Dr. Michael R Collier

Dr. Michael R Collier

  • SUPV RSCH AST, FIELDS AND PARTICLES
  • 301.286.5256 | 301.286.1433
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 673
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Michael R. Collier is currently a civil servant at NASA/GSFC. He has fabricated, calibrated, commanded and analyzed data from many flight hardware projects over more than 30 years in the field. He has launched five instruments into space as hardware Principal Investigator, three low energy neutral atom imagers and two soft X-ray imagers. He is the author or co-author of over 100 peer-reviewed scientific articles covering solar wind, heliospheric, terrestrial magnetospheric and outer planets physics.

    Research Interests

    Research Interests - 1

    Soft X-ray emission from SWCX, solar wind particles and fields, and the study of low-energy neutral atoms. Participates heavily in the development of advanced particle and soft X-ray instrumentation including miniaturized instruments for CubeSats and served as Instrument Scientist for IMAGE/LENA.
     

    Research Interests - 2

    Contributes to fabricating, calibrating, commanding and analyzing data from many flight hardware projects including the Low Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft and the SWICS-MASS-STICS package on the Wind spacecraft. Institutional lead Co-Investigator for the ESA Solar Orbiter Heavy Ion Sensor (SOHIS).

     

    Research Interests - 3

    Instrument Hardware Lead - has launched five instruments into space including three low energy neutral atom imagers (one on FASTSAT (MINI-ME) and two for VISIONS/MILENA) and two soft X-ray imagers (DXL/STORM and DXL-2/CuPID).
     

    Research Interests - 4

    Research interests include lunar and outer planets particles, fields, and exosphere studies including lunar and airless body surface potentials and Jovian magnetometer data analysis.
     

    Research Interests - 5

    Author or co-author of over 108 peer-reviewed scientific articles on a diverse range of subjects including solar wind, heliospheric, and terrestrial and outer planets magnetospheric physics. This includes two first-author publications with over 100 citations (Collier et al. (1996), Neon-20, oxygen-16, and helium-4 densities, temperatures, and suprathermal tails in the solar wind determined with WIND/MASS, GRL, 23, 10, 1191-1194 and Collier (1993), On generating kappa-like distribution-functions using velocity space Levy flights, GRL, 20, 15, 1531-1534).

    Positions/Employment

    1998 - Present

    Astrophysicist

    NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt
    1996 - 1998

    Research Associate

    National Research Council, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland
    1993 - 1996

    Research Associate 1993-1996

    University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland

    Teaching Experience

    Adjunct Professor at Prince George's Community College from 2014 to present. Teaches basic non-calculus physics.

     

    Education

    Ph.D. Physics Univ. of MD, College Park, 1993
    M.S. Physics Univ. of MD, College Park 1990
    B.S. Physics summa cum laude Univ. of MD, College Park 1988
    Certificate CAD Prince George’s Community College 2010
     

    Awards

    Numerous awards including:

    • R.H. Goddard Award, Sheath Transport Observer for the Redistribution of Mass project, 2015
    • NASA Group Achievement Award, LENA Imager Development Team, 2001
    • NASA Group Achievement Award, GGS - Wind SMS Team, 1998
     

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Sibeck, D. G., R. Allen, H. Aryan, et al. D. Bodewits, P. Brandt, G. Branduardi-Raymont, G. Brown, J. A. Carter, Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, Y. Ezoe, M.-C. Fok, M. Galeazzi, O. Gutynska, M. Holmström, S.-Y. Hsieh, K. Ishikawa, D. Koutroumpa, K. D. Kuntz, M. Leutenegger, Y. Miyoshi, F. S. Porter, M. E. Purucker, A. M. Read, J. Raeder, I. P. Robertson, A. A. Samsonov, S. Sembay, S. L. Snowden, N. E. Thomas, R. von Steiger, B. M. Walsh, and S. Wing. 2018. "Imaging Plasma Density Structures in the Soft X-Rays Generated by Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Neutrals." Space Science Reviews, 214 (4): 79 [10.1007/s11214-018-0504-7]

    Farrell, W. M., J. L. McLain, M. R. Collier, and J. W. Keller. 2017. "The Martian dust devil electron avalanche: Laboratory measurements of the E-field fortifying effects of dust-electron absorption." Icarus, 297: 90-96 [10.1016/j.icarus.2017.06.001]

    Vaisberg, O., J. J. Berthellier, T. Moore, et al. L. Avanov, F. Leblanc, P. Moiseev, D. Moiseenko, J. Becker, M. Collier, G. Laky, J. Keller, G. Koynash, H. Lichtenneger, A. Leibov, R. Zhuravlev, A. Shestakov, J. Burch, D. McComas, S. Shuvalov, D. Chornay, and K. Torkar. 2016. "The 2 pi charged particles analyzer: All-sky camera concept and development for space missions." Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 121 (12): 11750-11765 [10.1002/2016ja022568]

    Walsh, B. M., M. R. Collier, K. D. Kuntz, et al. F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, J. A. Carter, Y. Collado-Vega, H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, A. M. Read, S. Sembay, and N. E. Thomas. 2016. "Wide field-of-view soft X-ray imaging for solar wind-magnetosphere interactions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 121 (4): 3353-3361 [10.1002/2016ja022348]

    Collier, M. R., R. R. Vondrak, R. P. Hoyt, et al. M. A. Mesarch, W. M. Farrell, J. W. Keller, P. E. Clark, N. E. Petro, and K.-J. Hwang. 2016. "Tethered lunar subsatellites for multipoint and low altitude measurements." Acta Astronautica, 128: 464-472 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.07.047]

    Farrell, W. M., J. L. McLain, M. R. Collier, et al. J. W. Keller, T. J. Jackson, and G. T. Delory. 2015. "Is the electron avalanche process in a martian dust devil self-quenching?" Icarus, 254: 333-337 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.04.003]

    Collier, M. R., F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, et al. J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, D. J. Chornay, T. E. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, J. W. Keller, D. Koutroumpa, J. Kujawski, K. Kuntz, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, S. L. Snowden, N. Thomas, Y. Uprety, and B. M. Walsh. 2015. "Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results." Review of Scientific Instruments, 86 (7): [10.1063/1.4927259]

    Kuntz, K. D., Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, et al. H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, D. Koutroumpa, F. S. Porter, I. P. Robertson, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, N. E. Thomas, and B. M. Walsh. 2015. "THE SOLAR WIND CHARGE-EXCHANGE PRODUCTION FACTOR FOR HYDROGEN." The Astrophysical Journal, 808 (2): 143 [10.1088/0004-637x/808/2/143]

    Collier, M. R., D. Chornay, J. Clemmons, et al. J. Keller, J. Klenzing, J. Kujawski, J. McLain, R. Pfaff, D. Rowland, and M. Zettergren. 2015. "VISIONS remote observations of a spatially-structured filamentary source of energetic neutral atoms near the polar cap boundary during an auroral substorm." Advances in Space Research, 56 (10): 2097-2105 [10.1016/j.asr.2015.08.010]

    Walsh, B. M., K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, et al. D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, and N. E. Thomas. 2014. "Energetic particle impact on X-ray imaging with XMM-Newton." SPACE WEATHER-THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS, 12: 387-394 [10.1002/2014SW001046]

    Stubbs, T. J., W. M. Farrell, J. S. Halekas, et al. J. K. Burchill, M. Collier, M. I. Zimmerman, R. R. Vondrak, G. T. Delory, and R. F. Pfaff. 2014. "Dependence of lunar surface charging on solar wind plasma conditions and solar irradiation." Planetary and Space Science, 90: 10-27 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.07.008]

    Collier, M. R., S. L. Snowden, M. Sarantos, et al. M. Benna, J. A. Carter, T. E. Cravens, W. M. Farrell, S. Fatemi, H. K. Hills, R. R. Hodges, M. Holmström, K. D. Kuntz, F. S. Porter, A. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. F. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, T. J. Stubbs, P. Travnicek, and B. M. Walsh. 2014. "On lunar exospheric column densities and solar wind access beyond the terminator from ROSAT soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 119 (7): 1459-1478 [10.1002/2014je004628]

    Thomas, N. E., J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, et al. D. J. Chornay, Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, D. Koutroumpa, J. Kujawski, K. D. Kuntz, M. M. Kuznetsova, S. T. Lepri, D. McCammon, K. Morgan, F. S. Porter, K. Prasai, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. F. Sembay, D. C. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, Y. Uprety, and B. M. Walsh. 2013. "The DXL and STORM Sounding Rocket Mission." UV; X-RAY; AND GAMMA-RAY SPACE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY XVIII, 8859: [10.1117/12.2024438]

    Collier, M. R., W. M. Farrell, and T. J. Stubbs. 2013. "The lunar dust pendulum." Advances in Space Research, 52 (2): 251-261 [10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.044]

    Collier, M. R., F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, et al. J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, D. J. Chornay, T. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, J. W. Keller, D. Koutroumpa, K. Kuntz, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, S. Snowden, and N. Thomas. 2012. "Prototyping a global soft X-ray imaging instrument for heliophysics, planetary science, and astrophysics science." Astronomische Nachrichten, 333 (4): 378-382 [10.1002/asna.201211662]

    Collier, M., H. K. Hills, T. J. Stubbs, et al. J. S. Halekas, G. T. Delory, J. R. Espley, W. M. Farrell, and R. R. Vondrak. 2011. "Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals of the Terrestrial Bow Shock." Planet. Sp. Sci., 59 (14): 1727-1743.

    Gopalswamy, N., O. Davila, O. Davila, et al. O. Davila, E. C. Sittler, F. Egrave;re, T. L. Duvall, J. Hoeksema, M. Maksimovic, R. J. Macdowall, A. Szabo, and M. Collier. 2011. "Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 73: 658-663 [Full Text (Link)] [ 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013]

    Rowland, D. E., M. R. Collier, J. B. Sigwarth, et al. S. L. Jones, J. K. Hill, R. Benson, M. Choi, D. Chornay, J. Cooper, S. Feng, N. Gill, C. Goodloe, L. Han, H. Hancock, F. Hunsaker, N. Jones, J. W. Keller, J. Klenzing, I. Kleyner, T. Moore, K. Ogilvie, R. Pfaff, T. Price, J. Roman, M. Rodruiguez, P. Rozmarynowski, M. Saulino, S. Sheikh, K. Simms, A. Yew, E. Young, J. Kujawski, M. Boudreaux, J. Casas, D. Myre, and B. Smith. 2011. "Science of opportunity: Heliophysics on the FASTSAT mission and STP-S26." 2011 Aerospace Conference, [10.1109/aero.2011.5747235]

    Stubbs, T. J., D. A. Glenar, M. R. Collier, et al. W. M. Farrell, J. S. Halekas, G. T. Delory, and R. R. Vondrak. 2011. "On the role of dust in the lunar ionosphere." Planet Sp Sci, 59 (13): 1659-1664.

    Farrell, W. M., J. Halekas, T. J. Stubbs, et al. G. Delory, R. Killen, R. Hartle, and M. Collier. 2011. "Regarding the possible generation of a lunar nightside exo-ionosphere." Icarus, 216 (1): 169-172 [10.1016/j.icarus.2011.08.013]

    Robertson, I. P., K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, and S. L. Snowden. 2010. "The Heliospheric Contribution to the Soft X-Ray Background Emission." TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL SOLAR WIND CONFERENCE AIP Conference Proceedings, 1216: 532 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1063/1.3395920]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, J. S. Halekas, et al. R. M. Killen, G. T. Delory, M. Collier, and R. R. Vondrak. 2010. "Anticipated electrical environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters." Journal of Geophysical Research, 115 (E3): E03004 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2009JE003464]

    Snowden, S. L., M. R. Collier, T. Cravens, et al. K. D. Kuntz, S. T. Lepri, I. Robertson, and L. Tomas. 2009. "Observation of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission from Exospheric Material in and Outside Earth's Magnetosheath 2008 September 25." The Astrophysical Journal, 691: 372 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/691/1/372]

    Koutroumpa, D., M. R. Collier, K. D. Kuntz, R. Lallement, and S. L. Snowden. 2009. "Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission from the Helium Focusing Cone: Model to Data Comparison." The Astrophysical Journal, 697: 1214 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/697/2/1214]

    Collier, M. R., and T. J. Stubbs. 2009. "Neutral solar wind generated by lunar exospheric dust at the terminator." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 114 (A1): [10.1029/2008ja013716]

    Robertson, I. P., S. Sembay, T. J. Stubbs, et al. K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, S. L. Snowden, H. K. Hills, F. S. Porter, P. Travnicek, J. A. Carter, and A. M. Read. 2009. "Solar wind charge exchange observed through the lunar exosphere." Geophysical Research Letters, 36: 21102 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2009GL040834]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, J. S. Halekas, et al. G. T. Delory, M. R. Collier, R. R. Vondrak, and R. P. Lin. 2008. "Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions." Geophysical Research Letters, 35: 05105 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2007GL032653]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, G. T. Delory, et al. R. R. Vondrak, M. R. Collier, J. S. Halekas, and R. P. Lin. 2008. "Concerning the dissipation of electrically charged objects in the shadowed lunar polar regions." Geophysical Research Letters, 35: 19104 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2008GL034785]

    Chornay, D., A. Szabo, K. Ogilvie, and M. R. Collier. 2007. "Wind and STEREO - Combined Observations." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A1079-:

    Stubbs, T. J., R. R. Vondrak, W. M. Farrell, and M. R. Collier. 2007. "Predictions of dust concentrations in the lunar exosphere." Journal of Astronautics, 28: 166–167 [Full Text (Link)] [ 1000-1328]

    Collier, M. R., S. Taguchi, R. Nishizawa, et al. S. Snowden, I. Robertson, T. Cravens, T. E. Moore, K. D. Kuntz, and M.-C. Fok. 2006. "Progress in remote sensing the magnetopause and magnetosheath using low energy neutral atoms and x-rays." 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 36: 3419-.

    Robertson, I. P., M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, and M. C. Fok. 2006. "X-ray emission from the terrestrial magnetosheath including the cusps." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 111: [12105-10.1029/2006JA011672]

    Collier, M. R., A. Roberts, and A. Vinas. 2006. "Acoustic kappa-density fluctuation waves in suprathermal kappa function fluids." 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 36: 2565-.

    Vaisberg, O. L., L. A. Avanov, A. V. Leibov, et al. V. N. Smirnov, J. Keller, T. Moore, D. Chornay, M. Collier, V. S. Troshin, and V. D. Myagkikh. 2005. "A panoramic plasma spectrometer: An all-sky camera for charged particles." Cosmic Research, 43 (5): 373-376 [10.1007/s10604-005-0058-9]

    Taguchi, S., S.-H. Chen, M. R. Collier, et al. T. E. Moore, M.-C. Fok, K. Hosokawa, and A. Nakao. 2005. "Monitoring the high-altitude cusp with the Low Energy Neutral Atom imager: Simultaneous observations from IMAGE and Polar." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 110: [12204-10.1029/2005JA011075]

    Huttunen, K. E., J. Slavin, M. Collier, et al. H. E. Koskinen, A. Szabo, E. Tanskanen, A. Balogh, E. Lucek, and H. Reme. 2005. "Cluster observations of sudden impulses in the magnetotail caused by interplanetary shocks and pressure increases." Annales Geophysicae, 23: 609-624 [10.5194/angeo-23-609-2005]

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, S. L. Snowden, and K. D. Kuntz. 2005. "One-up on L1: Can X-rays provide longer advanced warning of solar wind flux enhancements than upstream monitors?" Advances in Space Research, 35 (12): 2157-2161 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.035]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, and T. Tanaka. 2004. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 109: [1206-10.1029/2003JA010094]

    Taguchi, S., M. R. Collier, T. E. Moore, M.-C. Fok, and H. J. Singer. 2004. "Response of neutral atom emissions in the low-latitude and high latitude magnetosheath direction to the magnetopause motion under extreme solar wind conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 109: [4208-10.1029/2003JA010147]

    Koskinen, H., E. Huttunen, J. Slavin, et al. M. Collier, A. Szabo, E. Tanskanen, A. Balogh, E. Lucek, and H. Reme. 2004. "Magnetospheric response to the interplanetary shocks and pressure increases: Cluster observations of sudden impulses in the tail lobes." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 2-:

    Hill, M. E., G. B. Vieira, D. C. Hamilton, et al. F. M. Ipavich, M. R. Collier, J. L. Green, M. Fok, T. E. Moore, and S. G. Kanekal. 2004. "Energetic Neutral Atom Response to the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and the Dayside Magnetosphere During the Halloween 2003 Geomagnetic Storm." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A8-:

    Snowden, S. L., M. R. Collier, and K. D. Kuntz. 2004. "XMM-Newton Observation of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission." The Astrophysical Journal, 610: 1182 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/421841]

    Collier, M. R., D. J. Chornay, J. W. Keller, et al. M. Coplan, N. J. Dionne, B. E. Marji, F. Herrero, J. Hirman, J. Houser, J. Moore, and J. A. Slavin. 2003. "Tomographic imaging of electron distributions: Leveraging computing power advances to produce inexpensive, low-power, lightweight, and robust instrumentation." Review of Scientific Instruments, 74 (2): 1002-1007 [10.1063/1.1532543]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, G. Chin, and T. Tanaka. 2003. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, 4437-:

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, D. Simpson, et al. A. Roberts, A. Szabo, S. A. Fuselier, P. Wurz, and B. T. Tsurutani. 2003. "Characteristics of and constraints on a secondary interstellar neutral stream." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, 4611-:

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, M. Fok, et al. D. Chornay, L. Rastaetter, M. Kuznetsova, A. Falasca, J. Green, S. Boardsen, S. Fuselier, S. Petrinec, M. Thomsen, D. McComas, and T. I. Gombosi. 2001. "LENA Observations on March 31, 2001: Magnetosheath Remote Sensing." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 5-:

    Moldwin, M. B., S. Mayerberger, H. K. Rassoul, et al. M. R. Collier, R. P. Lepping, J. A. Slavin, and A. Szabo. 2001. "Evidence of different magnetotail responses to small solar wind pressure pulses depending on IMF Bz polarity." Geophysical Research Letters, 28: 4163-4166 [10.1029/2001GL013045]

    Moldwin, M. B., M. R. Collier, J. A. Slavin, and A. Szabo. 2001. "On the origin of reverse polarity TCRs." Geophysical Research Letters, 28: 1925-1928 [10.1029/2000GL012485]

    Collier, M. R., A. Szabo, W. M. Farrell, et al. J. A. Slavin, R. P. Lepping, R. Fitzenreiter, B. Thompson, D. C. Hamilton, G. Gloeckler, G. C. Ho, P. Bochsler, D. Larson, and L. Ofman. 2001. "Reconnection remnants in the magnetic cloud of October 18-19, 1995: A shock, monochromatic wave, heat flux dropout, and energetic ion beam." Journal of Geophysical Research, 106: 15985-16000 [10.1029/2000JA000101]

    Moore, T. E., D. J. Chornay, M. R. Collier, et al. F. A. Herrero, J. Johnson, M. A. Johnson, J. W. Keller, J. F. Laudadio, J. F. Lobell, K. W. Ogilvie, P. Rozmarynowski, S. A. Fuselier, A. G. Ghielmetti, E. Hertzberg, D. C. Hamilton, R. Lundgren, P. Wilson, P. Walpole, T. M. Stephen, B. L. Peko, B. Van Zyl, P. Wurz, J. M. Quinn, and G. R. Wilson. 2000. "The low-energy neutral atom imager for IMAGE." Space Science Reviews, v 91, Issue 1/2, p 155-195 (2000), 91: 155 [Full Text (Link)]

    Laakso, H., D. H. Fairfield, M. R. Collier, et al. H. Opgenoorth, T.-D. Phan, D. G. Sibeck, B. L. Giles, H. J. Singer, R. P. Lepping, R. P. Lin, F. S. Mozer, R. F. Pfaff, K. Tsuruda, and J. R. Wygant. 1998. "Oscillations of magnetospheric boundaries driven by IMF rotations." Geophysical Research Letters, 25: 3007-3010 [10.1029/98GL50916]

    Non-Refereed

    Farrell, W. M., J. E. Bleacher, T. J. Ames, et al. L. M. Carter, C. Y. Cheung, M. R. Collier, J. F. Cooper, R. L. Hudson, T. L. Jackson, J. W. Keller, R. M. Killen, M. M. Kuznetsova, M. J. Loeffler, R. J. MacDowall, A. M. Parsons, N. E. Petro, A. A. Pulkkinen, Y. Zheng, and M. I. Zimmerman. 2013. "'Where to Hide?': A Tele-Robotic Application for HEOMD's Earth-Moon L2 Mission." Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 44: 2514.

    Rowland, D. E., J. H. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, et al. C. L. Lemon, M. R. Collier, J. W. Keller, R. F. Pfaff, J. H. Klenzing, and J. McLain. 2013. "VISIONS: Combined remote sensing and in situ observations of auroral zone ion outflow during a substorm." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A7-:

    McLain, J., M. R. Collier, J. W. Keller, et al. D. E. Rowland, J. T. Kujawski, D. J. Chornay, N. Dobson, P. Rozmarynowski, K. Simms, R. F. Pfaff, J. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, C. Lemon, and J. Klenzing. 2013. "Miniaturized Imager for Low Energy Neutral Atoms (MILENA) Flown Feb. 7, 2013 on the VISIONS Sounding Rocket Mission." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A2102-:

    Keller, J. W., M. R. Collier, J. McLain, et al. D. E. Rowland, R. F. Pfaff, J. Klenzing, J. H. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, and C. L. Lemon. 2013. "Ionospheric Outflow Results from the VISIONS/MILENA Low Energy Neutral Atom Imaging Instruments." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A2100-:

    Collier, M. R., T. F. Abbey, N. P. Bannister, et al. J. A. Carter, M. Choi, T. Cravens, M. Evans, G. W. Fraser, H. K. Hills, K. Kuntz, J. Lyons, N. Omidi, F. S. Porter, A. M. Read, I. Robertson, P. Rozmarynowski, S. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, T. Stubbs, and P. Travnicek. 2009. "The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)/Magnetosheath Explorer in X-rays (MagEX)." LOCAL BUBBLE AND BEYOND II 1156: 105-111.

    Porter, F. S., T. F. Abbey, N. P. Bannister, et al. J. A. Carter, M. Collier, T. Cravens, M. Evans, G. W. Fraser, M. Galeazzi, K. Hills, K. Kuntz, A. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, S. Snowden, T. Stubbs, and P. Travnicek. 2008. "The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)." Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2008: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray [10.1117/12.790182]

    Brief Bio

    Michael R. Collier is currently a civil servant at NASA/GSFC. He has fabricated, calibrated, commanded and analyzed data from many flight hardware projects over more than 30 years in the field. He has launched five instruments into space as hardware Principal Investigator, three low energy neutral atom imagers and two soft X-ray imagers. He is the author or co-author of over 100 peer-reviewed scientific articles covering solar wind, heliospheric, terrestrial magnetospheric and outer planets physics.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Sibeck, D. G., R. Allen, H. Aryan, et al. D. Bodewits, P. Brandt, G. Branduardi-Raymont, G. Brown, J. A. Carter, Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, Y. Ezoe, M.-C. Fok, M. Galeazzi, O. Gutynska, M. Holmström, S.-Y. Hsieh, K. Ishikawa, D. Koutroumpa, K. D. Kuntz, M. Leutenegger, Y. Miyoshi, F. S. Porter, M. E. Purucker, A. M. Read, J. Raeder, I. P. Robertson, A. A. Samsonov, S. Sembay, S. L. Snowden, N. E. Thomas, R. von Steiger, B. M. Walsh, and S. Wing. 2018. "Imaging Plasma Density Structures in the Soft X-Rays Generated by Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Neutrals." Space Science Reviews 214 (4): 79 [10.1007/s11214-018-0504-7]

    Farrell, W. M., J. L. McLain, M. R. Collier, and J. W. Keller. 2017. "The Martian dust devil electron avalanche: Laboratory measurements of the E-field fortifying effects of dust-electron absorption." Icarus 297 90-96 [10.1016/j.icarus.2017.06.001]

    Vaisberg, O., J. J. Berthellier, T. Moore, et al. L. Avanov, F. Leblanc, P. Moiseev, D. Moiseenko, J. Becker, M. Collier, G. Laky, J. Keller, G. Koynash, H. Lichtenneger, A. Leibov, R. Zhuravlev, A. Shestakov, J. Burch, D. McComas, S. Shuvalov, D. Chornay, and K. Torkar. 2016. "The 2 pi charged particles analyzer: All-sky camera concept and development for space missions." Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics 121 (12): 11750-11765 [10.1002/2016ja022568]

    Walsh, B. M., M. R. Collier, K. D. Kuntz, et al. F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, J. A. Carter, Y. Collado-Vega, H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, A. M. Read, S. Sembay, and N. E. Thomas. 2016. "Wide field-of-view soft X-ray imaging for solar wind-magnetosphere interactions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 121 (4): 3353-3361 [10.1002/2016ja022348]

    Collier, M. R., R. R. Vondrak, R. P. Hoyt, et al. M. A. Mesarch, W. M. Farrell, J. W. Keller, P. E. Clark, N. E. Petro, and K.-J. Hwang. 2016. "Tethered lunar subsatellites for multipoint and low altitude measurements." Acta Astronautica 128 464-472 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.07.047]

    Farrell, W. M., J. L. McLain, M. R. Collier, et al. J. W. Keller, T. J. Jackson, and G. T. Delory. 2015. "Is the electron avalanche process in a martian dust devil self-quenching?" Icarus 254 333-337 [10.1016/j.icarus.2015.04.003]

    Collier, M. R., F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, et al. J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, D. J. Chornay, T. E. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, J. W. Keller, D. Koutroumpa, J. Kujawski, K. Kuntz, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, S. L. Snowden, N. Thomas, Y. Uprety, and B. M. Walsh. 2015. "Invited Article: First flight in space of a wide-field-of-view soft x-ray imager using lobster-eye optics: Instrument description and initial flight results." Review of Scientific Instruments 86 (7): [10.1063/1.4927259]

    Kuntz, K. D., Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, et al. H. K. Connor, T. E. Cravens, D. Koutroumpa, F. S. Porter, I. P. Robertson, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, N. E. Thomas, and B. M. Walsh. 2015. "THE SOLAR WIND CHARGE-EXCHANGE PRODUCTION FACTOR FOR HYDROGEN." The Astrophysical Journal 808 (2): 143 [10.1088/0004-637x/808/2/143]

    Collier, M. R., D. Chornay, J. Clemmons, et al. J. Keller, J. Klenzing, J. Kujawski, J. McLain, R. Pfaff, D. Rowland, and M. Zettergren. 2015. "VISIONS remote observations of a spatially-structured filamentary source of energetic neutral atoms near the polar cap boundary during an auroral substorm." Advances in Space Research 56 (10): 2097-2105 [10.1016/j.asr.2015.08.010]

    Walsh, B. M., K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, et al. D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, and N. E. Thomas. 2014. "Energetic particle impact on X-ray imaging with XMM-Newton." SPACE WEATHER-THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS 12 387-394 [10.1002/2014SW001046]

    Stubbs, T. J., W. M. Farrell, J. S. Halekas, et al. J. K. Burchill, M. Collier, M. I. Zimmerman, R. R. Vondrak, G. T. Delory, and R. F. Pfaff. 2014. "Dependence of lunar surface charging on solar wind plasma conditions and solar irradiation." Planetary and Space Science 90 10-27 [10.1016/j.pss.2013.07.008]

    Collier, M. R., S. L. Snowden, M. Sarantos, et al. M. Benna, J. A. Carter, T. E. Cravens, W. M. Farrell, S. Fatemi, H. K. Hills, R. R. Hodges, M. Holmström, K. D. Kuntz, F. S. Porter, A. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. F. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, T. J. Stubbs, P. Travnicek, and B. M. Walsh. 2014. "On lunar exospheric column densities and solar wind access beyond the terminator from ROSAT soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 119 (7): 1459-1478 [10.1002/2014je004628]

    Thomas, N. E., J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, et al. D. J. Chornay, Y. M. Collado-Vega, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, D. Koutroumpa, J. Kujawski, K. D. Kuntz, M. M. Kuznetsova, S. T. Lepri, D. McCammon, K. Morgan, F. S. Porter, K. Prasai, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. F. Sembay, D. C. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, Y. Uprety, and B. M. Walsh. 2013. "The DXL and STORM Sounding Rocket Mission." UV; X-RAY; AND GAMMA-RAY SPACE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY XVIII 8859 [10.1117/12.2024438]

    Collier, M. R., W. M. Farrell, and T. J. Stubbs. 2013. "The lunar dust pendulum." Advances in Space Research 52 (2): 251-261 [10.1016/j.asr.2012.09.044]

    Collier, M. R., F. S. Porter, D. G. Sibeck, et al. J. A. Carter, M. P. Chiao, D. J. Chornay, T. Cravens, M. Galeazzi, J. W. Keller, D. Koutroumpa, K. Kuntz, A. M. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, S. Snowden, and N. Thomas. 2012. "Prototyping a global soft X-ray imaging instrument for heliophysics, planetary science, and astrophysics science." Astronomische Nachrichten 333 (4): 378-382 [10.1002/asna.201211662]

    Collier, M., H. K. Hills, T. J. Stubbs, et al. J. S. Halekas, G. T. Delory, J. R. Espley, W. M. Farrell, and R. R. Vondrak. 2011. "Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals of the Terrestrial Bow Shock." Planet. Sp. Sci. 59 (14): 1727-1743

    Gopalswamy, N., O. Davila, O. Davila, et al. O. Davila, E. C. Sittler, F. Egrave;re, T. L. Duvall, J. Hoeksema, M. Maksimovic, R. J. Macdowall, A. Szabo, and M. Collier. 2011. "Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): A potential International Living with a Star Mission from Sun-Earth L5." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73 658-663 [Full Text (Link)] [ 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.01.013]

    Rowland, D. E., M. R. Collier, J. B. Sigwarth, et al. S. L. Jones, J. K. Hill, R. Benson, M. Choi, D. Chornay, J. Cooper, S. Feng, N. Gill, C. Goodloe, L. Han, H. Hancock, F. Hunsaker, N. Jones, J. W. Keller, J. Klenzing, I. Kleyner, T. Moore, K. Ogilvie, R. Pfaff, T. Price, J. Roman, M. Rodruiguez, P. Rozmarynowski, M. Saulino, S. Sheikh, K. Simms, A. Yew, E. Young, J. Kujawski, M. Boudreaux, J. Casas, D. Myre, and B. Smith. 2011. "Science of opportunity: Heliophysics on the FASTSAT mission and STP-S26." 2011 Aerospace Conference [10.1109/aero.2011.5747235]

    Stubbs, T. J., D. A. Glenar, M. R. Collier, et al. W. M. Farrell, J. S. Halekas, G. T. Delory, and R. R. Vondrak. 2011. "On the role of dust in the lunar ionosphere." Planet Sp Sci 59 (13): 1659-1664

    Farrell, W. M., J. Halekas, T. J. Stubbs, et al. G. Delory, R. Killen, R. Hartle, and M. Collier. 2011. "Regarding the possible generation of a lunar nightside exo-ionosphere." Icarus 216 (1): 169-172 [10.1016/j.icarus.2011.08.013]

    Robertson, I. P., K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, and S. L. Snowden. 2010. "The Heliospheric Contribution to the Soft X-Ray Background Emission." TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL SOLAR WIND CONFERENCE AIP Conference Proceedings 1216 532 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1063/1.3395920]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, J. S. Halekas, et al. R. M. Killen, G. T. Delory, M. Collier, and R. R. Vondrak. 2010. "Anticipated electrical environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters." Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (E3): E03004 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2009JE003464]

    Snowden, S. L., M. R. Collier, T. Cravens, et al. K. D. Kuntz, S. T. Lepri, I. Robertson, and L. Tomas. 2009. "Observation of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission from Exospheric Material in and Outside Earth's Magnetosheath 2008 September 25." The Astrophysical Journal 691 372 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/691/1/372]

    Koutroumpa, D., M. R. Collier, K. D. Kuntz, R. Lallement, and S. L. Snowden. 2009. "Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission from the Helium Focusing Cone: Model to Data Comparison." The Astrophysical Journal 697 1214 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/697/2/1214]

    Collier, M. R., and T. J. Stubbs. 2009. "Neutral solar wind generated by lunar exospheric dust at the terminator." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 114 (A1): [10.1029/2008ja013716]

    Robertson, I. P., S. Sembay, T. J. Stubbs, et al. K. D. Kuntz, M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, S. L. Snowden, H. K. Hills, F. S. Porter, P. Travnicek, J. A. Carter, and A. M. Read. 2009. "Solar wind charge exchange observed through the lunar exosphere." Geophysical Research Letters 36 21102 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2009GL040834]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, J. S. Halekas, et al. G. T. Delory, M. R. Collier, R. R. Vondrak, and R. P. Lin. 2008. "Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions." Geophysical Research Letters 35 05105 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2007GL032653]

    Farrell, W. M., T. J. Stubbs, G. T. Delory, et al. R. R. Vondrak, M. R. Collier, J. S. Halekas, and R. P. Lin. 2008. "Concerning the dissipation of electrically charged objects in the shadowed lunar polar regions." Geophysical Research Letters 35 19104 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1029/2008GL034785]

    Chornay, D., A. Szabo, K. Ogilvie, and M. R. Collier. 2007. "Wind and STEREO - Combined Observations." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A1079-

    Stubbs, T. J., R. R. Vondrak, W. M. Farrell, and M. R. Collier. 2007. "Predictions of dust concentrations in the lunar exosphere." Journal of Astronautics 28 166–167 [Full Text (Link)] [ 1000-1328]

    Collier, M. R., S. Taguchi, R. Nishizawa, et al. S. Snowden, I. Robertson, T. Cravens, T. E. Moore, K. D. Kuntz, and M.-C. Fok. 2006. "Progress in remote sensing the magnetopause and magnetosheath using low energy neutral atoms and x-rays." 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 36 3419-

    Robertson, I. P., M. R. Collier, T. E. Cravens, and M. C. Fok. 2006. "X-ray emission from the terrestrial magnetosheath including the cusps." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 111 [12105-10.1029/2006JA011672]

    Collier, M. R., A. Roberts, and A. Vinas. 2006. "Acoustic kappa-density fluctuation waves in suprathermal kappa function fluids." 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly 36 2565-

    Vaisberg, O. L., L. A. Avanov, A. V. Leibov, et al. V. N. Smirnov, J. Keller, T. Moore, D. Chornay, M. Collier, V. S. Troshin, and V. D. Myagkikh. 2005. "A panoramic plasma spectrometer: An all-sky camera for charged particles." Cosmic Research 43 (5): 373-376 [10.1007/s10604-005-0058-9]

    Taguchi, S., S.-H. Chen, M. R. Collier, et al. T. E. Moore, M.-C. Fok, K. Hosokawa, and A. Nakao. 2005. "Monitoring the high-altitude cusp with the Low Energy Neutral Atom imager: Simultaneous observations from IMAGE and Polar." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 110 [12204-10.1029/2005JA011075]

    Huttunen, K. E., J. Slavin, M. Collier, et al. H. E. Koskinen, A. Szabo, E. Tanskanen, A. Balogh, E. Lucek, and H. Reme. 2005. "Cluster observations of sudden impulses in the magnetotail caused by interplanetary shocks and pressure increases." Annales Geophysicae 23 609-624 [10.5194/angeo-23-609-2005]

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, S. L. Snowden, and K. D. Kuntz. 2005. "One-up on L1: Can X-rays provide longer advanced warning of solar wind flux enhancements than upstream monitors?" Advances in Space Research 35 (12): 2157-2161 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.asr.2005.02.035]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, and T. Tanaka. 2004. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 109 [1206-10.1029/2003JA010094]

    Taguchi, S., M. R. Collier, T. E. Moore, M.-C. Fok, and H. J. Singer. 2004. "Response of neutral atom emissions in the low-latitude and high latitude magnetosheath direction to the magnetopause motion under extreme solar wind conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 109 [4208-10.1029/2003JA010147]

    Koskinen, H., E. Huttunen, J. Slavin, et al. M. Collier, A. Szabo, E. Tanskanen, A. Balogh, E. Lucek, and H. Reme. 2004. "Magnetospheric response to the interplanetary shocks and pressure increases: Cluster observations of sudden impulses in the tail lobes." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 2-

    Hill, M. E., G. B. Vieira, D. C. Hamilton, et al. F. M. Ipavich, M. R. Collier, J. L. Green, M. Fok, T. E. Moore, and S. G. Kanekal. 2004. "Energetic Neutral Atom Response to the Interaction Between the Solar Wind and the Dayside Magnetosphere During the Halloween 2003 Geomagnetic Storm." AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts A8-

    Snowden, S. L., M. R. Collier, and K. D. Kuntz. 2004. "XMM-Newton Observation of Solar Wind Charge Exchange Emission." The Astrophysical Journal 610 1182 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/421841]

    Collier, M. R., D. J. Chornay, J. W. Keller, et al. M. Coplan, N. J. Dionne, B. E. Marji, F. Herrero, J. Hirman, J. Houser, J. Moore, and J. A. Slavin. 2003. "Tomographic imaging of electron distributions: Leveraging computing power advances to produce inexpensive, low-power, lightweight, and robust instrumentation." Review of Scientific Instruments 74 (2): 1002-1007 [10.1063/1.1532543]

    Fok, M.-C., T. E. Moore, M. R. Collier, G. Chin, and T. Tanaka. 2003. "Neutral atom imaging of solar wind interaction with the Earth and Venus." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly 4437-

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, D. Simpson, et al. A. Roberts, A. Szabo, S. A. Fuselier, P. Wurz, and B. T. Tsurutani. 2003. "Characteristics of and constraints on a secondary interstellar neutral stream." EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly 4611-

    Collier, M. R., T. E. Moore, M. Fok, et al. D. Chornay, L. Rastaetter, M. Kuznetsova, A. Falasca, J. Green, S. Boardsen, S. Fuselier, S. Petrinec, M. Thomsen, D. McComas, and T. I. Gombosi. 2001. "LENA Observations on March 31, 2001: Magnetosheath Remote Sensing." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 5-

    Moldwin, M. B., S. Mayerberger, H. K. Rassoul, et al. M. R. Collier, R. P. Lepping, J. A. Slavin, and A. Szabo. 2001. "Evidence of different magnetotail responses to small solar wind pressure pulses depending on IMF Bz polarity." Geophysical Research Letters 28 4163-4166 [10.1029/2001GL013045]

    Moldwin, M. B., M. R. Collier, J. A. Slavin, and A. Szabo. 2001. "On the origin of reverse polarity TCRs." Geophysical Research Letters 28 1925-1928 [10.1029/2000GL012485]

    Collier, M. R., A. Szabo, W. M. Farrell, et al. J. A. Slavin, R. P. Lepping, R. Fitzenreiter, B. Thompson, D. C. Hamilton, G. Gloeckler, G. C. Ho, P. Bochsler, D. Larson, and L. Ofman. 2001. "Reconnection remnants in the magnetic cloud of October 18-19, 1995: A shock, monochromatic wave, heat flux dropout, and energetic ion beam." Journal of Geophysical Research 106 15985-16000 [10.1029/2000JA000101]

    Moore, T. E., D. J. Chornay, M. R. Collier, et al. F. A. Herrero, J. Johnson, M. A. Johnson, J. W. Keller, J. F. Laudadio, J. F. Lobell, K. W. Ogilvie, P. Rozmarynowski, S. A. Fuselier, A. G. Ghielmetti, E. Hertzberg, D. C. Hamilton, R. Lundgren, P. Wilson, P. Walpole, T. M. Stephen, B. L. Peko, B. Van Zyl, P. Wurz, J. M. Quinn, and G. R. Wilson. 2000. "The low-energy neutral atom imager for IMAGE." Space Science Reviews, v 91, Issue 1/2, p 155-195 (2000) 91 155 [Full Text (Link)]

    Laakso, H., D. H. Fairfield, M. R. Collier, et al. H. Opgenoorth, T.-D. Phan, D. G. Sibeck, B. L. Giles, H. J. Singer, R. P. Lepping, R. P. Lin, F. S. Mozer, R. F. Pfaff, K. Tsuruda, and J. R. Wygant. 1998. "Oscillations of magnetospheric boundaries driven by IMF rotations." Geophysical Research Letters 25 3007-3010 [10.1029/98GL50916]

    Non-Refereed

    Farrell, W. M., J. E. Bleacher, T. J. Ames, et al. L. M. Carter, C. Y. Cheung, M. R. Collier, J. F. Cooper, R. L. Hudson, T. L. Jackson, J. W. Keller, R. M. Killen, M. M. Kuznetsova, M. J. Loeffler, R. J. MacDowall, A. M. Parsons, N. E. Petro, A. A. Pulkkinen, Y. Zheng, and M. I. Zimmerman. 2013. "'Where to Hide?': A Tele-Robotic Application for HEOMD's Earth-Moon L2 Mission." Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 44 2514

    Rowland, D. E., J. H. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, et al. C. L. Lemon, M. R. Collier, J. W. Keller, R. F. Pfaff, J. H. Klenzing, and J. McLain. 2013. "VISIONS: Combined remote sensing and in situ observations of auroral zone ion outflow during a substorm." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A7-

    McLain, J., M. R. Collier, J. W. Keller, et al. D. E. Rowland, J. T. Kujawski, D. J. Chornay, N. Dobson, P. Rozmarynowski, K. Simms, R. F. Pfaff, J. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, C. Lemon, and J. Klenzing. 2013. "Miniaturized Imager for Low Energy Neutral Atoms (MILENA) Flown Feb. 7, 2013 on the VISIONS Sounding Rocket Mission." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A2102-

    Keller, J. W., M. R. Collier, J. McLain, et al. D. E. Rowland, R. F. Pfaff, J. Klenzing, J. H. Clemmons, J. H. Hecht, and C. L. Lemon. 2013. "Ionospheric Outflow Results from the VISIONS/MILENA Low Energy Neutral Atom Imaging Instruments." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A2100-

    Collier, M. R., T. F. Abbey, N. P. Bannister, et al. J. A. Carter, M. Choi, T. Cravens, M. Evans, G. W. Fraser, H. K. Hills, K. Kuntz, J. Lyons, N. Omidi, F. S. Porter, A. M. Read, I. Robertson, P. Rozmarynowski, S. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, S. L. Snowden, T. Stubbs, and P. Travnicek. 2009. "The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)/Magnetosheath Explorer in X-rays (MagEX)." LOCAL BUBBLE AND BEYOND II 1156 105-111

    Porter, F. S., T. F. Abbey, N. P. Bannister, et al. J. A. Carter, M. Collier, T. Cravens, M. Evans, G. W. Fraser, M. Galeazzi, K. Hills, K. Kuntz, A. Read, I. P. Robertson, S. Sembay, D. G. Sibeck, S. Snowden, T. Stubbs, and P. Travnicek. 2008. "The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)." Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2008: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray [10.1117/12.790182]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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