Dr. Michael Studinger

Dr. Michael Studinger

  • RSCH AST, EARTH SCIENCES REMOTE SENS
  • 301.614.6908
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 615
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Michael Studinger received the Ph.D. degree in1998 from the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. He is with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, USA. Before joining NASA he was a research scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York for 12 years. His research interests include physical processes in polar regions, linking ice sheet dynamics with the subglacial environment, such as subglacial lakes. He is using integrated sets of aerogeophysical data, including gravity, magnetics, ice-penetrating radar, and laser altimeter measurements to answer key questions in solid Earth geophysics and glaciology. His main research projects focus on the role of the subglacial environment in a global framework.

    Current Projects

    Airborne Topographic Mapper - Principal Investigator

    The Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM - https://atm.wff.nasa.gov/) is a scanning LIDAR developed and used by NASA for observing the Earth’s topography for several scientific applications, foremost of which is the measurement of changing arctic and antarctic icecaps and glaciers.

    Investigating snow accumulation variability for development of a multi-sensor elevation time series pole-ward of 86°S in support of altimetry validation and ice sheet mass balance studies

    Polar ice sheets play a critical role in Earth’s climate system. Measurements from satellites and aircraft have revealed that the vast ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica are changing at an accelerating rate suggesting increasing rates of global sea-level rise as the
    ice sheets melt. In order to project future rates of sea-level rise, numerical models of an ice sheet’s response to climate forcing require input data of the surface mass balance (SMB) and its spatial variability. Observing changes in ice-surface elevation (dh/dt) from
    satellite and airborne platforms has long been recognized as a powerful tool for assessing and quantifying ice sheet mass balance. To properly interpret the observed elevation change (dh/dt) as mass change, however, the various processes that control
    surface elevation fluctuations must be quantified. Our proposed work has two objectives:
    Objective 1: Quantify the spatial variability in snow accumulation rates pole-ward of 86°S and in particular around 88°S, where all CryoSat-2 and ICESat-2 orbits converge, in support of past, current and future altimetry measurements and SMB model
    evaluation.
    Objective 2: Develop a cross-validated multi-sensor time series of surface elevation change pole-ward of 86°S that, in combination with measured accumulation rates, will support ICESat-2 calibration and validation and ice sheet mass balance studies.

    Positions/Employment

    2012 - Present

    Research Scientist

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD
    2010 - 2012

    Associate Research Scientist

    Goddard Earth Sciences & Technology Center and JCET, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD
    2007 - 2010

    Doherty Research Scientist

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY
    2004 - 2007

    PGI-Doherty Young Scientist

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY
    2000 - 2004

    Doherty Associate Research Scientist

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY
    1998 - 2000

    Post-Doctoral Research Scientist

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY
    1995 - 1998

    Graduate Research Assistant

    Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany

    Teaching Experience

    E3221 Environmental Geophysics, Fall Semester 2001, co-taught with R.E. Bell. 2001 Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

    Earth2Class guest scientist and lecturer (www.earth2class.org)

    Education

    • M.S. (Diplom Geophysiker) in Geophysics, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany 1993
      Master thesis: Cluster analysis of a micro-earthquake swarm in Northern Bohemia, Advisor: Frank Scherbaum
    • Ph.D. (Dr. rer. nat.) in Geophysics, Alfred Wegener Institute and University of Bremen, Germany 1998
      Doctoral thesis: Compilation and analysis of potential field data from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: implications for the breakup of Gondwana, Advisor: Heinz Miller

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 1996 - Present
    International Glaciological Society, 2000 - Present
    German Society for Polar Research, 2000 - Present

    Awards

    2019 NASA Wallops Peer Science Group Award for ATM Team
    2019 NASA Special Act Team Award for EVS-3 GSFC PI Lead
    2017 NASA Robert L. Krieger Award for ATM Team
    2015 NASA Robert L. Krieger Award for ATM Team
    2014 NASA Group Achievement Award for P-3 Aircraft Mission Team
    2013 NASA Special Act Individual Award for scientific leadership.
    2013 NASA Robert H. Goddard Exceptional Achievement Award to Operation IceBridge Leadership Team
    2012 NSF Antarctic Service Medal
    2012 NASA Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Award for Scientific Achievement
    2011 NASA Group Achievement Award for Operation IceBridge
     

    Special Experience

    • Project and Mission Scientist IceBridge annual airborne campaigns Arctic 2010 - 2015
    • Project and Mission Scientist IceBridge annual airborne campaign Punta Arenas and Antarctica 2010 - 2015
    • Co-leader AGAP Expedition Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province, East Antarctic Plateau 2008
    • Co-leader Airborne Geophysical Test Flights, Calgary and West Greenland 2008
    • Chief Scientist and Expedition Leader: Gravimeter test flights to the North Pole from Ellesmere Island 2007
    • Magnetic gradiometer survey of the Hudson River between 59th Street NYC and Tappan Zea 2002
    • Magnetic survey of cultural targets in the Haverstraw Bay, Hudson River 2002
    • Aerogeophysical survey at Vostok (East Antarctica) and deployment of broadband seismic stations 2002 and geodetic GPS measurements (2 months)
    • Seismic reflection and refraction survey Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (3 months) 1996
    • Seismic reflection and refraction survey Filchner and Ronne Ice Shelves, Antarctica (2 months) 1995
    • Seismic reflection and refraction survey Northeast Greenland (2 months) 1994
    • Planning and carrying out a passive seismic experiment (60+ stations) for the 1994
    German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (3 months)
    • Operation of broadband seismological network at the KTB drill site (3 months) 1990
    • Refraction seismic survey around the KTB drill site (1 month) 1990
    • Wide angle and refraction seismic surveys around the KTB drill site (1 month) 1989

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Kwok, R., S. Kacimi, T. Markus, et al. N. Kurtz, M. Studinger, J. Sonntag, S. Manizade, L. Boisvert, and J. Harbeck. 2019. "ICESat‐2 surface height and sea‐ice freeboard assessed with ATM lidar acquisitions from Operation IceBridge." Geophysical Research Letters, 2019GL084976 [10.1029/2019gl084976]

    MacGregor, J. A., W. F. Bottke, M. A. Fahnestock, et al. J. P. Harbeck, K. H. Kjaer, J. D. Paden, D. E. Stillman, and M. Studinger. 2019. "A Possible Second Large Subglacial Impact Crater in Northwest Greenland." Geophysical Research Letters, 46: [10.1029/2018gl078126]

    Licht, K. J., T. Groth, J. P. Townsend, et al. A. J. Hennessy, S. R. Hemming, T. P. Flood, and M. Studinger. 2018. "Evidence for Extending Anomalous Miocene Volcanism at the Edge of the East Antarctic Craton." Geophysical Research Letters, [10.1002/2018gl077237]

    Brunt, K. M., R. L. Hawley, E. R. Lutz, et al. M. Studinger, J. G. Sonntag, M. A. Hofton, L. C. Andrews, and T. A. Neumann. 2017. "Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland." The Cryosphere, 11 (2): 681-692 [10.5194/tc-11-681-2017]

    Scheinert, M., F. Ferraccioli, J. Schwabe, et al. R. Bell, M. Studinger, D. Damaske, W. Jokat, N. Aleshkova, T. Jordan, G. Leitchenkov, D. D. Blankenship, T. M. Damiani, D. Young, J. R. Cochran, and T. D. Richter. 2016. "New Antarctic gravity anomaly grid for enhanced geodetic and geophysical studies in Antarctica." Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (2): 600-610 [10.1002/2015gl067439]

    Harpold, R., J. Yungel, M. Linkswiler, and M. Studinger. 2016. "Intra-scan intersection method for the determination of pointing biases of an airborne altimeter." International Journal of Remote Sensing, 37 (3): 648-668 [10.1080/01431161.2015.1137989]

    Onana, V., L. S. Koenig, J. Ruth, M. Studinger, and J. P. Harbeck. 2015. "A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-Sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 53 (1): 51-69 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2014.2318208]

    Yi, D., J. P. Harbeck, S. S. Manizade, et al. N. T. Kurtz, M. Studinger, and M. A. Hofton. 2014. "Arctic sea ice freeboard retrieval with waveform characteristics for NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS)." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 53 (3): 1403-1410 [10.1109/TGRS.2014.2339737]

    Kurtz, N. T., N. Galin, and M. Studinger. 2014. "An improved CryoSat-2 sea ice freeboard retrieval algorithm through the use of waveform fitting." The Cryosphere, 8 (4): 1217-1237 [10.5194/tc-8-1217-2014]

    Das, I., R. E. Bell, T. A. Scambos, et al. M. Wolovick, T. T. Creyts, M. Studinger, N. Frearson, J. P. Nicolas, J. T. Lenaerts, and M. R. van den Broeke. 2013. "Influence of persistent wind scour on the surface mass balance of Antarctica." Nature Geoscience, 6 (5): 367-371 [10.1038/ngeo1766]

    Blankenship, D. D., D. L. Morse, C. A. Finn, et al. R. E. Bell, M. E. Peters, S. D. Kempf, S. M. Hodge, M. Studinger, J. C. Behrendt, and J. M. Brozena. 2013. "Geologic Controls on the Initiation of Rapid Basal Motion for West Antarctic Ice Streams: A Geophysical Perspective Including New Airborne Radar Sounding and Laser Altimetry Results." Antarctic Research Series, 105-121 [10.1029/ar077p0105]

    Fretwell, P., H. D. Pritchard, D. G. Vaughan, et al. J. L. Bamber, N. E. Barrand, R. Bell, C. Bianchi, R. G. Bingham, D. D. Blankenship, G. Casassa, G. Catania, D. Callens, H. Conway, A. J. Cook, H. F. Corr, D. Damaske, V. Damm, F. Ferraccioli, R. Forsberg, S. Fujita, Y. Gim, P. Gogineni, J. A. Griggs, R. C. Hindmarsh, P. Holmlund, J. W. Holt, R. W. Jacobel, A. Jenkins, W. Jokat, T. Jordan, E. C. King, J. Kohler, W. Krabill, M. Riger-Kusk, K. A. Langley, G. Leitchenkov, C. Leuschen, B. P. Luyendyk, K. Matsuoka, J. Mouginot, F. O. Nitsche, Y. Nogi, O. A. Nost, S. V. Popov, E. Rignot, D. M. Rippin, A. Rivera, J. Roberts, N. Ross, M. J. Siegert, A. M. Smith, D. Steinhage, M. Studinger, B. Sun, B. K. Tinto, B. C. Welch, D. Wilson, D. A. Young, C. Xiangbin, and A. Zirizzotti. 2013. "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica." The Cryosphere, 7 (1): 375-393 [10.5194/tc-7-375-2013]

    Kurtz, N. T., J. Richter-Menge, S. L. Farrell, et al. M. Studinger, J. Paden, J. G. Sonntag, and J. K. Yungel. 2013. "IceBridge Airborne Survey Data Support Arctic Sea Ice Predictions." Eos Trans. AGU, 94 (4): 41 [10.1002/2013EO040001]

    Onana, V., N. Kurtz, S. Farrell, et al. L. Koenig, M. Studinger, and J. Harbeck. 2013. "A Sea-Ice Lead Detection Algorithm for Use With High-Resolution Airborne Visible Imagery." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 51 (1): 38-56 [10.1109/TGRS.2012.2202666]

    Kurtz, N., S. Farrell, M. Studinger, et al. N. Galin, J. Harbeck, R. Lindsay, V. Onana, B. Panzer, and J. Sonntag. 2013. "Sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth products from Operation IceBridge airborne data." The Cryosphere, 7 (4): 1035–1056 [10.5194/tc-7-1035-2013]

    Schodlok, M., D. Menemenlis, E. Rignot, and M. Studinger. 2012. "Sensitivity of the ice-shelf/ocean system to the sub-ice-shelf cavity shape measured by NASA IceBridge in Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica." Annals of Glaciology, 53 (60): 156-162 [10.3189/2012AoG60A073]

    Bell, R., F. Ferraccioli, T. Creyts, et al. D. Braaten, H. Corr, I. Das, D. Damaske, N. Frearson, T. Jordan, K. Rose, M. Studinger, and M. Wolovick. 2011. "Widespread Persistent Thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by Freezing from the Base." Science, 25: 592-1595.

    MacGregor, J., K. Matsuoka, and M. Studinger. 2009. "Radar detection of accreted ice over Lake Vostok Antarctica." Earth Planet Sci Lett, 282 (1-4): 222-233 [10.1016/j.epsl.2009.03.018]

    MacGregor, J., K. Matsuoka, M. Studinger, E. Waddington, and D. Winebrenner. 2009. "Millennially averaged accumulation rates for the Lake Vostok region inferred from deep internal layers." Annals of Glaciology, 50 (51): 25-34.

    Studinger, M., and P. Barrett. 2009. "Tectonics: Antarctica sinking." Nature Geoscience, 2 (10): 671-672 [10.1038/ngeo644]

    Block, A., R. Bell, and M. Studinger. 2009. "Antarctic crustal thickness from satellite gravity: Implications for the Transantarctic and Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 288 (1-2): 194-203 [10.1016/j.epsl.2009.09.022]

    Bell, R., M. Studinger, C. A. Shuman, and I. Fahnestock. 2007. "Large subglacial lakes in East Antarctica at the onset of fast-flowing ice streams." Nature, 445 (7130): 904-907 [10.1038/nature05554]

    Bell, R. E., M. Studinger, M. A. Fahnestock, and C. A. Shuman. 2006. "Tectonically controlled subglacial lakes on the flanks of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, East Antarctica." Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (2): L02504 [10.1029/2005GL025207]

    Brief Bio

    Michael Studinger received the Ph.D. degree in1998 from the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. He is with NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, USA. Before joining NASA he was a research scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in New York for 12 years. His research interests include physical processes in polar regions, linking ice sheet dynamics with the subglacial environment, such as subglacial lakes. He is using integrated sets of aerogeophysical data, including gravity, magnetics, ice-penetrating radar, and laser altimeter measurements to answer key questions in solid Earth geophysics and glaciology. His main research projects focus on the role of the subglacial environment in a global framework.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Kwok, R., S. Kacimi, T. Markus, et al. N. Kurtz, M. Studinger, J. Sonntag, S. Manizade, L. Boisvert, and J. Harbeck. 2019. "ICESat‐2 surface height and sea‐ice freeboard assessed with ATM lidar acquisitions from Operation IceBridge." Geophysical Research Letters 2019GL084976 [10.1029/2019gl084976]

    MacGregor, J. A., W. F. Bottke, M. A. Fahnestock, et al. J. P. Harbeck, K. H. Kjaer, J. D. Paden, D. E. Stillman, and M. Studinger. 2019. "A Possible Second Large Subglacial Impact Crater in Northwest Greenland." Geophysical Research Letters 46 [10.1029/2018gl078126]

    Licht, K. J., T. Groth, J. P. Townsend, et al. A. J. Hennessy, S. R. Hemming, T. P. Flood, and M. Studinger. 2018. "Evidence for Extending Anomalous Miocene Volcanism at the Edge of the East Antarctic Craton." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1002/2018gl077237]

    Brunt, K. M., R. L. Hawley, E. R. Lutz, et al. M. Studinger, J. G. Sonntag, M. A. Hofton, L. C. Andrews, and T. A. Neumann. 2017. "Assessment of NASA airborne laser altimetry data using ground-based GPS data near Summit Station, Greenland." The Cryosphere 11 (2): 681-692 [10.5194/tc-11-681-2017]

    Scheinert, M., F. Ferraccioli, J. Schwabe, et al. R. Bell, M. Studinger, D. Damaske, W. Jokat, N. Aleshkova, T. Jordan, G. Leitchenkov, D. D. Blankenship, T. M. Damiani, D. Young, J. R. Cochran, and T. D. Richter. 2016. "New Antarctic gravity anomaly grid for enhanced geodetic and geophysical studies in Antarctica." Geophysical Research Letters 43 (2): 600-610 [10.1002/2015gl067439]

    Harpold, R., J. Yungel, M. Linkswiler, and M. Studinger. 2016. "Intra-scan intersection method for the determination of pointing biases of an airborne altimeter." International Journal of Remote Sensing 37 (3): 648-668 [10.1080/01431161.2015.1137989]

    Onana, V., L. S. Koenig, J. Ruth, M. Studinger, and J. P. Harbeck. 2015. "A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-Sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 53 (1): 51-69 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2014.2318208]

    Yi, D., J. P. Harbeck, S. S. Manizade, et al. N. T. Kurtz, M. Studinger, and M. A. Hofton. 2014. "Arctic sea ice freeboard retrieval with waveform characteristics for NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS)." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 53 (3): 1403-1410 [10.1109/TGRS.2014.2339737]

    Kurtz, N. T., N. Galin, and M. Studinger. 2014. "An improved CryoSat-2 sea ice freeboard retrieval algorithm through the use of waveform fitting." The Cryosphere 8 (4): 1217-1237 [10.5194/tc-8-1217-2014]

    Das, I., R. E. Bell, T. A. Scambos, et al. M. Wolovick, T. T. Creyts, M. Studinger, N. Frearson, J. P. Nicolas, J. T. Lenaerts, and M. R. van den Broeke. 2013. "Influence of persistent wind scour on the surface mass balance of Antarctica." Nature Geoscience 6 (5): 367-371 [10.1038/ngeo1766]

    Blankenship, D. D., D. L. Morse, C. A. Finn, et al. R. E. Bell, M. E. Peters, S. D. Kempf, S. M. Hodge, M. Studinger, J. C. Behrendt, and J. M. Brozena. 2013. "Geologic Controls on the Initiation of Rapid Basal Motion for West Antarctic Ice Streams: A Geophysical Perspective Including New Airborne Radar Sounding and Laser Altimetry Results." Antarctic Research Series 105-121 [10.1029/ar077p0105]

    Fretwell, P., H. D. Pritchard, D. G. Vaughan, et al. J. L. Bamber, N. E. Barrand, R. Bell, C. Bianchi, R. G. Bingham, D. D. Blankenship, G. Casassa, G. Catania, D. Callens, H. Conway, A. J. Cook, H. F. Corr, D. Damaske, V. Damm, F. Ferraccioli, R. Forsberg, S. Fujita, Y. Gim, P. Gogineni, J. A. Griggs, R. C. Hindmarsh, P. Holmlund, J. W. Holt, R. W. Jacobel, A. Jenkins, W. Jokat, T. Jordan, E. C. King, J. Kohler, W. Krabill, M. Riger-Kusk, K. A. Langley, G. Leitchenkov, C. Leuschen, B. P. Luyendyk, K. Matsuoka, J. Mouginot, F. O. Nitsche, Y. Nogi, O. A. Nost, S. V. Popov, E. Rignot, D. M. Rippin, A. Rivera, J. Roberts, N. Ross, M. J. Siegert, A. M. Smith, D. Steinhage, M. Studinger, B. Sun, B. K. Tinto, B. C. Welch, D. Wilson, D. A. Young, C. Xiangbin, and A. Zirizzotti. 2013. "Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica." The Cryosphere 7 (1): 375-393 [10.5194/tc-7-375-2013]

    Kurtz, N. T., J. Richter-Menge, S. L. Farrell, et al. M. Studinger, J. Paden, J. G. Sonntag, and J. K. Yungel. 2013. "IceBridge Airborne Survey Data Support Arctic Sea Ice Predictions." Eos Trans. AGU 94 (4): 41 [10.1002/2013EO040001]

    Onana, V., N. Kurtz, S. Farrell, et al. L. Koenig, M. Studinger, and J. Harbeck. 2013. "A Sea-Ice Lead Detection Algorithm for Use With High-Resolution Airborne Visible Imagery." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 51 (1): 38-56 [10.1109/TGRS.2012.2202666]

    Kurtz, N., S. Farrell, M. Studinger, et al. N. Galin, J. Harbeck, R. Lindsay, V. Onana, B. Panzer, and J. Sonntag. 2013. "Sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth products from Operation IceBridge airborne data." The Cryosphere 7 (4): 1035–1056 [10.5194/tc-7-1035-2013]

    Schodlok, M., D. Menemenlis, E. Rignot, and M. Studinger. 2012. "Sensitivity of the ice-shelf/ocean system to the sub-ice-shelf cavity shape measured by NASA IceBridge in Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica." Annals of Glaciology 53 (60): 156-162 [10.3189/2012AoG60A073]

    Bell, R., F. Ferraccioli, T. Creyts, et al. D. Braaten, H. Corr, I. Das, D. Damaske, N. Frearson, T. Jordan, K. Rose, M. Studinger, and M. Wolovick. 2011. "Widespread Persistent Thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet by Freezing from the Base." Science 25 592-1595

    MacGregor, J., K. Matsuoka, and M. Studinger. 2009. "Radar detection of accreted ice over Lake Vostok Antarctica." Earth Planet Sci Lett 282 (1-4): 222-233 [10.1016/j.epsl.2009.03.018]

    MacGregor, J., K. Matsuoka, M. Studinger, E. Waddington, and D. Winebrenner. 2009. "Millennially averaged accumulation rates for the Lake Vostok region inferred from deep internal layers." Annals of Glaciology 50 (51): 25-34

    Studinger, M., and P. Barrett. 2009. "Tectonics: Antarctica sinking." Nature Geoscience 2 (10): 671-672 [10.1038/ngeo644]

    Block, A., R. Bell, and M. Studinger. 2009. "Antarctic crustal thickness from satellite gravity: Implications for the Transantarctic and Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 288 (1-2): 194-203 [10.1016/j.epsl.2009.09.022]

    Bell, R., M. Studinger, C. A. Shuman, and I. Fahnestock. 2007. "Large subglacial lakes in East Antarctica at the onset of fast-flowing ice streams." Nature 445 (7130): 904-907 [10.1038/nature05554]

    Bell, R. E., M. Studinger, M. A. Fahnestock, and C. A. Shuman. 2006. "Tectonically controlled subglacial lakes on the flanks of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, East Antarctica." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (2): L02504 [10.1029/2005GL025207]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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