Mark A Chandler

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Mark A Chandler

  • ASSOC. RESEARCH SCIENTIST
  • 212.678.5644
  • NASA GISS
  • 2880 Broadway
  • NEW YORK , NY 10025
  • Employer: TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Mark Chandler is a climate scientist at Columbia University in New York City and has worked in NASA’s global climate modeling research group at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA/GISS) since 1987. The main focus of his research is in the use of computer climate models to study Earth’s past climates. He is particularly interested in simulating extreme climates in Earth history and using the findings to help better understand the potential impacts of future climate change and the potential habitability of planets in other solar systems. Dr. Chandler is also the director of the Educational Global Climate Modeling project (EdGCM), an edcuation and outreach program that produces software and materials to make NASA’s global climate models more accessible to educators, students and other researchers.

    Research Interests

    Pre-Quaternary Paleoclimate Modeling

    I have been involved in projects to simulate the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth events, the climates of the super-continent Pangea, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. However, my current focus is on the mid-Pliocene global warming, which occurred approximately 3 million years ago and is the most recent period in geologic history during which global temperatures were as warm as forecasts for later this century. My research on the Pliocene centers on the relative roles of altered ocean circulation and greenhouse gases in creating the period's increased temperatures and sea levels, as well as its reduced sea ice and continental ice sheets. I work with a multi-disciplinary team that includes participation from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey and NASA. Together, it is our goal to provide the best description of the middle Pliocene global warming, using perspectives from marine and terrestrial data as well as climate model simulations. By understanding the role of key forcings and feedbacks in this relatively recent warm climate, we aim to examine the potential for ocean-related "surprises" that may impact the timing and severity of future global warming.

    Climate Modeling in Education

    The Educational Global Climate Modeling (EdGCM) Project develops and disseminates an integrated suite of software that makes it possible for educational institutions to operate a fully functional version of the GISS GCM Model II without the need for programmers or supercomuters. EdGCM uses a graphical user interface to ease the operation of the GCM's basic functions, from model set up to post-processing of output. It is built on a database framework so that teachers, students or scientists can more easily organize large numbers of experiments as well as the input and output from clmate simulations. Scientific visualization capability is supplied and there are user-expandable image libraries, and eJournals. Thus, using EdGCM students can obtain a complete and meaningful research experience in which they learn about various climate change issues (global warming, past climates, etc.) while simultaneously learning about computer modeling techniques, Numerous universities, schools and research institutions are employing EdGCM as a means of lowering the barriers to participation in climate change and climate modeling science.

    Positions/Employment

    1994 - Present

    Associate Research Scientist

    Columbia University. Center for Climate Systems Research, NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York  
    2010 - Present

    Science Instructor

    American Museum of Natural History, New York  
    2005 - Present

    Honorary Faculty Fellow

    Department of Atmospheric & Oceanic Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison  
    1995 - 2000

    Honorary Faculty Fellow

    Department of Atmospheric & Oceanic Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison  
    1993 - 1995

    Adjunct Associate Research Scientist

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York  
    1991 - 1994

    Postdoctoral Fellow

    NOAA & University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York  
    1987 - 1992

    Graduate Research Assistant

    Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, New York  
    1984 - 1987

    Graduate Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant

    Departments of Geological Sciences and of Petroleum Engineering, University of Texas, Austin  

    Teaching Experience

     I have taught over a hundred professional development workshops since 2003 as part of the Educational Global Climate Modeling project. I have also co-taught a 6-week on-line course on Climate Change for the American Museum of Natural History approximately 6 times a year since 2011.

    Education

    • 1983, B.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Geology & Geophysics
    • 1986, M.S., University of Texas-Austin, Geoscience
    • 1992, Ph.D., Columbia University in New York, Geological Sciences (Atmospheric Science)

    Professional Societies

    Geological Society of America, 1985 - Present
    American Geophysical Union, 1988 - Present
    American Meteorological Society, 1992 - Present

    Professional Service

    • PI, Center for Climate Systems Research, Cooperative Agreement -- The center is a collaborative research effort between Columbia University and NASA-GISS and involves more than 50 scientists, students, and programmers (1994-present).
    • Director, The Educational Global Climate Modeling Project -- The EdGCM project designs, distributes and supports global climate modeling at universities, museums, and through professional development workshops and on-line courses. (1997-present)
    • Advisory Committee: Wisconsin Energy Summit (annually)
    • Scientific Advisory Board, Concorde Consortium, High Adventure Science Project
    • Steering Committee member, NRC Panel on Deep-Time Climate Change (2007-2011)
    • Steering Committee member, NSF Geosystems Initiative (2002-2008)

    Publications

    Refereed

    Hill, D. J., A. M. Haywood, D. J. Lunt, et al. S. J. Hunter, F. J. Bragg, C. Contoux, C. Stepanek, L. Sohl, N. A. Rosenbloom, W. L. Chan, Y. Kamae, Z. Zhang, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. A. Chandler, A. Jost, G. Lohmann, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. Ramstein, and H. Ueda. 2014. "Evaluating the dominant components of warming in Pliocene climate simulations." Climate of the Past, 10 (1): 79-90 [10.5194/cp-10-79-2014]

    Chandler, M. A., L. E. Sohl, J. A. Jonas, H. J. Dowsett, and M. Kelley. 2013. "Simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period using two versions of the NASA/GISS ModelE2-R Coupled Model." Geosci. Model Dev., 6 (2): 517-531 [10.5194/gmd-6-517-2013]

    Dowsett, H. J., K. M. Foley, D. K. Stoll, et al. M. A. Chandler, L. E. Sohl, M. Bentsen, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, F. J. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, C. Contoux, A. M. Dolan, A. M. Haywood, J. A. Jonas, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, K. H. Nisancioglu, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Ramstein, C. R. Riesselman, M. M. Robinson, N. A. Rosenbloom, U. Salzmann, C. Stepanek, S. L. Strother, H. Ueda, Q. Yan, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Sea Surface Temperature of the mid-Piacenzian Ocean: A Data-Model Comparison." Sci. Rep., 3: [10.1038/srep02013]

    Haywood, A. M., D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, et al. B. Otto-Bliesner, F. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, M. A. Chandler, C. Contoux, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, A. Abe-Ouchi, S. J. Pickering, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, C. Stepanek, Q. Yan, H. Ueda, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project." Climate of the Past, 9 (1): 191-209 [10.5194/cp-9-191-2013]

    Salzmann, U., A. M. Dolan, A. M. Haywood, et al. W.-L. Chan, J. Voss, D. J. Hill, A. Abe-Ouchi, B. Otto-Bliesner, F. Bragg, M. A. Chandler, C. Contoux, H. J. Dowsett, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, S. J. Pickering, M. J. Pound, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, C. Stepanek, H. Ueda, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Challenges in quantifying Pliocene terrestrial warming revealed by data–model discord." Nature Climate change, 3 (11): 969-974 [10.1038/nclimate2008]

    Zhang, R., Q. Yan, Z. S. Zhang, et al. D. Jiang, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, A. M. Haywood, D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, C. Stepanek, G. Lohmann, C. Contoux, F. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, M. A. Chandler, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, and H. Ueda. 2013. "Mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate simulated in the PlioMIP." Climate of the Past, 9 (5): 2085-2099 [10.5194/cp-9-2085-2013]

    Zhang, Z.-S., K. H. Nisancioglu, M. A. Chandler, et al. A. M. Haywood, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. Ramstein, C. Stepanek, A. Abe-Ouchi, W.-L. Chan, F. J. Bragg, C. Contoux, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Hill, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. E. Sohl, and H. Ueda. 2013. "Mid-pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation not unlike modern." Climate of the Past, 9 (4): 1495-1504 [10.5194/cp-9-1495-2013]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. M. Robinson, A. M. Haywood, et al. D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, D. K. Stoll, W. L. Chan, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. A. Chandler, N. A. Rosenbloom, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, F. J. Bragg, D. J. Lunt, K. M. Foley, and C. R. Riesselman. 2012. "Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models." Nature Clim Change, 2 (5): 365-371 [10.1038/nclimate1455]

    Shukla, S. P., M. A. Chandler, D. Rind, et al. L. Sohl, J. A. Jonas, and J. Lerner. 2011. "Teleconnections in a warmer climate: the pliocene perspective." Clim Dyn, 37 (9-10): 1869-1887 [10.1007/s00382-010-0976-y]

    Haywood, A. M., H. J. Dowsett, M. M. Robinson, et al. D. K. Stoll, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Lunt, B. Otto-Bliesner, and M. A. Chandler. 2011. "Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 2)." Geosci. Model Dev., 4 (3): 571-577 [10.5194/gmd-4-571-2011]

    Dowsett, H., M. Robinson, A. Haywood, et al. U. Salzmann, D. Hill, L. Sohl, M. A. Chandler, M. Williams, K. Foley, and D. Stoll. 2010. "The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction." Stratigraphy, 7: 123-139.

    Haywood, A. M., H. J. Dowsett, B. Otto-Bliesner, et al. M. A. Chandler, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Hill, D. J. Lunt, M. M. Robinson, N. Rosenbloom, U. Salzmann, and L. Sohl. 2010. "Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 1)." Geosci. Model Dev., 3 (1): 227-242 [10.5194/gmd-3-227-2010]

    Shukla, S. P., M. A. Chandler, J. A. Jonas, et al. L. Sohl, K. Mankoff, and H. Dowsett. 2009. "Impact of a permanent El Niño (El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole in warm Pliocene climates." Paleoceanography, 24 (2): PA2221 [10.1029/2008PA001682]

    Haywood, A. M., M. A. Chandler, P. J. Valdes, et al. U. Salzmann, D. J. Lunt, and H. J. Dowsett. 2009. "Comparison of mid-Pliocene climate predictions produced by the HadAM3 and GCMAM3 General Circulation Models." Global and Planetary Change, 66 (3-4): 208-224 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.12.014]

    Dwyer, G. S., and M. A. Chandler. 2009. "Mid-Pliocene sea level and continental ice volume based on coupled benthic Mg/Ca palaeotemperatures and oxygen isotopes." Phil. Tran.s R. Soc. A, 367 (1886): 157-168 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0222]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. A. Chandler, and M. M. Robinson. 2009. "Surface temperatures of the Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean: implications for future climate." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 367 (1886): 69-84 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0213]

    Robinson, M., H. J. Dowsett, and M. A. Chandler. 2008. "Pliocene role in assessing future climate impacts." Eos Trans Amer Geophys U, 89: 501-502.

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn, 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Cronin, T. M., H. J. Dowsett, G. S. Dwyer, P. A. Baker, and M. A. Chandler. 2005. "Mid-Pliocene deep-sea bottom-water temperatures based on ostracode Mg/Ca ratios." Marine Micropaleontology, 54 (3-4): 249-261 [10.1016/j.marmicro.2004.12.003]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. A. Chandler, T. M. Cronin, and G. S. Dwyer. 2005. "Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability." Paleoceanography, 20 (2): PA2014 [10.1029/2005PA001133]

    Rind, D., M. Chandler, J. Lerner, D. G. Martinson, and X. Yuan. 2001. "Climate response to basin-specific changes in latitudinal temperature gradients and implications for sea ice variability." J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D17): 20161-20173 [10.1029/2000JD900643]

    Rind, D., M. Chandler, P. Lonergan, and J. Lerner. 2001. "Climate change and the middle atmosphere: 5. Paleostratosphere in cold and warm climates." J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D17): 20195-20212 [10.1029/2000JD900548]

    Shah, K. P., D. Rind, L. Druyan, P. Lonergan, and M. Chandler. 2000. "AGCM hindcasts with SST and other forcings: Responses from global to agricultural scales." J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D15): 20025-20053 [10.1029/2000JD900019]

    Druyan, L. M., K. P. Shah, M. A. Chandler, and D. Rind. 2000. "GCM hindcasts of SST forced climate variability over agriculturally intensive regions." Climatic Change, 45 (2): 279-322 [10.1023/A:1005571213805]

    Chandler, M. A., and L. E. Sohl. 2000. "Climate forcings and the initiation of low-latitude ice sheets during the Neoproterozoic Varanger glacial interval." J. Geophys. Res., 105 (D16): 20737-20756 [10.1029/2000JD900221]

    O'Connell, S., M. A. Chandler, and R. Ruedy. 1996. "Implications for the creation of warm saline deep water: Late Paleocene reconstructions and global climte model simulations." Geol Soc Amer Bull, 100: 270-284.

    Chandler, M. 1996. "Trees retreat and ice advances." Nature, 381 (6582): 477-478 [10.1038/381477a0]

    Poore, R. Z., and M. A. Chandler. 1994. "Simulating past climates. The data—model connection." Global and Planetary Change, 9 (3-4): 165-167 [10.1016/0921-8181(94)90014-0]

    Chandler, M. A., D. Rind, and R. S. Thompson. 1994. "Joint investigations of the middle Pliocene climate II: GISS GCM Northern Hemisphere results." Global and Planetary Change, 9 (3-4): 197-219 [10.1016/0921-8181(94)90016-7]

    Chandler, M. 1993. "Not just a lot of hot air." Nature, 363 (6431): 673-674 [10.1038/363673a0]

    Chandler, M. A., D. Rind, and R. Ruedy. 1992. "Pangaean climate during the Early Jurassic: GCM simulations and the sedimentary record of paleoclimate:." Geol Soc Amer Bull, 104: 543-559.

    Goggin, D. J., M. A. Chandler, G. Kocurek, and L. W. Lake. 1992. "Permeability transects of eolian sands and their use in generating random permeability fields." SPE Formation Eval, 7: 7-16.

    Rind, D., and M. Chandler. 1991. "Increased ocean heat transports and warmer climate." J Geophys Res, 96 (D4): 7437-7461 [10.1029/91JD00009]

    Non-Refereed

    Sohl, L., M. A. Chandler, R. B. Schmunk, et al. K. Mankoff, J. A. Jonas, K. M. Foley, and H. J. Dowsett. 2009. "PRISM3/GISS Topographic Reconstruction." USGS Data Series 419:

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Mark Chandler is a climate scientist at Columbia University in New York City and has worked in NASA’s global climate modeling research group at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA/GISS) since 1987. The main focus of his research is in the use of computer climate models to study Earth’s past climates. He is particularly interested in simulating extreme climates in Earth history and using the findings to help better understand the potential impacts of future climate change and the potential habitability of planets in other solar systems. Dr. Chandler is also the director of the Educational Global Climate Modeling project (EdGCM), an edcuation and outreach program that produces software and materials to make NASA’s global climate models more accessible to educators, students and other researchers.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Hill, D. J., A. M. Haywood, D. J. Lunt, et al. S. J. Hunter, F. J. Bragg, C. Contoux, C. Stepanek, L. Sohl, N. A. Rosenbloom, W. L. Chan, Y. Kamae, Z. Zhang, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. A. Chandler, A. Jost, G. Lohmann, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. Ramstein, and H. Ueda. 2014. "Evaluating the dominant components of warming in Pliocene climate simulations." Climate of the Past 10 (1): 79-90 [10.5194/cp-10-79-2014]

    Chandler, M. A., L. E. Sohl, J. A. Jonas, H. J. Dowsett, and M. Kelley. 2013. "Simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period using two versions of the NASA/GISS ModelE2-R Coupled Model." Geosci. Model Dev. 6 (2): 517-531 [10.5194/gmd-6-517-2013]

    Dowsett, H. J., K. M. Foley, D. K. Stoll, et al. M. A. Chandler, L. E. Sohl, M. Bentsen, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, F. J. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, C. Contoux, A. M. Dolan, A. M. Haywood, J. A. Jonas, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, K. H. Nisancioglu, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Ramstein, C. R. Riesselman, M. M. Robinson, N. A. Rosenbloom, U. Salzmann, C. Stepanek, S. L. Strother, H. Ueda, Q. Yan, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Sea Surface Temperature of the mid-Piacenzian Ocean: A Data-Model Comparison." Sci. Rep. 3 [10.1038/srep02013]

    Haywood, A. M., D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, et al. B. Otto-Bliesner, F. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, M. A. Chandler, C. Contoux, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, A. Abe-Ouchi, S. J. Pickering, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, C. Stepanek, Q. Yan, H. Ueda, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Large-scale features of Pliocene climate: results from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project." Climate of the Past 9 (1): 191-209 [10.5194/cp-9-191-2013]

    Salzmann, U., A. M. Dolan, A. M. Haywood, et al. W.-L. Chan, J. Voss, D. J. Hill, A. Abe-Ouchi, B. Otto-Bliesner, F. Bragg, M. A. Chandler, C. Contoux, H. J. Dowsett, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, S. J. Pickering, M. J. Pound, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, C. Stepanek, H. Ueda, and Z. Zhang. 2013. "Challenges in quantifying Pliocene terrestrial warming revealed by data–model discord." Nature Climate change 3 (11): 969-974 [10.1038/nclimate2008]

    Zhang, R., Q. Yan, Z. S. Zhang, et al. D. Jiang, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, A. M. Haywood, D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, C. Stepanek, G. Lohmann, C. Contoux, F. Bragg, W.-L. Chan, M. A. Chandler, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, A. Abe-Ouchi, G. Ramstein, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. Sohl, and H. Ueda. 2013. "Mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate simulated in the PlioMIP." Climate of the Past 9 (5): 2085-2099 [10.5194/cp-9-2085-2013]

    Zhang, Z.-S., K. H. Nisancioglu, M. A. Chandler, et al. A. M. Haywood, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, G. Ramstein, C. Stepanek, A. Abe-Ouchi, W.-L. Chan, F. J. Bragg, C. Contoux, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Hill, A. Jost, Y. Kamae, G. Lohmann, D. J. Lunt, N. A. Rosenbloom, L. E. Sohl, and H. Ueda. 2013. "Mid-pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation not unlike modern." Climate of the Past 9 (4): 1495-1504 [10.5194/cp-9-1495-2013]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. M. Robinson, A. M. Haywood, et al. D. J. Hill, A. M. Dolan, D. K. Stoll, W. L. Chan, A. Abe-Ouchi, M. A. Chandler, N. A. Rosenbloom, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, F. J. Bragg, D. J. Lunt, K. M. Foley, and C. R. Riesselman. 2012. "Assessing confidence in Pliocene sea surface temperatures to evaluate predictive models." Nature Clim Change 2 (5): 365-371 [10.1038/nclimate1455]

    Shukla, S. P., M. A. Chandler, D. Rind, et al. L. Sohl, J. A. Jonas, and J. Lerner. 2011. "Teleconnections in a warmer climate: the pliocene perspective." Clim Dyn 37 (9-10): 1869-1887 [10.1007/s00382-010-0976-y]

    Haywood, A. M., H. J. Dowsett, M. M. Robinson, et al. D. K. Stoll, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Lunt, B. Otto-Bliesner, and M. A. Chandler. 2011. "Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 2)." Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (3): 571-577 [10.5194/gmd-4-571-2011]

    Dowsett, H., M. Robinson, A. Haywood, et al. U. Salzmann, D. Hill, L. Sohl, M. A. Chandler, M. Williams, K. Foley, and D. Stoll. 2010. "The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction." Stratigraphy 7 123-139

    Haywood, A. M., H. J. Dowsett, B. Otto-Bliesner, et al. M. A. Chandler, A. M. Dolan, D. J. Hill, D. J. Lunt, M. M. Robinson, N. Rosenbloom, U. Salzmann, and L. Sohl. 2010. "Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP): experimental design and boundary conditions (Experiment 1)." Geosci. Model Dev. 3 (1): 227-242 [10.5194/gmd-3-227-2010]

    Shukla, S. P., M. A. Chandler, J. A. Jonas, et al. L. Sohl, K. Mankoff, and H. Dowsett. 2009. "Impact of a permanent El Niño (El Padre) and Indian Ocean Dipole in warm Pliocene climates." Paleoceanography 24 (2): PA2221 [10.1029/2008PA001682]

    Haywood, A. M., M. A. Chandler, P. J. Valdes, et al. U. Salzmann, D. J. Lunt, and H. J. Dowsett. 2009. "Comparison of mid-Pliocene climate predictions produced by the HadAM3 and GCMAM3 General Circulation Models." Global and Planetary Change 66 (3-4): 208-224 [10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.12.014]

    Dwyer, G. S., and M. A. Chandler. 2009. "Mid-Pliocene sea level and continental ice volume based on coupled benthic Mg/Ca palaeotemperatures and oxygen isotopes." Phil. Tran.s R. Soc. A 367 (1886): 157-168 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0222]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. A. Chandler, and M. M. Robinson. 2009. "Surface temperatures of the Mid-Pliocene North Atlantic Ocean: implications for future climate." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367 (1886): 69-84 [10.1098/rsta.2008.0213]

    Robinson, M., H. J. Dowsett, and M. A. Chandler. 2008. "Pliocene role in assessing future climate impacts." Eos Trans Amer Geophys U 89 501-502.

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Cronin, T. M., H. J. Dowsett, G. S. Dwyer, P. A. Baker, and M. A. Chandler. 2005. "Mid-Pliocene deep-sea bottom-water temperatures based on ostracode Mg/Ca ratios." Marine Micropaleontology 54 (3-4): 249-261 [10.1016/j.marmicro.2004.12.003]

    Dowsett, H. J., M. A. Chandler, T. M. Cronin, and G. S. Dwyer. 2005. "Middle Pliocene sea surface temperature variability." Paleoceanography 20 (2): PA2014 [10.1029/2005PA001133]

    Rind, D., M. Chandler, J. Lerner, D. G. Martinson, and X. Yuan. 2001. "Climate response to basin-specific changes in latitudinal temperature gradients and implications for sea ice variability." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D17): 20161-20173 [10.1029/2000JD900643]

    Rind, D., M. Chandler, P. Lonergan, and J. Lerner. 2001. "Climate change and the middle atmosphere: 5. Paleostratosphere in cold and warm climates." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D17): 20195-20212 [10.1029/2000JD900548]

    Shah, K. P., D. Rind, L. Druyan, P. Lonergan, and M. Chandler. 2000. "AGCM hindcasts with SST and other forcings: Responses from global to agricultural scales." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D15): 20025-20053 [10.1029/2000JD900019]

    Druyan, L. M., K. P. Shah, M. A. Chandler, and D. Rind. 2000. "GCM hindcasts of SST forced climate variability over agriculturally intensive regions." Climatic Change 45 (2): 279-322 [10.1023/A:1005571213805]

    Chandler, M. A., and L. E. Sohl. 2000. "Climate forcings and the initiation of low-latitude ice sheets during the Neoproterozoic Varanger glacial interval." J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D16): 20737-20756 [10.1029/2000JD900221]

    O'Connell, S., M. A. Chandler, and R. Ruedy. 1996. "Implications for the creation of warm saline deep water: Late Paleocene reconstructions and global climte model simulations." Geol Soc Amer Bull 100 270-284

    Chandler, M. 1996. "Trees retreat and ice advances." Nature 381 (6582): 477-478 [10.1038/381477a0]

    Poore, R. Z., and M. A. Chandler. 1994. "Simulating past climates. The data—model connection." Global and Planetary Change 9 (3-4): 165-167 [10.1016/0921-8181(94)90014-0]

    Chandler, M. A., D. Rind, and R. S. Thompson. 1994. "Joint investigations of the middle Pliocene climate II: GISS GCM Northern Hemisphere results." Global and Planetary Change 9 (3-4): 197-219 [10.1016/0921-8181(94)90016-7]

    Chandler, M. 1993. "Not just a lot of hot air." Nature 363 (6431): 673-674 [10.1038/363673a0]

    Chandler, M. A., D. Rind, and R. Ruedy. 1992. "Pangaean climate during the Early Jurassic: GCM simulations and the sedimentary record of paleoclimate:." Geol Soc Amer Bull 104 543-559

    Goggin, D. J., M. A. Chandler, G. Kocurek, and L. W. Lake. 1992. "Permeability transects of eolian sands and their use in generating random permeability fields." SPE Formation Eval 7 7-16

    Rind, D., and M. Chandler. 1991. "Increased ocean heat transports and warmer climate." J Geophys Res 96 (D4): 7437-7461 [10.1029/91JD00009]

    Non-Refereed

    Sohl, L., M. A. Chandler, R. B. Schmunk, et al. K. Mankoff, J. A. Jonas, K. M. Foley, and H. J. Dowsett. 2009. "PRISM3/GISS Topographic Reconstruction." USGS Data Series 419

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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