for stable water isotope models." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 101: 22933-22938 [DOI: 10.1029/96JD02362]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1996. "The influence of land surface moisture retention on precipitation statistics." Journal of Climate, 9: 2551-2567 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2551:TIOLSM>2.0.CO]

    Foster, J., G. Liston, R. Koster, et al. R. Essery, H. Behr, L. Dumenil, D. Verseghy, S. Thompson, D. Pollard, and J. Cohen. 1996. "Snow cover and snow mass intercomparisons of general circulation models and remotely sensed datasets." J Climate, 9: 409-426.

    Scott, R., R. D. Koster, D. Entekhabi, and M. J. Suarez. 1995. "EFFECT OF A CANOPY INTERCEPTION RESERVOIR ON HYDROLOGICAL PERSISTENCE IN A GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODEL." Journal of Climate, 8: 1917-1922 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1917:EOACIR>2.0.CO]

    Charles, C. D., D. Rind, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. G. Fairbanks. 1995. "SEASONAL PRECIPITATION TIMING AND ICE CORE RECORDS." Science, 269: 247-248 [DOI: 10.1126/science.269.5221.247]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1995. "RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF LAND AND OCEAN PROCESSES TO PRECIPITATION VARIABILITY." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 100: 13775-13790 [DOI: 10.1029/95JD00176]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1994. "THE COMPONENTS OF A SVAT SCHEME AND THEIR EFFECTS ON A GCMS HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE." Advances in Water Resources, 17: 61-78 [DOI: 10.1016/0309-1708(94)90024-8]

    Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1994. "Stable water isotope behavior during the last glacial maximum: A general circulation model analysis." J Geophys Res, 99 (D12): 25,791-25,801 [10.1029/94JD01819]

    Charles, C. D., D. Rind, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. G. Fairbanks. 1994. "Glacial-Interglacial Changes in Moisture Sources for Greenland: Influences on the Ice Core Record of Climate." Science, 263 (5146): 508-511 [10.1126/science.263.5146.508]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and W. B. Wilkinson. 1993. "CLIMATE VARIABILITY STUDIES WITH A COUPLED LAND ATMOSPHERE MODEL." Macroscale Modelling of the Hydrosphere, 214: 173-181.

    Koster, R. D., D. P. Devalpine, and J. Jouzel. 1993. "CONTINENTAL WATER RECYCLING AND (H2O)-O-18 CONCENTRATIONS." Geophysical Research Letters, 20: 2215-2218 [DOI: 10.1029/93GL01781]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1992. "A COMPARATIVE-ANALYSIS OF 2 LAND SURFACE HETEROGENEITY REPRESENTATIONS." Journal of Climate, 5: 1379-1390 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1379:ACAOTL>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1992. "MODELING THE LAND SURFACE BOUNDARY IN CLIMATE MODELS AS A COMPOSITE OF INDEPENDENT VEGETATION STANDS." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 97: 2697-2715.

    Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1992. "Origin of July Antarctic precipitation and its influence on deuterium content: a GCM analysis." Climate Dynamics, 7 (4): 195-203 [10.1007/BF00206861]

    Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, J. W. White, and W. S. Broecker. 1991. "Simulations of the HDO and H2 18O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: Sensitivity experiments for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res., 96 (D4): 7495 [10.1029/90JD02663]

    Koster, R. D., and P. S. Eagleson. 1990. "A ONE-DIMENSIONAL INTERACTIVE SOIL ATMOSPHERE MODEL FOR TESTING FORMULATIONS OF SURFACE HYDROLOGY." Journal of Climate, 3: 593-606 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1990)003<0593:AODISA>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., W. S. Broecker, J. Jouzel, et al. R. J. Suozzo, G. L. Russell, D. Rind, and J. W. White. 1989. "The global geochemistry of bomb-produced tritium: General circulation model compared to available observations and traditional interpretations." J. Geophys. Res., 94 (D15): 18305-18326 [10.1029/JD094iD15p18305]

    Druyan, L. M., and R. D. Koster. 1989. "SOURCES OF SAHEL PRECIPITATION FOR SIMULATED DROUGHT AND RAINY SEASONS." Journal of Climate, 2: 1438-1446 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<1438:SOSPFS>2.0.CO]

    Jouzel, J., G. L. Russell, R. J. Suozzo, et al. R. D. Koster, J. W. White, and W. Broecker. 1987. "Simulations of the HDO and H218O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res., 92 (D12): 14739-14760 [10.1029/JD092iD12p14739]

    Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, W. S. Broecker, D. Rind, and P. S. Eagleson. 1986. "Global sources of local precipitation as determined by the NASA/GISS GCM." Geophys. Res. Lett., 13 (2): 121-124 [10.1029/GL013i002p00121]

    Non-Refereed

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

    Peters-Lidard, C. D., J. B. Eylander, R. D. Koster, et al. B. Narapusetty, S. V. Kumar, M. Rodell, J. D. Bolten, D. M. Mocko, G. K. Walker, K. R. Arsenault, and S. W. Rheingrover. 2014. "Drought Prediction for Socio-Cultural Stability Project." NASA/TM-2014-218303 [Full Text (Link)]

    Koster, R., Z. Guo, and P. Dirmeyer. 2003. "GLACE: Quantifying Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength Across a Broad Range of Climate Models." CLIVAR Exchanges 8 (4): 14-17.

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. G. J. Collatz, F. Corprew, D. Dazlich, F. G. Hall, Y. Kerr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, J. McManus, D. Myers, K.-J. Sun, and P. Try. 1995. "An Overview of the ISLSCP Initiative I Global Data Sets." ISLSCP Initiative I - Global Data Sets for Land-Atmosphere Models, 1987-1988, NASA Technical Memorandum, CD-ROM 1-5:

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. J. McManus, D. Myers, K.-J. Sun, F. Corprew, F. G. Hall, G. J. Collatz, D. Dazlich, Y. Kerr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, and P. Try. 1994. "An Overview of the ISLSCP Initiative I Global Data Sets." Proc. AGU Symposium, Baltimore, MD, 5/29-31/95

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Koster has worked at NASA/GSFC since September of 1987, first as a member of the Hydrological Sciences Branch, and currently as a member of the GMAO. His early work focused on the analysis of global water isotope geochemistry. Most of his tenure at GSFC, though, has been dedicated to two research thrusts: (i) the development of improved treatments of land surface physics for Earth system models, and (ii) the analysis of interactions between the land and atmosphere, using these models. He has examined many questions regarding land-atmosphere feedback, including: Can knowledge of soil moisture conditions at the beginning of a seasonal weather forecast improve the forecast? Can we find evidence in the observational record that variability in land surface states has an effect on rainfall, air temperature, and other atmospheric variables? He has coordinated multi-institutional analyses of land-atmosphere feedback for GEWEX and CLIVAR, components of the World Climate Research Programme. He serves on the SMAP Science Team, focusing on making sure that SMAP satellite-based soil moisture data is useful for climate studies and other applications.
    With the advent of the GMAO in 2003, Koster has been given the responsibility of coordinating the land surface modeling activities at GSFC into a single land surface modeling system. This ever-evolving system is used extensively by the GMAO and is available for use by the NASA community.
    In addition, Koster served for several years as a lecturer for the climate program at George Mason University.


    Publications

    Refereed

    Draper, C. S., R. H. Reichle, and R. D. Koster. 2018. "Assessment of MERRA-2 Land Surface Energy Flux Estimates." Journal of Climate 31 (2): 671-691 [10.1175/jcli-d-17-0121.1]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., L. Chen, J. Wu, et al. C.-S. Shin, B. Huang, B. A. Cash, M. G. Bosilovich, S. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, J. A. Santanello, M. B. Ek, G. Balsamo, E. Dutra, and D. M. Lawrence. 2018. "Verification of Land–Atmosphere Coupling in Forecast Models, Reanalyses, and Land Surface Models Using Flux Site Observations." Journal of Hydrometeorology 19 (2): 375-392 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0152.1]

    Lee, E., F. Zeng, R. D. Koster, et al. B. Weir, L. E. Ott, and B. Poulter. 2018. "The impact of spatiotemporal variability in atmospheric CO2 concentration on global terrestrial carbon fluxes." Biogeosciences 15 5635-5652 [10.5194/bg-15-5635-2018]

    Reichle, R. H., Q. Liu, R. D. Koster, et al. C. S. Draper, S. P. Mahanama, and G. S. Partyka. 2017. "Land Surface Precipitation in MERRA-2." Journal of Climate 30 (5): 1643-1664 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0570.1]

    Koster, R. D., R. H. Reichle, and S. P. Mahanama. 2017. "A Data-Driven Approach for Daily Real-Time Estimates and Forecasts of Near-Surface Soil Moisture." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (3): 837-843 [10.1175/jhm-d-16-0285.1]

    Reichle, R. H., C. S. Draper, Q. Liu, et al. M. Girotto, S. P. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, and G. J. De Lannoy. 2017. "Assessment of MERRA-2 Land Surface Hydrology Estimates." Journal of Climate 30 (8): 2937-2960 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0720.1]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate 30 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    Koster, R. D., A. K. Betts, P. A. Dirmeyer, et al. M. Bierkens, K. E. Bennett, S. J. Déry, J. P. Evans, R. Fu, F. Hernandez, L. R. Leung, X. Liang, M. Masood, H. Savenije, G. Wang, and X. Yuan. 2017. "Hydroclimatic variability and predictability: a survey of recent research." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (7): 3777-3798 [10.5194/hess-21-3777-2017]

    Reichle, R. H., G. J. De Lannoy, Q. Liu, et al. J. V. Ardizzone, A. Colliander, A. Conaty, W. Crow, T. J. Jackson, L. A. Jones, J. S. Kimball, R. D. Koster, S. P. Mahanama, E. B. Smith, A. Berg, S. Bircher, D. Bosch, T. G. Caldwell, M. Cosh, C. D. Holifield Collins, K. H. Jensen, S. Livingston, E. Lopez-Baeza, J. Martínez-Fernández, H. McNairn, M. Moghaddam, A. Pacheco, T. Pellarin, J. Prueger, T. Rowlandson, M. Seyfried, P. Starks, Z. Su, M. Thibeault, R. van der Velde, J. Walker, X. Wu, and Y. Zeng. 2017. "Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using In Situ Measurements." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 (10): 2621-2645 [10.1175/jhm-d-17-0063.1]

    Tao, J., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, B. A. Forman, and Y. Xue. 2017. "Evaluation and Enhancement of Permafrost Modeling With the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9 2771-2795 [10.1002/2017ms001019]

    Reichle, R. H., G. J. De Lannoy, Q. Liu, et al. R. D. Koster, J. Kimball, W. Crow, J. V. Ardizzone, P. Chakraborty, D. W. Collins, A. L. Conaty, M. Girotto, L. Jones, J. Kolassa, H. P. Lievens, R. A. Lucchesi, and E. B. Smith. 2017. "Global Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using Assimilation Diagnostics." Journal of Hydrometeorology 18 3217-3237 [10.1175/JHM-D-17-0130.1]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., J. Wu, H. E. Norton, et al. W. A. Dorigo, S. M. Quiring, T. W. Ford, J. A. Santanello, M. G. Bosilovich, M. B. Ek, R. D. Koster, G. Balsamo, and D. M. Lawrence. 2016. "Confronting Weather and Climate Models with Observational Data from Soil Moisture Networks over the United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 17 (4): 1049-1067 [10.1175/jhm-d-15-0196.1]

    Schubert, S. D., R. E. Stewart, H. Wang, et al. M. Barlow, E. H. Berbery, W. Cai, M. P. Hoerling, K. K. Kanikicharla, R. D. Koster, B. Lyon, A. Mariotti, C. R. Mechoso, O. V. Müller, B. Rodriguez-Fonseca, R. Seager, S. I. Senevirante, L. Zhang, and T. Zhou. 2016. "Global Meteorological Drought: A Synthesis of Current Understanding with a Focus on SST Drivers of Precipitation Deficits." J. Climate 29 (11): 3989-4019 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0452.1]

    Koster, R. D., L. Brocca, W. T. Crow, M. S. Burgin, and G. J. De Lannoy. 2016. "Precipitation estimation using L-band and C-band soil moisture retrievals." Water Resources Research 52 (9): 7213-7225 [10.1002/2016wr019024]

    Koster, R. D., Y. Chang, H. Wang, and S. D. Schubert. 2016. "Impacts of Local Soil Moisture Anomalies on the Atmospheric Circulation and on Remote Surface Meteorological Fields During Boreal Summer: A Comprehensive Analysis over North America." J. Climate 29 (20): 7345-7364 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0192.1]

    Rodell, M., H. K. Beaudoing, R. D. Koster, et al. C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. S. Famiglietti, and V. Lakshmi. 2016. "Chapter 92: Large-Scale and Global Hydrology." Handbook of Applied Hydrology 92.1-92.7

    Schubert, S., Y. Chang, H. Wang, R. Koster, and M. Suarez. 2016. "A Modeling Study of the Causes and Predictability of the Spring 2011 Extreme US Weather Activity." J. Climate 29 (21): 7869-7887 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0673.1]

    Collow, A., M. G. Bosilovich, and R. D. Koster. 2016. "Large Scale Influences on Summertime Extreme Precipitation in the Northeastern United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology JHM-D-16-0091.1 [10.1175/jhm-d-16-0091.1]

    Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. A. Santanello, et al. R. H. Reichle, C. S. Draper, R. D. Koster, G. S. Nearing, and M. F. Jasinski. 2015. "Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 12 5967 [Full Text (Link)] [10.5194/hessd-12-5967-2015]

    Koster, R. 2015. "“Efficiency Space”: A Framework for Evaluating Joint Evaporation and Runoff Behavior*." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 (3): 393-396 [10.1175/bams-d-14-00056.1]

    Yasunari, T. J., R. D. Koster, W. K. Lau, and K.-M. Kim. 2015. "Impact of snow darkening via dust, black carbon, and organic carbon on boreal spring climate in the Earth system." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos 120 (11): 5485–5503 [10.1002/2014JD022977]

    Koster, R. D., and G. K. Walker. 2015. "Interactive Vegetation Phenology, Soil Moisture, and Monthly Temperature Forecasts." Journal of Hydrometeorology 16 (4): 1456–1465 [10.1175/JHM-D-14-0205.1]

    Yoshida, Y., J. Joiner, C. J. Tucker, et al. J. Berry, J. E. Lee, G. K. Walker, R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, A. I. Lyapustin, and Y. Wang. 2015. "The 2010 Russian drought impact on satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from modeling and comparisons with parameters derived from satellite reflectances." Remote Sensing of Environment 166 163–177 [10.1016/j.rse.2015.06.008]

    Kumar, S. V., C. D. Peters-Lidard, J. A. Santanello, et al. R. H. Reichle, C. S. Draper, R. D. Koster, G. Nearing, and M. F. Jasinski. 2015. "Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19 (11): 4463-4478 [10.5194/hess-19-4463-2015]

    De Lannoy, G. J., R. Koster, R. H. Reichle, S. Mahanama, and Q. Liu. 2014. "An updated treatment of soil texture and associated hydraulic properties in a global land modeling system." J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys 6 957-979 [10.1002/2014MS000330]

    Koster, R., Y. Chang, and S. D. Schubert. 2014. "A mechanism for land-atmosphere feedback involving planetary wave structures." J. Climate 27 9290-9301 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00315.1]

    Koster, R. D., G. Walker, G. J. Collatz, and P. E. Thornton. 2014. "Hydroclimatic Controls on the Means and Variability of Vegetation Phenology and Carbon Uptake." J. Climate 27 (14): 5632-5652 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00477.1]

    Wang, H., S. D. Schubert, R. Koster, et al. R. D. Koster, Y.-G. Ham, and M. J. Suarez. 2014. "On the Role of SST Forcing in the 2011 and 2012 Extreme U.S. Heat and Drought: A Study in Contrasts." J. Hydrometeor. 15 (3): 1255-1273 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-069.1]

    Schubert, S. D., H. Wang, R. D. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 2014. "Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts." J. Climate 27 (9): 3169-3207 [10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00360.1]

    Koster, R. D., G. K. Walker, S. P. Mahanama, and R. H. Reichle. 2014. "Soil Moisture Initialization Error and Subgrid Variability of Precipitation in Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting." J. Hydrometeor. 15 (1): 69-88 [10.1175/JHM-D-13-050.1]

    Yamada, T. J., S. Kanae, T. Oki, and R. D. Koster. 2013. "Seasonal variation of land-atmosphere coupling strength over the West African monsoon region in an atmospheric general circulation model." Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques 58 1276-1286 [DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2013.81491]

    Orth, R., R. D. Koster, and S. I. Seneviratne. 2013. "Inferring Soil Moisture Memory from Streamflow Observations Using a Simple Water Balance Model." J. Hydrometeor. 14 (6): 1773-1790 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-099.1]

    Puma, M. J., R. D. Koster, and B. I. Cook. 2013. "Phenological versus meteorological controls on land-atmosphere water and carbon fluxes." J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 118 (1): 14-29 [10.1029/2012JG002088]

    Koster, R. D., and S. P. Mahanama. 2012. "Land Surface Controls on Hydroclimatic Means and Variability." Journal of Hydrometeorology 13 (5): 1604-1620 [10.1175/JHM-D-12-050.1]

    Mahanama, S., B. Livneh, R. D. Koster, D. Lettenmaier, and R. H. Reichle. 2012. "Soil Moisture, Snow, and Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the United States." Journal of Hydrometeorology 13 (1): 189-203 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-046.1]

    Guo, Z., P. A. Dirmeyer, T. DelSole, and R. D. Koster. 2012. "Rebound in Atmospheric Predictability and the Role of the Land Surface." Journal of Climate 25 4744-4749 [DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00651.1]

    van den Hurk, B., F. Doblas-Reyes, G. Balsamo, et al. R. D. Koster, S. Seneviratne, and H. Camargo. 2012. "Soil moisture effects on seasonal temperature and precipitation forecast scores in Europe." Climate Dynamics 38 349-362 [DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0956-2]

    Seneviratne, S. I., and R. D. Koster. 2012. "A Revised Framework for Analyzing Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Data: Derivation and Interpretation." J. Hydrometeorol. 13 (1): 404-412 [10.1175/JHM-D-11-044.1]

    Yasunari, T., R. D. Koster, W. K. Lau, et al. T. Aoki, Y. C. Sud, T. Yamazaki, H. Motoyoshi, and Y. Kodama. 2012. "Correction to “Influence of dust and black carbon on the snow albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 land surface model”." J. Geophys. Res. 117 (D18): [10.1029/2012JD018691]

    Li, B., M. Rodell, B. F. Zaitchik, et al. R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, and T. M. van Dam. 2012. "Assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage into a land surface model: Evaluation and potential value for drought monitoring in western and central Europe." Journal of Hydrology 446-447 103-115 [10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.04.035]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, R. Gelaro, et al. R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, E. Liu, M. G. Bosilovich, S. D. Schubert, L. Takacs, G.-K. Kim, S. Bloom, J. Chen, D. Collins, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, J. Joiner, R. D. Koster, R. Lucchesi, A. Molod, T. Owens, S. Pawson, P. Pegion, C. R. Redder, R. H. Reichle, F. R. Robertson, A. G. Ruddick, M. Sienkiewicz, and J. Woollen. 2011. "MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications." J. Climate 24 (14): 3624-3648 [10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00015.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, T. J. Yamada, et al. G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J. H. Jeong, W. S. Lee, Z. Li, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. van den Hurk, F. Vitart, and W. F. Wood. 2011. "The Second Phase of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment: Soil Moisture Contributions to Subseasonal Forecast Skill." Journal of Hydrometeorology 12 805-822 [DOI: 10.1175/2011JHM1365.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, G. J. De Lannoy, et al. B. A. Forman, Q. Liu, S. P. Mahanama, and A. Toure. 2011. "Assessment and Enhancement of MERRA Land Surface Hydrology Estimates." Journal of Climate 24 (24): 6322-6338 [10.1175/JCLI-D-10-05033.1]

    Koster, R. D. 2011. "Climate science: Storm instigation from below." Nature Geoscience 4 (7): 427-428 [10.1038/ngeo1192]

    Yasunari, T. J., R. D. Koster, K. M. Lau, et al. T. Aoki, Y. C. Sud, T. Yamazaki, H. Motoyoshi, and Y. Kodama. 2011. "Influence of dust and black carbon on the snow albedo in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 land surface model." J. Geophys. Res. 116 (D2): D02210 [10.1029/2010JD014861]

    Entekhabi, D., E. G. Njoku, P. E. ONeill, et al. K. H. Kellogg, W. T. Crow, W. N. Edelstein, J. K. Entin, S. D. Goodman, T. J. Jackson, J. Johnson, J. Kimball, J. R. Piepmeier, R. D. Koster, N. Martin, K. C. McDonald, M. Moghaddam, S. Moran, R. H. Reichle, J. C. Shi, M. W. Spencer, S. W. Thurman, L. Tsang, and J. Van Zyl. 2010. "The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission." Proc. IEEE 98 (5): 704-716 [10.1109/jproc.2010.2043918]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, T. J. Yamada, et al. G. Balsamo, A. A. Berg, M. Boisserie, P. A. Dirmeyer, F. J. Doblas-Reyes, G. Drewitt, C. T. Gordon, Z. Guo, J. H. Jeong, D. M. Lawrence, W. S. Lee, Z. Li, L. Luo, S. Malyshev, W. J. Merryfield, S. I. Seneviratne, T. Stanelle, B. J. van den Hurk, F. Vitart, and W. F. Wood. 2010. "Contribution of land surface initialization to subseasonal forecast skill: First results from a multi-model experiment." Geophysical Research Letters 37 0-0 [DOI: 10.1029/2009GL041677]

    Entekhabi, D., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, and W. T. Crow. 2010. "Performance Metrics for Soil Moisture Retrievals and Application Requirements." J. Hydrometeor 11 (3): 832-840 [10.1175/2010JHM1223.1]

    Reichle, R. H., S. V. Kumar, S. P. Mahanama, R. D. Koster, and Q. Liu. 2010. "Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Skin Temperature Observations into Land Surface Models." J. Hydrometeor 11 (5): 1103-1122 [10.1175/2010JHM1262.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. P. Mahanama, B. Livneh, B. P. Letternmaier, and R. H. Reichle. 2010. "Skill in streamflow forecasts derived from large-scale estimates of soil moisture and snow." Nature Geoscience 3 (9): 613-616 [10.1038/NGEO944]

    Wang, H., S. Schubert, M. Suarez, and R. D. Koster. 2010. "The Physical Mechanisms by Which the Leading Patterns of SST Variability Impact U.S. Precipitation." Journal of Climate 23 (7): 1815-1836 [10.1175/2009JCLI3188.1]

    Wang, A., T. J. Bohn, S. P. Mahanama, D. Lettenmaier, and R. D. Koster. 2009. "Multimodel Ensemble Reconstruction of Drought over the Continental United States." Journal of Climate 22 2694-2712 [DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2586.1]

    Koster, R. D., H. Wang, S. D. Schubert, M. J. Suarez, and S. P. Mahanama. 2009. "Drought-Induced Warming in the Continental United States under Different SST Regimes." Journal of Climate 22 5385-5400 [DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI3075.1]

    Wu, M.-L. C., O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, et al. M. J. Suarez, R. D. Koster, and P. J. Pegion. 2009. "African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance." Journal of Climate 22 4459-4480 [DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2584.1]

    Koster, R. D., S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2009. "Analyzing the Concurrence of Meteorological Droughts and Warm Periods, with Implications for the Determination of Evaporative Regime." Journal of Climate 22 3331-3341 [DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2718.1]

    Kumar, S., R. H. Reichle, R. D. Koster, W. T. Crow, and C. Peters-Lidard. 2009. "Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations." J. Hydrometeor 10 (6): 1534-1547 [10.1175/2009JHM1134.1]

    Schubert, S., D. Gutzler, H. Wang, et al. A. Dai, T. Delworth, C. Deser, K. Findell, R. Fu, W. Higgins, M. Hoerling, B. Kirtman, R. Koster, A. Kumar, D. Legler, D. Lettenmaier, B. Lyon, V. Magana, K. Mo, S. Nigam, P. Pegion, A. Phillips, R. Pulwarty, D. Rind, A. Ruiz-Barradas, J. Schemm, R. Seager, R. Stewart, M. Suarez, J. Syktus, M. Ting, C. Wang, S. Weaver, and N. Zeng. 2009. "A U.S. CLIVAR Project to Assess and Compare the Responses of Global Climate Models to Drought-Related SST Forcing Patterns: Overview and Results." Journal of Climate 22 (19): 5251-5272 [10.1175/2009JCLI3060.1]

    Koster, R. D., Z. Guo, R. Yang, et al. P. A. Dirmeyer, K. Mitchell, and M. J. Puma. 2009. "On the nature of soil moisture in land surface models." J Climate 22 4322-4335 [Full Text (Link)]

    Reichle, R. H., W. T. Crow, R. D. Koster, H. O. Sharif, and S. P. Mahanama. 2008. "Contribution of soil moisture retrievals to land data assimilation products." Geophysical Research Letters 35 (1): L01404 [10.1029/2007GL031986]

    Kumar, S. V., R. H. Reichle, C. D. Peters-Lidard, et al. R. D. Koster, X. Zhan, W. T. Crow, J. B. Eylander, and P. R. Houser. 2008. "A land surface data assimilation framework using the land information system: Description and applications." Advances in Water Resources 31 (11): 1419-1432 [10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.01.013]

    Mahanama, S. P., R. D. Koster, R. H. Reichle, and M. J. Suarez. 2008. "Impact of Subsurface Temperature Variability on Surface Air Temperature Variability: An AGCM Study." J. Hydrometeor. 9 (4): 804-815 [10.1175/2008JHM949.1]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. Bacmeister. 2008. "Potential Predictability of Long-Term Drought and Pluvial Conditions in the U.S. Great Plains." Journal of Climate 21 (4): 802-816 [10.1175/2007JCLI1741.1]

    Mahanama, S. P., R. D. Koster, R. H. Reichle, and L. Zubair. 2008. "The role of soil moisture initialization in subseasonal and seasonal streamflow prediction – A case study in Sri Lanka." Advances in Water Resources 31 (10): 1333-1343 [10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.06.004]

    Koster, R., T. Bell, R. Reichle, M. Suarez, and S. Schubert. 2008. "Using Observed Spatial Correlation Structures to Increase the Skill of Subseasonal Forecasts." Mon. Wea. Rev. 136 (6): 1923-1930 [10.1175/2007MWR2255.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, P. Liu, et al. S. P. Mahanama, E. G. Njoku, and M. Owe. 2007. "Comparison and assimilation of global soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)." J. Geophys. Res. 112 (D9): D09108 [10.1029/2006JD008033]

    Schubert, S. D., R. D. Koster, M. Hoerling, et al. R. Seager, D. P. Lettenmaier, A. Kumar, and D. Gutzler. 2007. "Predicting drought on seasonal-to-decadal time scales." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 1625-1630 [DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-88-10-1625]

    Yamada, T. J., R. D. Koster, S. Kanae, and T. Oki. 2007. "Estimation of predictability with a newly derived index to quantify similarity among ensemble members." Monthly Weather Review 135 2674-2687 [DOI: 10.1175/MWR3418.1]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, P. Liu, et al. S. Mahanama, E. Njoku, and M. Owe. 2007. "Comparison and assimilation of global soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR)." J Geophys Res 112 (D09108): 14 pp [10.1029/2006JD008033]

    Crow, W. T., D. Entekhabi, R. D. Koster, and R. H. Reichle. 2006. "Multiple spaceborne water cycle observations would aid modeling." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 87 (15): 149–153 [10.1029/2006EO150002]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., R. D. Koster, and Z. Guo. 2006. "Do global models properly represent the feedback between land and atmosphere?" Journal of Hydrometeorology 7 1177-1198 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM532.1]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and S. D. Schubert. 2006. "Distinct hydrological signatures in observed historical temperature fields." Journal of Hydrometeorology 7 1061-1075 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM530.1]

    Rienecker, M. M., M. J. Suarez, and R. D. Koster. 2006. "Improving Short-term Climate Forecasts with Satellite Observations." 2006 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Vols 1-8 3498-3501 [DOI: 10.1109/IGARSS.2006.897]

    Koster, R. D., B. Fekete, G. J. Huffman, and P. Stackhouse. 2006. "Revisiting a hydrological analysis framework with International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Initiative 2 rainfall, net radiation, and runoff fields." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D22): D22S05 [10.1029/2006JD007182]

    Guo, Z., P. Dirmeyer, R. D. Koster, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, J. McGregor, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2006. "GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part II: Analysis." J. Hydrometeor. 7 (4): 611-625 [10.1175/JHM511.1]

    Koster, R. D., Z. Guo, P. Dirmeyer, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, H. Davies, C. T. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. M. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, Y. C. Sud, C. Taylor, D. Verseghy, A. Pitman, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2006. "GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview." J. Hydrometeor. 7 (4): 590-610 [10.1175/JHM510.1]

    Seneviratne, S., R. D. Koster, Z. Guo, et al. P. Dirmeyer, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, D. M. Mocko, K. Oleson, and D. Verseghy. 2006. "Soil moisture memory in AGCM simulations: Analysis of Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data." J. Hydrometeor. 7 (5): 1090-1112 [10.1175/JHM533.1]

    Crow, W. T., R. D. Koster, and R. H. Reichle. 2005. "Relevance of time-varying and time-invariant retrieval error sources on the utility of spaceborne soil moisture products." Geophysical Research Letters 32 (24): L24405 [10.1029/2005GL024889]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2005. "Global assimilation of satellite surface soil moisture retrievals into the NASA Catchment land surface model." Geophysical Research Letters 32 (2): L02404 [10.1029/2004GL021700]

    Mahanama, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2005. "AGCM biases in evaporation regime: Impacts on soil moisture memory and land-atmosphere feedback." Journal of Hydrometeorology 6 656-669 [DOI: 10.1175/JHM446.1]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. T. Bacmeister. 2004. "Causes of Long-Term Drought in the U.S. Great Plains." J. Climate 17 (3): 485-503 [10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0485:COLDIT>2.0.CO;2]

    Boone, A., F. Habets, J. Noilhan, et al. D. Clark, P. Dirmeyer, S. Fox, Y. Gusev, I. Haddeland, R. D. Koster, D. Lohmann, S. P. Mahanama, K. Mitchell, O. Nasonova, G. Y. Niu, A. J. Pitman, J. Polcher, A. B. Shmakin, K. Tanaka, B. van den Hurk, S. Verant, D. Verseghy, P. Viterbo, and Z. L. Yang. 2004. "The Rhone-aggregation land surface scheme intercomparison project: An overview." Journal of Climate 17 187-208 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0187:TRLSSI>2.0.CO]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2004. "Bias reduction in short records of satellite soil moisture." Geophysical Research Letters 31 (19): L19501 [10.1029/2004GL020938]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, J. R. Dong, and A. Berg. 2004. "Global Soil Moisture from Satellite Observations, Land Surface Models, and Ground Data: Implications for Data Assimilation." Journal of Hydrometeorology 5 (3): 430-442 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0430:GSMFSO>2.0.CO;2]

    Schubert, S. D., M. J. Suarez, P. J. Pegion, R. D. Koster, and J. T. Bacmeister. 2004. "On the cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl." Science 303 1855-1859 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1095048]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, P. Liu, et al. U. Jambor, A. Berg, M. Kistler, R. H. Reichle, M. Rodell, and J. Famiglietti. 2004. "Realistic Initialization of Land Surface States: Impacts on Subseasonal Forecast Skill." Journal of Hydrometeorology 5 (6): 1049-1063 [10.1175/JHM-387.1]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2004. "Suggestions in the observational record of land-atmosphere feedback operating at seasonal time scales." Journal of Hydrometeorology 5 567-572 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0567:SITORO>2.0.CO]

    Entekhabi, D., P. Houser, E. G. Njoku, et al. P. E. O'Neill, M. Spencer, T. Doiron, Y. Kim, J. A. Smith, R. Girard, S. Belair, W. Crow, T. J. Jackson, Y. H. Kerr, J. S. Kimball, R. D. Koster, K. C. McDonald, T. Pultz, S. W. Running, J. Shi, E. Wood, and J. van Zyl. 2004. "The Hydrosphere State (Hydros) Satellite Mission: An Earth System Pathfinder for Global Mapping of Soil Moisture and Land Freeze/Thaw." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 42 (10): 2184-2195

    Koster, R. D., P. Dirmeyer, Z. Guo, et al. G. Bonan, E. Chan, P. Cox, C. Gordon, S. Kanae, E. Kowalczyk, D. Lawrence, P. Liu, C. Lu, S. Malyshev, B. McAvaney, K. Mitchell, D. M. Mocko, T. Oki, K. Oleson, A. Pitman, Y. C. Sud, C. M. Taylor, D. Verseghy, R. Vasic, Y. Xue, and T. Yamada. 2004. "Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation." Science 305 (5687): 1138-1140 [10.1126/science.1100217]

    Mahanama, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models." J. Hydrometeor 4 (6): 1134-1146 [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1134:IOSMMI>2.0.CO;2]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, R. W. Higgins, and M. J. Suarez. 2003. "Observational evidence that soil moisture variations affect precipitation." Geophysical Research Letters 30 (5): 1241 [10.1029/2002GL016571]

    Reichle, R. H., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Assessing the Impact of Horizontal Error Correlations in Background Fields on Soil Moisture Estimation." J. Hydrometeor 4 (6): 1229-1242 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1525-7541(2003)004<1229:ATIOHE>2.0.CO;2]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2003. "Impact of land surface initialization on seasonal precipitation and temperature prediction." Journal of Hydrometeorology 4 408-423 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<408:IOLSIO>2.0.CO]

    Mahanam, S. P., and R. D. Koster. 2003. "Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models." J Hydrometeorol 4 (6): 1134-1146

    Bowling, L. C., D. P. Lettenmaier, B. Nijssen, et al. J. Polcher, R. D. Koster, and D. Lohmann. 2003. "Simulation of high-latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS Phase 2 (e) 3: Equivalent model representation and sensitivity experiments." Global and Planetary Change 38 (1-2): 55-71 [10.1016/S0921-8181(03)00005-5]

    Reichle, R. H., J. P. Walker, R. D. Koster, and P. R. Houser. 2002. "Extended versus Ensemble Kalman Filtering for Land Data Assimilation." J. Hydrometeor 3 (6): 728-740 [10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0728:EVEKFF>2.0.CO;2]

    Shaman, J., M. Stieglitz, V. Engel, R. D. Koster, and C. Stark. 2002. "Representation of subsurface storm flow and a more responsive water table in a TOPMODEL-based hydrology model." Water Resources Research 38 1156 [DOI: 10.1029/2001WR000636]

    Reichle, R. H., R. D. Koster, and S. M. Hassanizadeh. 2002. "Land data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter: assessing model error parameters using innovations." Computational Methods in Water Resources Vols 1 and 2 47 1387-1394

    Koster, R. D., P. A. Dirmeyer, A. N. Hahmann, et al. R. Ijpelaar, L. Tyahla, P. Cox, and M. J. Suarez. 2002. "Comparing the degree of land-atmosphere interaction in four atmospheric general circulation models." Journal of Hydrometeorology 3 363-375 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0363:CTDOLA>2.0.CO]

    Guillevic, P., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, et al. L. Bounoua, G. J. Collatz, S. O. Los, and S. P. Mahanama. 2002. "Influence of the inter annual variability of vegetation on the surface energy balance - a global sensitivity study." Journal of Hydrometeorology 3 (6): 617-629

    Reichle, R. H., J. P. Walker, R. D. Koster, and P. R. Houser. 2002. "Extended versus Ensemble Kalman Filtering for Land Data Assimilation." J Hydrometerol 3 728-740

    Stieglitz, M., A. Ducharne, R. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 2001. "The impact of detailed snow physics on the simulation of snow cover and subsurface thermodynamics at continental scales." Journal of Hydrometeorology 2 228-242 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0228:TIODSP>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 2001. "Soil moisture memory in climate models." Journal of Hydrometeorology 2 558-570 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2001)002<0558:SMMICM>2.0.CO]

    Sud, Y. C., D. M. Mocko, G. Walker, and R. D. Koster. 2001. "Influence of land surface fluxes on precipitation: Inferences from simulations forced with four ARM-CART SCM datasets." J. Climate 14 (17): 3666-3691 [10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3666:IOLSFO>2.0.CO;2]

    Delaygue, G., V. Masson, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. Healy. 2000. "The origin of Antarctic precipitation: a modelling approach." Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology 52 19-36 [DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0889.2000.00951.x]

    Dirmeyer, P. A., F. J. Zeng, A. Ducharne, J. Morrill, and R. D. Koster. 2000. "The sensitivity of surface fluxes to soil water content in three land surface schemes." Journal of Hydrometeorology 1 121-134 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2000)001<0121:TSOSFT>2.0.CO]

    Delaygue, G., J. Jouzel, V. Masson, R. D. Koster, and E. Bard. 2000. "Validity of the isotopic thermometer in central Antarctica: limited impact of glacial precipitation seasonality and moisture origin." Geophysical Research Letters 27 2677-2680 [DOI: 10.1029/2000GL011530]

    Jouzel, J., G. Hoffmann, R. D. Koster, and V. Masson. 2000. "Water isotopes in precipitation: data/model comparison for present-day and past climates." Quaternary Science Reviews 19 363-379 [DOI: 10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00069-4]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, A. Ducharne, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar. 2000. "A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model 1. Model structure." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 105 24809-24822 [DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900327]

    Ducharne, A., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, M. Stieglitz, and P. Kumar. 2000. "A catchment-based approach to modeling land surface processes in a general circulation model 2. Parameter estimation and model demonstration." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 105 24823-24838 [DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900328]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and M. Heiser. 2000. "Variance and predictability of precipitation at seasonal-to-interannual timescales." Journal of Hydrometeorology 1 26-46 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1525-7541(2000)001<0026:VAPOPA>2.0.CO]

    Pitman, A. J., A. Henderson-Sellers, C. E. Desborough, et al. Z. L. Yang, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, R. E. Dickinson, N. Gedney, R. D. Koster, E. Kowalczyk, D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, J. Noilhan, J. Polcher, W. Qu, A. Robock, C. Rosenzweig, C. A. Schlosser, A. B. Shmakin, J. Smith, M. J. Suarez, D. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, and Y. Xue. 1999. "Key results and implications from phase 1(c) of the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parametrization Schemes." Climate Dynamics 15 673-684 [DOI: 10.1007/s003820050309]

    Entekhabi, D., G. R. Asrar, A. K. Betts, et al. K. J. Beven, R. L. Bras, C. J. Duffy, T. Dunne, R. D. Koster, D. P. Lettenmaier, D. B. Mclaughlin, W. J. Shuttleworth, M. T. van Genuchten, M. Y. Wei, and E. F. Wood. 1999. "An agenda for land surface hydrology research and a call for the second international hydrological decade." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 80 2043-2058 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2043:AAFLSH>2.0.CO]

    Ducharne, A., R. D. Koster, M. J. Suarez, P. Kumar, and M. Stieglitz. 1999. "A catchment-based land surface model for GCMs and the framework for its evaluation." Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere 24 769-773 [DOI: 10.1016/S1464-1909(99)00078-7]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1999. "A simple framework for examining the interannual variability of land surface moisture fluxes." Journal of Climate 12 1911-1917 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1911:ASFFET>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., T. Oki, and M. J. Suarez. 1999. "The offline validation of land surface models: Assessing success at the annual timescale." Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 77 257-263.

    Wood, E. F., D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, et al. D. Lohmann, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 1. Experiment description and summary intercomparisons." Global and Planetary Change 19 115-135 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00044-7]

    Liang, X., E. F. Wood, D. P. Lettenmaier, et al. D. Lohmann, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, C. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 2. Spatial and temporal analysis of energy fluxes." Global and Planetary Change 19 137-159 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00045-9]

    Lohmann, D., D. P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, et al. E. F. Wood, A. Oone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. J. Dai, C. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, Q. Y. Duan, M. Ek, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, P. Irannejad, R. D. Koster, K. E. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, J. Schaake, A. Schlosser, Y. P. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. Verseghy, K. Warrach, P. Wetzel, Y. K. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. C. Zeng. 1998. "The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) phase 2(c) Red-Arkansas River basin experiment: 3. Spatial and temporal analysis of water fluxes." Global and Planetary Change 19 161-179 [DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(98)00046-0]

    Armengaud, A., R. D. Koster, J. Jouzel, and P. Ciais. 1998. "Deuterium excess in Greenland snow: Analysis with simple and complex models." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 103 8947-8953 [DOI: 10.1029/98JD00274]

    Qu, W., A. HendersonSellers, A. J. Pitman, et al. T. H. Chen, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. Dai, R. E. Dickinson, L. Dumenil, M. Ek, N. Gedney, Y. M. Gusev, J. Kim, R. Koster, E. A. Kowalczyk, J. Lean, D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, H. T. Mengelkamp, K. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. Robock, C. Rosenzweig, J. Schaake, C. A. Schlosser, J. P. Schulz, A. B. Shmakin, D. L. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, Z. L. Yang, and Q. Zeng. 1998. "Sensitivity of latent heat flux from PILPS land-surface schemes to perturbations of surface air temperature." J Atmos Sci 55 1909-1927

    Jouzel, J., R. B. Alley, K. M. Cuffey, et al. W. Dansgaard, P. Grootes, G. Hoffmann, S. J. Johnsen, R. D. Koster, D. Peel, C. A. Shuman, M. Stievenard, M. Stuiver, and J. White. 1997. "Validity of the temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores." Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 102 26471-26487 [DOI: 10.1029/97JC01283]

    Scott, R., D. Entekhabi, R. D. Koster, and M. J. Suarez. 1997. "Timescales of land surface evapotranspiration response." Journal of Climate 10 559-566 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0559:TOLSER>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and P. C. Milly. 1997. "The interplay between transpiration and runoff formulations in land surface schemes used with atmospheric models." Journal of Climate 10 1578-1591 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1578:TIBTAR>2.0.CO]

    Chen, T. H., A. Henderson-Sellers, P. C. Milly, et al. A. J. Pitman, A. C. Beljaars, J. Polcher, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. Dai, C. E. Desborough, R. E. Dickinson, L. Dümenil, M. Ek, J. R. Garratt, N. Gedney, Y. M. Gusev, J. Kim, R. D. Koster, E. A. Kowalczyk, K. Laval, J. Lean, D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J. F. Mahfouf, H. T. Mengelkamp, K. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. Robock, C. E. Rosenzweig, J. Schaake, C. A. Schlosser, J. P. Schulz, Y. Shao, A. B. Shmakin, D. L. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E. F. Wood, Y. Xue, Z. L. Yang, and Q. Zeng. 1997. "Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes." J Climate 10 (6): 1194-1215 [10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2]

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. G. J. Collatz, F. Corprew, F. Dazlich, F. G. Hall, Y. Derr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, J. McManus, D. Myers, K. J. Sun, and P. Try. 1996. "The ISLSCP Initiative I Global Datasets: Surface Boundary Conditions and Atmospheric Forcings for Land-Atmosphere Studies." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77 (9): 1987-2005 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<1987:TIIIGD>2.0.CO;2]

    Jouzel, J., and R. D. Koster. 1996. "A reconsideration of the initial conditions used for stable water isotope models." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 101 22933-22938 [DOI: 10.1029/96JD02362]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1996. "The influence of land surface moisture retention on precipitation statistics." Journal of Climate 9 2551-2567 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2551:TIOLSM>2.0.CO]

    Foster, J., G. Liston, R. Koster, et al. R. Essery, H. Behr, L. Dumenil, D. Verseghy, S. Thompson, D. Pollard, and J. Cohen. 1996. "Snow cover and snow mass intercomparisons of general circulation models and remotely sensed datasets." J Climate 9 409-426

    Scott, R., R. D. Koster, D. Entekhabi, and M. J. Suarez. 1995. "EFFECT OF A CANOPY INTERCEPTION RESERVOIR ON HYDROLOGICAL PERSISTENCE IN A GENERAL-CIRCULATION MODEL." Journal of Climate 8 1917-1922 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1995)008<1917:EOACIR>2.0.CO]

    Charles, C. D., D. Rind, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. G. Fairbanks. 1995. "SEASONAL PRECIPITATION TIMING AND ICE CORE RECORDS." Science 269 247-248 [DOI: 10.1126/science.269.5221.247]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1995. "RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF LAND AND OCEAN PROCESSES TO PRECIPITATION VARIABILITY." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 100 13775-13790 [DOI: 10.1029/95JD00176]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1994. "THE COMPONENTS OF A SVAT SCHEME AND THEIR EFFECTS ON A GCMS HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE." Advances in Water Resources 17 61-78 [DOI: 10.1016/0309-1708(94)90024-8]

    Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1994. "Stable water isotope behavior during the last glacial maximum: A general circulation model analysis." J Geophys Res 99 (D12): 25,791-25,801 [10.1029/94JD01819]

    Charles, C. D., D. Rind, J. Jouzel, R. D. Koster, and R. G. Fairbanks. 1994. "Glacial-Interglacial Changes in Moisture Sources for Greenland: Influences on the Ice Core Record of Climate." Science 263 (5146): 508-511 [10.1126/science.263.5146.508]

    Koster, R. D., M. J. Suarez, and W. B. Wilkinson. 1993. "CLIMATE VARIABILITY STUDIES WITH A COUPLED LAND ATMOSPHERE MODEL." Macroscale Modelling of the Hydrosphere 214 173-181

    Koster, R. D., D. P. Devalpine, and J. Jouzel. 1993. "CONTINENTAL WATER RECYCLING AND (H2O)-O-18 CONCENTRATIONS." Geophysical Research Letters 20 2215-2218 [DOI: 10.1029/93GL01781]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1992. "A COMPARATIVE-ANALYSIS OF 2 LAND SURFACE HETEROGENEITY REPRESENTATIONS." Journal of Climate 5 1379-1390 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1992)005<1379:ACAOTL>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., and M. J. Suarez. 1992. "MODELING THE LAND SURFACE BOUNDARY IN CLIMATE MODELS AS A COMPOSITE OF INDEPENDENT VEGETATION STANDS." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 97 2697-2715

    Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. J. Suozzo, and G. L. Russell. 1992. "Origin of July Antarctic precipitation and its influence on deuterium content: a GCM analysis." Climate Dynamics 7 (4): 195-203 [10.1007/BF00206861]

    Jouzel, J., R. D. Koster, R. J. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, J. W. White, and W. S. Broecker. 1991. "Simulations of the HDO and H2 18O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: Sensitivity experiments for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res. 96 (D4): 7495 [10.1029/90JD02663]

    Koster, R. D., and P. S. Eagleson. 1990. "A ONE-DIMENSIONAL INTERACTIVE SOIL ATMOSPHERE MODEL FOR TESTING FORMULATIONS OF SURFACE HYDROLOGY." Journal of Climate 3 593-606 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1990)003<0593:AODISA>2.0.CO]

    Koster, R. D., W. S. Broecker, J. Jouzel, et al. R. J. Suozzo, G. L. Russell, D. Rind, and J. W. White. 1989. "The global geochemistry of bomb-produced tritium: General circulation model compared to available observations and traditional interpretations." J. Geophys. Res. 94 (D15): 18305-18326 [10.1029/JD094iD15p18305]

    Druyan, L. M., and R. D. Koster. 1989. "SOURCES OF SAHEL PRECIPITATION FOR SIMULATED DROUGHT AND RAINY SEASONS." Journal of Climate 2 1438-1446 [Full Text (Link)] [DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(1989)002<1438:SOSPFS>2.0.CO]

    Jouzel, J., G. L. Russell, R. J. Suozzo, et al. R. D. Koster, J. W. White, and W. Broecker. 1987. "Simulations of the HDO and H218O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: The seasonal cycle for present-day conditions." J. Geophys. Res. 92 (D12): 14739-14760 [10.1029/JD092iD12p14739]

    Koster, R. D., J. Jouzel, R. Suozzo, et al. G. L. Russell, W. S. Broecker, D. Rind, and P. S. Eagleson. 1986. "Global sources of local precipitation as determined by the NASA/GISS GCM." Geophys. Res. Lett. 13 (2): 121-124 [10.1029/GL013i002p00121]

    Non-Refereed

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

    Peters-Lidard, C. D., J. B. Eylander, R. D. Koster, et al. B. Narapusetty, S. V. Kumar, M. Rodell, J. D. Bolten, D. M. Mocko, G. K. Walker, K. R. Arsenault, and S. W. Rheingrover. 2014. "Drought Prediction for Socio-Cultural Stability Project." NASA/TM-2014-218303 [Full Text (Link)]

    Koster, R., Z. Guo, and P. Dirmeyer. 2003. "GLACE: Quantifying Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength Across a Broad Range of Climate Models." CLIVAR Exchanges 8 (4): 14-17

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. G. J. Collatz, F. Corprew, D. Dazlich, F. G. Hall, Y. Kerr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, J. McManus, D. Myers, K.-J. Sun, and P. Try. 1995. "An Overview of the ISLSCP Initiative I Global Data Sets." ISLSCP Initiative I - Global Data Sets for Land-Atmosphere Models, 1987-1988, NASA Technical Memorandum, CD-ROM 1-5

    Sellers, P. J., B. W. Meeson, J. Closs, et al. J. McManus, D. Myers, K.-J. Sun, F. Corprew, F. G. Hall, G. J. Collatz, D. Dazlich, Y. Kerr, R. D. Koster, S. Los, K. Mitchell, and P. Try. 1994. "An Overview of the ISLSCP Initiative I Global Data Sets." Proc. AGU Symposium, Baltimore, MD, 5/29-31/95

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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