Lawrence Coy

Lawrence Coy

  • LEAD RESEARCH SCIENTIST
  • 301.614.6178
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 610.1
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: SCIENCE SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS INC
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Coy has been at SSAI since August 2012.  Before that he worked from 2001-20012 in the federal government as a research physicist in the Upper Atmospheric Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory.  His past experience includes working closely with both the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch and the Data Assimilation Office (now the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office) at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center while employed by General Sciences Corp. (1995-2000) and Applied Research Corp. (1991-1994). Past experience also includes teaching dynamic meteorology (Saint Louis University, 1987-1991) and working with radar based gravity wave observations (University of Alaska, 1985-1987; NOAA Aeronomy Lab, 1983-1985). While working for NASA he analyzed winds, temperatures, and constituents from global circulation models, transport models, and data assimilation products, with emphasis on the middle atmosphere circulation, planetary waves, and inertia gravity waves. He also worked on the first assimilation of MLS temperatures from UARS and now Aura using the NASA data assimilation system. Current work includes data assimilation and forecasting of the stratosphere, middle atmosphere dynamics, and the analysis of singular vectors in the middle atmosphere. Dr. Coy has authored or co-authored 40 research articles that have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, two of which have each been cited in excess of 100 times. His article in The Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences on the dynamics of the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming [Coy et al., 2009; see below] was highlighted as a “Paper of Note” in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Vol. 90, Pages 609-611, 2009).

    Education

    Ph.D. Atmospheric Sciences 1983, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
    M.S. Physics 1975, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL
    B.A. Physics 1973, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Publications

    Refereed

    Coy, L., M. R. Schoeberl, S. Pawson, S. Candido, and R. W. Carver. 2019. "Global Assimilation of Loon Stratospheric Balloon Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124 (6): 3005-3019 [10.1029/2018jd029673]

    Kramarova, N. A., P. Newman, E. R. Nash, et al. S. E. Strahan, C. S. Long, B. Johnson, M. L. Santee, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. O. Braathen, and L. Coy. 2018. "Antarctic ozone hole [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99 (8): s190-s192 [10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1]

    Wargan, K., C. Orbe, S. Pawson, et al. J. R. Ziemke, L. D. Oman, M. A. Olsen, L. Coy, and K. E. Knowland. 2018. "Recent decline in extratropical lower stratospheric ozone attributed to circulation changes." Geophysical Research Letters, [10.1029/2018gl077406]

    Schoeberl, M. R., E. Jensen, A. Podglajen, et al. L. Coy, C. Lodha, S. Candido, and R. Carver. 2017. "Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122: [10.1002/2017jd026471]

    Coy, L., P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, and L. R. Lait. 2017. "Dynamics of the Disrupted 2015/16 Quasi-Biennial Oscillation." Journal of Climate, 30 (15): 5661-5674 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0663.1]

    Tweedy, O. V., N. A. Kramarova, S. E. Strahan, et al. P. A. Newman, L. Coy, W. J. Randel, M. Park, D. W. Waugh, and S. M. Frith. 2017. "Response of trace gases to the disrupted 2015–2016 quasi-biennial oscillation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17 (11): 6813-6823 [10.5194/acp-17-6813-2017]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate, 30: 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    De Wit, R., D. Janches, D. C. Fritts, R. G. Stockwell, and L. Coy. 2017. "Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hotspot." Geophysical Research Letters, [10.1002/2016GL072311]

    Newman, P. A., L. Coy, S. Pawson, and L. R. Lait. 2016. "The anomalous change in the QBO in 2015-16." Geophysical Research Letters, 43: [10.1002/2016gl070373]

    Holt, L. A., M. Joan Alexander, L. Coy, et al. A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in a 7-km global climate simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73: 3771–3783 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0350.1]

    Coy, L., K. Wargan, A. M. Molod, W. R. McCarty, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Structure and Dynamics of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in MERRA-2." J. Climate, 29:14: 5339-5354 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0809.1]

    Wargan, K., and L. Coy. 2016. "Strengthening of the Tropopause Inversion Layer During the 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming: A MERRA-2 Study." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, [10.1175/jas-d-15-0333.1]

    Zhu, X., J.-H. Yee, M. Cai, et al. W. H. Swartz, L. Coy, V. Aquila, R. Garcia, and E. R. Talaat. 2016. "Diagnosis of Middle-Atmosphere Climate Sensitivity by the Climate Feedback–Response Analysis Method." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73 (1): 3–23 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0013.1]

    Strahan, S. E., L. D. Oman, A. R. Douglass, and L. Coy. 2015. "Modulation of Antarctic vortex composition by the quasi-biennial oscillation." Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (10): 4216-4223 [10.1002/2015gl063759]

    Coy, L., and S. Pawson. 2014. "The major stratospheric sudden warming of January 2013: Analyses and forecasts in the GEOS-5 data assimilation." Mon. Wea. Rev, 143: 491-510 [10.1175/MWR-D-14-00023.1]

    McCormack, J. P., L. Coy, and W. Singer. 2014. "Intraseasonal and interannual variability of the quasi 2 day wave in the Northern Hemisphere summer mesosphere." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (6): 2928–2946 [10.1002/2013JD020199]

    Hoppel, K. W., S. D. Eckermann, L. Coy, et al. G. E. Nedoluha, D. R. Allen, S. D. Swadley, and N. L. Baker. 2013. "Evaluation of SSMIS Upper Atmosphere Sounding Channels for High-Altitude Data Assimilation." Monthly Weather Review, 141 (10): 3314-3330 [10.1175/mwr-d-13-00003.1]

    Remsberg, E., M. Natarajan, T. Fairlie, et al. K. Wargan, S. Pawson, L. Coy, G. Lingenfelser, and G. Kim. 2013. "On the inclusion of Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere version 6 ozone in a data assimilation system." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (14): 7982-8000 [10.1002/jgrd.50566]

    Coy, L., and C. A. Reynolds. 2013. "Singular vectors and their nonlinear evolution during the January 2009 stratospheric sudden warming." Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 140 (680): 1013-1024 [10.1002/qj.2181]

    Allen, D. R., A. R. Douglass, G. E. Nedoulha, and L. Coy. 2012. "Tracer transport during the Arctic stratospheric final warming based on a 33-year (1979-2011) tracer equivalent latitude simulation." Geophys. Res. Lett., 39 (12): L12801 [10.1029/2012GL051930]

    Coy, L., S. D. Eckermann, K. W. Hoppel, and F. Sassi. 2011. "Mesospheric Precursors to the Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2009: Validation and Dynamical Attribution Using a Ground-to-Edge-of-Space Data Assimilation System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 3 (4): [10.1029/2011ms000067]

    Siskind, D. E., S. D. Eckermann, J. P. McCormack, et al. L. Coy, K. W. Hoppel, and N. L. Baker. 2010. "Case studies of the mesospheric response to recent minor, major, and extended stratospheric warmings." Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: D00N03 [10.1029/2010jd014114]

    Stevens, M. H., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, C. R. Englert, K. W. Hoppel, K. Nielsen, A. J. Kochenash, M. E. Hervig, C. E. Randall, J. Lumpe, S. M. Bailey, M. Rapp, and P. Hoffmann. 2010. "Tidally induced variations of polar mesospheric cloud altitudes and ice water content using a data assimilation system." Journal of Geophysical Research, 115 (D18): D18209 [10.1029/2009jd013225]

    Nielsen, K., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. K. W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, S. Benze, C. E. Randall, and M. E. Hervig. 2010. "Seasonal variation of the quasi 5 day planetary wave: Causes and consequences for polar mesospheric cloud variability in 2007." Journal of Geophysical Research, 115 (D18): D18111 [10.1029/2009jd012676]

    Zhu, X., J.-H. Yee, W. H. Swartz, E. R. Talaat, and L. Coy. 2010. "A Spectral Parameterization of Drag, Eddy Diffusion, and Wave Heating for a Three-Dimensional Flow Induced by Breaking Gravity Waves." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 67 (8): 2520-2536 [10.1175/2010jas3302.1]

    Eckermann, S. D., K. W. Hoppel, L. Coy, et al. J. P. McCormack, D. E. Siskind, K. Nielsen, A. Kochenash, M. H. Stevens, C. R. Englert, W. Singer, and M. Hervig. 2009. "High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71 (3-4): 531-551 [10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.036]

    Coy, L., S. Eckermann, and K. Hoppel. 2009. "Planetary Wave Breaking and Tropospheric Forcing as Seen in the Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2006." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 66 (2): 495-507 [10.1175/2008jas2784.1]

    McCormack, J. P., L. Coy, and K. W. Hoppel. 2009. "Evolution of the quasi 2-day wave during January 2006." Journal of Geophysical Research, 114 (D20): D20115 [10.1029/2009jd012239]

    Coy, L., D. R. Allen, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, I. Stajner, and T. F. Hogan. 2007. "Effects of model chemistry and data biases on stratospheric ozone assimilation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7 (11): 2917-2935 [10.5194/acp-7-2917-2007]

    Siskind, D. E., S. D. Eckermann, L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, and C. E. Randall. 2007. "On recent interannual variability of the Arctic winter mesosphere: Implications for tracer descent." Geophysical Research Letters, 34 (9): [10.1029/2007gl029293]

    Allen, D. R., L. Coy, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, G. L. Manney, T. F. Hogan, and Y.-J. Kim. 2006. "NOGAPS-ALPHA Simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Major Warming." Monthly Weather Review, 134 (2): 498-518 [10.1175/mwr3086.1]

    Wu, D. L., P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. H. Jiang, M. D. Juarez, L. Coy, and D. Y. Wang. 2006. "Remote sounding of atmospheric gravity waves with satellite limb and nadir techniques." Advances in Space Research, 37 (12): 2269-2277 [10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.031]

    Coy, L., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, D. R. Allen, and T. F. Hogan. 2005. "Modeling the August 2002 minor warming event." Geophysical Research Letters, 32 (7): [10.1029/2005gl022400]

    Siskind, D., L. Coy, and P. Espy. 2005. "Observations of stratospheric warmings and mesospheric coolings by the TIMED SABER instrument." GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 32 (9): [10.1029/2005GL022399]

    Coy, L., I. Stajner, A. M. da Silva, et al. J. Joiner, R. B. Rood, P. Pawson, and S. J. Lin. 2003. "High-Frequency Planetary Waves in the Polar Middle Atmosphere as Seen in a Data Assimilation System." J. Atmos. Sci., 60 (24): 2975-2992 [10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2975:HPWITP>2.0.CO;2]

    Kinnison, D. E., P. S. Connell, J. M. Rodriguez, et al. D. A. Rotman, D. B. Considine, J. Tannahill, R. Ramaroson, P. J. Rasch, A. R. Douglass, S. L. Baughcum, L. Coy, D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, and M. J. Prather. 2001. "The Global Modeling Initiative assessment model: Application to high-speed civil transport perturbation." J. Geophys. Res., 106 (D2): 1693-1711 [10.1029/2000jd900406]

    Pawson, S., K. Kodera, K. Hamilton, et al. T. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, B. A. Boville, J. D. Farrara, T. D. Fairlie, A. Kitoh, W. A. Lahoz, U. Langematz, E. Manzini, D. H. Rind, A. A. Scaife, K. Shibata, P. Simon, R. Swinbank, L. Takacs, R. J. Wilson, J. A. Al-Saadi, H. Amodei, M. Chiba, L. Coy, J. de Grandpré, R. S. Eckman, M. Fiorino, W. L. Grose, H. Koide, J. N. Koshyk, D. Li, J. Lerner, J. D. Mahlman, N. A. McFarlane, C. R. Mechoso, A. Molod, A. O'Neill, R. B. Pierce, W. J. Randel, R. B. Rood, and F. Wuh. 2000. "The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results." Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 81: 781-796.

    Douglass, A. R., M. J. Prather, T. M. Hall, et al. S. E. Strahan, P. J. Rasch, L. C. Sparling, L. Coy, and J. M. Rodriguez. 1999. "Choosing meteorological input for the global modeling initiative assessment of high-speed aircraft." J. Geophys. Res., 104 (D22): 27545-27564 [10.1029/1999JD900827]

    Orsolini, Y. J., G. L. Manney, A. Engel, et al. J. Ovarlez, C. Claud, and L. Coy. 1998. "Layering in stratospheric profiles of long-lived trace species: Balloon-borne observations and modeling." J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D5): 5815-5825 [10.1029/97jd03131]

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S., R. B. Rood, D. J. Lamich, et al. R. C. Govindaraju, L. Coy, and C. J. Weaver. 1998. "The impact of diabatic initialization on stratospheric analyses, forecasts, and transport experiments." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 124 (545): 297-315 [10.1256/smsqj.54512]

    Coy, L., and R. Swinbank. 1997. "Characteristics of stratospheric winds and temperatures produced by data assimilation." J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D22): 25763-25781 [10.1029/97jd02361]

    Coy, L., E. R. Nash, and P. Newman. 1997. "Meteorology of the Polar Vortex: Spring 1997." Geophys. Res. Lett, 24 (22): 2693-2696.

    Newman, P. A., L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, et al. M. Seablom, L. Coy, R. Rood, R. Swinbank, M. Proffitt, M. Loewenstien, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, G. S. Dutton, and K. R. Chan. 1996. "Measurements of polar vortex air in the midlatitudes." J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D8): 12879-12891 [10.1029/95jd03387]

    Douglass, A. R., C. J. Weaver, R. B. Rood, and L. Coy. 1996. "A Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Ozone Annual Cycle Using Winds from a Data Assimilation System." J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D1): 1463-1474 [10.1029/95JD02601]

    Hilsenrath, E., P. Newman, R. Cebula, et al. P. DeCamp, T. Kelly, and L. Coy. 1996. "Ozone Change from 1992 to 1993 as Observed from SSBUV on the ATLAS-1 and ATLAS-2 Missions." Geophys. Res. Lett, 2305-2308:

    Coy, L., R. Rood, and P. Newman. 1994. "A Comparison of Winds From the STRATAN Data Assimilation System to Balanced Wind Estimates." J. Atmos. Sci, 51 (15): 2309-2315 [10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2309:ACOWFT>2.0.CO;2]

    Hitchman, M. H., K. W. Bywaters, D. C. Fritts, et al. L. Coy, E. Kudeki, and F. Surucu. 1992. "Mean Winds and Momentum Fluxes over Jicamarca, Peru, during June and August 1987." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 49 (24): 2372-2383 [10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<2372:mwamfo>2.0.co;2]

    Fritts, D. C., L. Yuan, M. H. Hitchman, et al. L. Coy, E. Kudeki, and R. F. Woodman. 1992. "Dynamics of the Equatorial Mesosphere Observed Using the Jicamarca MST Radar during June and August 1987." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 49 (24): 2353-2371 [10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<2353:dotemo>2.0.co;2]

    Fritts, D. C., R. C. Blanchard, and L. Coy. 1989. "Gravity Wave Structure between 60 and 90 km Inferred from Space Shuttle Reentry Data." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 46 (3): 423-434 [10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0423:gwsbak>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L., and D. Fritts. 1988. "GRAVITY-WAVE HEAT FLUXES - A LAGRANGIAN APPROACH." JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 45 (12): 1770-1780 [10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1770:GWLFAL>2.0.CO;2]

    Coy, L., D. C. Fritts, and J. Weinstock. 1986. "The Stokes Drift due to Vertically Propagating Internal Gravity Waves in a Compressible Atmosphere." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 43 (22): 2636-2643 [10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<2636:tsddtv>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L., and M. Hitchman. 1984. "Kelvin Wave Packets and Flow Acceleration: A Comparison of Modeling and Observations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 41 (11): 1875-1880 [10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<1875:kwpafa>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L. 1979. "An Unusually Large Westerly Amplitude of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 36 (1): 174-176 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0174:aulwao>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L. 1979. "POSSIBLE 2-DAY OSCILLATION NEAR THE TROPICAL STRATOPAUSE." JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 36 (8): 1615-1618 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<1615:APDONT>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Mccarty, W. R., L. Coy, R. Gelaro, et al. A. Huang, D. Merkova, E. B. Smith, M. E. Sienkiewicz, and K. Wargan. 2016. "MERRA-2 Input Observations: Summary and Assessment." Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 46 (NASA/TM–2016-104606):

    Bosilovich, M. G., S. R. Akella, L. Coy, et al. R. I. Cullather, C. S. Draper, R. Gelaro, R. M. Kovach, Q. Liu, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, K. Wargan, C. Yang, R. H. Reichle, L. L. Takacs, Y. V. Vikhliaev, S. C. Bloom, A. Collow, S. Firth, G. J. Labow, G. S. Partyka, S. Pawson, O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "MERRA-2: Initial Evaluation of the Climate." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 43 (NASA/TM–2015–10): 139 pp.

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Coy has been at SSAI since August 2012.  Before that he worked from 2001-20012 in the federal government as a research physicist in the Upper Atmospheric Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory.  His past experience includes working closely with both the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch and the Data Assimilation Office (now the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office) at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center while employed by General Sciences Corp. (1995-2000) and Applied Research Corp. (1991-1994). Past experience also includes teaching dynamic meteorology (Saint Louis University, 1987-1991) and working with radar based gravity wave observations (University of Alaska, 1985-1987; NOAA Aeronomy Lab, 1983-1985). While working for NASA he analyzed winds, temperatures, and constituents from global circulation models, transport models, and data assimilation products, with emphasis on the middle atmosphere circulation, planetary waves, and inertia gravity waves. He also worked on the first assimilation of MLS temperatures from UARS and now Aura using the NASA data assimilation system. Current work includes data assimilation and forecasting of the stratosphere, middle atmosphere dynamics, and the analysis of singular vectors in the middle atmosphere. Dr. Coy has authored or co-authored 40 research articles that have been published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, two of which have each been cited in excess of 100 times. His article in The Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences on the dynamics of the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming [Coy et al., 2009; see below] was highlighted as a “Paper of Note” in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Vol. 90, Pages 609-611, 2009).

    Publications

    Refereed

    Coy, L., M. R. Schoeberl, S. Pawson, S. Candido, and R. W. Carver. 2019. "Global Assimilation of Loon Stratospheric Balloon Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (6): 3005-3019 [10.1029/2018jd029673]

    Kramarova, N. A., P. Newman, E. R. Nash, et al. S. E. Strahan, C. S. Long, B. Johnson, M. L. Santee, I. Petropavlovskikh, G. O. Braathen, and L. Coy. 2018. "Antarctic ozone hole [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 99 (8): s190-s192 [10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1]

    Wargan, K., C. Orbe, S. Pawson, et al. J. R. Ziemke, L. D. Oman, M. A. Olsen, L. Coy, and K. E. Knowland. 2018. "Recent decline in extratropical lower stratospheric ozone attributed to circulation changes." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1029/2018gl077406]

    Schoeberl, M. R., E. Jensen, A. Podglajen, et al. L. Coy, C. Lodha, S. Candido, and R. Carver. 2017. "Gravity wave spectra in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from project loon balloon trajectories." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122 [10.1002/2017jd026471]

    Coy, L., P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, and L. R. Lait. 2017. "Dynamics of the Disrupted 2015/16 Quasi-Biennial Oscillation." Journal of Climate 30 (15): 5661-5674 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0663.1]

    Tweedy, O. V., N. A. Kramarova, S. E. Strahan, et al. P. A. Newman, L. Coy, W. J. Randel, M. Park, D. W. Waugh, and S. M. Frith. 2017. "Response of trace gases to the disrupted 2015–2016 quasi-biennial oscillation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 17 (11): 6813-6823 [10.5194/acp-17-6813-2017]

    Gelaro, R., W. McCarty, M. J. Suárez, et al. R. Todling, A. Molod, L. Takacs, C. Randles, A. Darmenov, M. G. Bosilovich, R. Reichle, K. Wargan, L. Coy, R. Cullather, C. Draper, S. Akella, V. Buchard, A. Conaty, A. da Silva, W. Gu, G.-K. Kim, R. Koster, R. Lucchesi, D. Merkova, J. E. Nielsen, G. Partyka, S. Pawson, W. Putman, M. Rienecker, S. D. Schubert, M. Sienkiewicz, and B. Zhao. 2017. "The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)." Journal of Climate 30 5419–5454 [10.1175/jcli-d-16-0758.1]

    De Wit, R., D. Janches, D. C. Fritts, R. G. Stockwell, and L. Coy. 2017. "Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hotspot." Geophysical Research Letters [10.1002/2016GL072311]

    Newman, P. A., L. Coy, S. Pawson, and L. R. Lait. 2016. "The anomalous change in the QBO in 2015-16." Geophysical Research Letters 43 [10.1002/2016gl070373]

    Holt, L. A., M. Joan Alexander, L. Coy, et al. A. Molod, W. Putman, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in a 7-km global climate simulation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 3771–3783 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0350.1]

    Coy, L., K. Wargan, A. M. Molod, W. R. McCarty, and S. Pawson. 2016. "Structure and Dynamics of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in MERRA-2." J. Climate 29:14 5339-5354 [10.1175/jcli-d-15-0809.1]

    Wargan, K., and L. Coy. 2016. "Strengthening of the Tropopause Inversion Layer During the 2009 Sudden Stratospheric Warming: A MERRA-2 Study." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences [10.1175/jas-d-15-0333.1]

    Zhu, X., J.-H. Yee, M. Cai, et al. W. H. Swartz, L. Coy, V. Aquila, R. Garcia, and E. R. Talaat. 2016. "Diagnosis of Middle-Atmosphere Climate Sensitivity by the Climate Feedback–Response Analysis Method." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 (1): 3–23 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0013.1]

    Strahan, S. E., L. D. Oman, A. R. Douglass, and L. Coy. 2015. "Modulation of Antarctic vortex composition by the quasi-biennial oscillation." Geophysical Research Letters 42 (10): 4216-4223 [10.1002/2015gl063759]

    Coy, L., and S. Pawson. 2014. "The major stratospheric sudden warming of January 2013: Analyses and forecasts in the GEOS-5 data assimilation." Mon. Wea. Rev 143 491-510 [10.1175/MWR-D-14-00023.1]

    McCormack, J. P., L. Coy, and W. Singer. 2014. "Intraseasonal and interannual variability of the quasi 2 day wave in the Northern Hemisphere summer mesosphere." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (6): 2928–2946 [10.1002/2013JD020199]

    Hoppel, K. W., S. D. Eckermann, L. Coy, et al. G. E. Nedoluha, D. R. Allen, S. D. Swadley, and N. L. Baker. 2013. "Evaluation of SSMIS Upper Atmosphere Sounding Channels for High-Altitude Data Assimilation." Monthly Weather Review 141 (10): 3314-3330 [10.1175/mwr-d-13-00003.1]

    Remsberg, E., M. Natarajan, T. Fairlie, et al. K. Wargan, S. Pawson, L. Coy, G. Lingenfelser, and G. Kim. 2013. "On the inclusion of Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere version 6 ozone in a data assimilation system." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (14): 7982-8000 [10.1002/jgrd.50566]

    Coy, L., and C. A. Reynolds. 2013. "Singular vectors and their nonlinear evolution during the January 2009 stratospheric sudden warming." Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 140 (680): 1013-1024 [10.1002/qj.2181]

    Allen, D. R., A. R. Douglass, G. E. Nedoulha, and L. Coy. 2012. "Tracer transport during the Arctic stratospheric final warming based on a 33-year (1979-2011) tracer equivalent latitude simulation." Geophys. Res. Lett. 39 (12): L12801 [10.1029/2012GL051930]

    Coy, L., S. D. Eckermann, K. W. Hoppel, and F. Sassi. 2011. "Mesospheric Precursors to the Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2009: Validation and Dynamical Attribution Using a Ground-to-Edge-of-Space Data Assimilation System." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 3 (4): [10.1029/2011ms000067]

    Siskind, D. E., S. D. Eckermann, J. P. McCormack, et al. L. Coy, K. W. Hoppel, and N. L. Baker. 2010. "Case studies of the mesospheric response to recent minor, major, and extended stratospheric warmings." Journal of Geophysical Research 115 D00N03 [10.1029/2010jd014114]

    Stevens, M. H., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, C. R. Englert, K. W. Hoppel, K. Nielsen, A. J. Kochenash, M. E. Hervig, C. E. Randall, J. Lumpe, S. M. Bailey, M. Rapp, and P. Hoffmann. 2010. "Tidally induced variations of polar mesospheric cloud altitudes and ice water content using a data assimilation system." Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (D18): D18209 [10.1029/2009jd013225]

    Nielsen, K., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. K. W. Hoppel, L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, S. Benze, C. E. Randall, and M. E. Hervig. 2010. "Seasonal variation of the quasi 5 day planetary wave: Causes and consequences for polar mesospheric cloud variability in 2007." Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (D18): D18111 [10.1029/2009jd012676]

    Zhu, X., J.-H. Yee, W. H. Swartz, E. R. Talaat, and L. Coy. 2010. "A Spectral Parameterization of Drag, Eddy Diffusion, and Wave Heating for a Three-Dimensional Flow Induced by Breaking Gravity Waves." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 67 (8): 2520-2536 [10.1175/2010jas3302.1]

    Eckermann, S. D., K. W. Hoppel, L. Coy, et al. J. P. McCormack, D. E. Siskind, K. Nielsen, A. Kochenash, M. H. Stevens, C. R. Englert, W. Singer, and M. Hervig. 2009. "High-altitude data assimilation system experiments for the northern summer mesosphere season of 2007." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 71 (3-4): 531-551 [10.1016/j.jastp.2008.09.036]

    Coy, L., S. Eckermann, and K. Hoppel. 2009. "Planetary Wave Breaking and Tropospheric Forcing as Seen in the Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2006." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 66 (2): 495-507 [10.1175/2008jas2784.1]

    McCormack, J. P., L. Coy, and K. W. Hoppel. 2009. "Evolution of the quasi 2-day wave during January 2006." Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (D20): D20115 [10.1029/2009jd012239]

    Coy, L., D. R. Allen, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, I. Stajner, and T. F. Hogan. 2007. "Effects of model chemistry and data biases on stratospheric ozone assimilation." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 7 (11): 2917-2935 [10.5194/acp-7-2917-2007]

    Siskind, D. E., S. D. Eckermann, L. Coy, J. P. McCormack, and C. E. Randall. 2007. "On recent interannual variability of the Arctic winter mesosphere: Implications for tracer descent." Geophysical Research Letters 34 (9): [10.1029/2007gl029293]

    Allen, D. R., L. Coy, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, G. L. Manney, T. F. Hogan, and Y.-J. Kim. 2006. "NOGAPS-ALPHA Simulations of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere Stratospheric Major Warming." Monthly Weather Review 134 (2): 498-518 [10.1175/mwr3086.1]

    Wu, D. L., P. Preusse, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. H. Jiang, M. D. Juarez, L. Coy, and D. Y. Wang. 2006. "Remote sounding of atmospheric gravity waves with satellite limb and nadir techniques." Advances in Space Research 37 (12): 2269-2277 [10.1016/j.asr.2005.07.031]

    Coy, L., D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, et al. J. P. McCormack, D. R. Allen, and T. F. Hogan. 2005. "Modeling the August 2002 minor warming event." Geophysical Research Letters 32 (7): [10.1029/2005gl022400]

    Siskind, D., L. Coy, and P. Espy. 2005. "Observations of stratospheric warmings and mesospheric coolings by the TIMED SABER instrument." GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 32 (9): [10.1029/2005GL022399]

    Coy, L., I. Stajner, A. M. da Silva, et al. J. Joiner, R. B. Rood, P. Pawson, and S. J. Lin. 2003. "High-Frequency Planetary Waves in the Polar Middle Atmosphere as Seen in a Data Assimilation System." J. Atmos. Sci. 60 (24): 2975-2992 [10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2975:HPWITP>2.0.CO;2]

    Kinnison, D. E., P. S. Connell, J. M. Rodriguez, et al. D. A. Rotman, D. B. Considine, J. Tannahill, R. Ramaroson, P. J. Rasch, A. R. Douglass, S. L. Baughcum, L. Coy, D. W. Waugh, S. R. Kawa, and M. J. Prather. 2001. "The Global Modeling Initiative assessment model: Application to high-speed civil transport perturbation." J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D2): 1693-1711 [10.1029/2000jd900406]

    Pawson, S., K. Kodera, K. Hamilton, et al. T. G. Shepherd, S. R. Beagley, B. A. Boville, J. D. Farrara, T. D. Fairlie, A. Kitoh, W. A. Lahoz, U. Langematz, E. Manzini, D. H. Rind, A. A. Scaife, K. Shibata, P. Simon, R. Swinbank, L. Takacs, R. J. Wilson, J. A. Al-Saadi, H. Amodei, M. Chiba, L. Coy, J. de Grandpré, R. S. Eckman, M. Fiorino, W. L. Grose, H. Koide, J. N. Koshyk, D. Li, J. Lerner, J. D. Mahlman, N. A. McFarlane, C. R. Mechoso, A. Molod, A. O'Neill, R. B. Pierce, W. J. Randel, R. B. Rood, and F. Wuh. 2000. "The GCM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC (GRIPS): Scientific issues and initial results." Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 81 781-796.

    Douglass, A. R., M. J. Prather, T. M. Hall, et al. S. E. Strahan, P. J. Rasch, L. C. Sparling, L. Coy, and J. M. Rodriguez. 1999. "Choosing meteorological input for the global modeling initiative assessment of high-speed aircraft." J. Geophys. Res. 104 (D22): 27545-27564 [10.1029/1999JD900827]

    Orsolini, Y. J., G. L. Manney, A. Engel, et al. J. Ovarlez, C. Claud, and L. Coy. 1998. "Layering in stratospheric profiles of long-lived trace species: Balloon-borne observations and modeling." J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D5): 5815-5825 [10.1029/97jd03131]

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M. S., R. B. Rood, D. J. Lamich, et al. R. C. Govindaraju, L. Coy, and C. J. Weaver. 1998. "The impact of diabatic initialization on stratospheric analyses, forecasts, and transport experiments." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 124 (545): 297-315 [10.1256/smsqj.54512]

    Coy, L., and R. Swinbank. 1997. "Characteristics of stratospheric winds and temperatures produced by data assimilation." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25763-25781 [10.1029/97jd02361]

    Coy, L., E. R. Nash, and P. Newman. 1997. "Meteorology of the Polar Vortex: Spring 1997." Geophys. Res. Lett 24 (22): 2693-2696

    Newman, P. A., L. R. Lait, M. R. Schoeberl, et al. M. Seablom, L. Coy, R. Rood, R. Swinbank, M. Proffitt, M. Loewenstien, J. R. Podolske, J. W. Elkins, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, D. W. Fahey, G. S. Dutton, and K. R. Chan. 1996. "Measurements of polar vortex air in the midlatitudes." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D8): 12879-12891 [10.1029/95jd03387]

    Douglass, A. R., C. J. Weaver, R. B. Rood, and L. Coy. 1996. "A Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Ozone Annual Cycle Using Winds from a Data Assimilation System." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D1): 1463-1474 [10.1029/95JD02601]

    Hilsenrath, E., P. Newman, R. Cebula, et al. P. DeCamp, T. Kelly, and L. Coy. 1996. "Ozone Change from 1992 to 1993 as Observed from SSBUV on the ATLAS-1 and ATLAS-2 Missions." Geophys. Res. Lett 2305-2308

    Coy, L., R. Rood, and P. Newman. 1994. "A Comparison of Winds From the STRATAN Data Assimilation System to Balanced Wind Estimates." J. Atmos. Sci 51 (15): 2309-2315 [10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<2309:ACOWFT>2.0.CO;2]

    Hitchman, M. H., K. W. Bywaters, D. C. Fritts, et al. L. Coy, E. Kudeki, and F. Surucu. 1992. "Mean Winds and Momentum Fluxes over Jicamarca, Peru, during June and August 1987." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 49 (24): 2372-2383 [10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<2372:mwamfo>2.0.co;2]

    Fritts, D. C., L. Yuan, M. H. Hitchman, et al. L. Coy, E. Kudeki, and R. F. Woodman. 1992. "Dynamics of the Equatorial Mesosphere Observed Using the Jicamarca MST Radar during June and August 1987." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 49 (24): 2353-2371 [10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<2353:dotemo>2.0.co;2]

    Fritts, D. C., R. C. Blanchard, and L. Coy. 1989. "Gravity Wave Structure between 60 and 90 km Inferred from Space Shuttle Reentry Data." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 46 (3): 423-434 [10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0423:gwsbak>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L., and D. Fritts. 1988. "GRAVITY-WAVE HEAT FLUXES - A LAGRANGIAN APPROACH." JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 45 (12): 1770-1780 [10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1770:GWLFAL>2.0.CO;2]

    Coy, L., D. C. Fritts, and J. Weinstock. 1986. "The Stokes Drift due to Vertically Propagating Internal Gravity Waves in a Compressible Atmosphere." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 43 (22): 2636-2643 [10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<2636:tsddtv>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L., and M. Hitchman. 1984. "Kelvin Wave Packets and Flow Acceleration: A Comparison of Modeling and Observations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 41 (11): 1875-1880 [10.1175/1520-0469(1984)041<1875:kwpafa>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L. 1979. "An Unusually Large Westerly Amplitude of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 36 (1): 174-176 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0174:aulwao>2.0.co;2]

    Coy, L. 1979. "POSSIBLE 2-DAY OSCILLATION NEAR THE TROPICAL STRATOPAUSE." JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES 36 (8): 1615-1618 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<1615:APDONT>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Mccarty, W. R., L. Coy, R. Gelaro, et al. A. Huang, D. Merkova, E. B. Smith, M. E. Sienkiewicz, and K. Wargan. 2016. "MERRA-2 Input Observations: Summary and Assessment." Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 46 (NASA/TM–2016-104606):

    Bosilovich, M. G., S. R. Akella, L. Coy, et al. R. I. Cullather, C. S. Draper, R. Gelaro, R. M. Kovach, Q. Liu, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, K. Wargan, C. Yang, R. H. Reichle, L. L. Takacs, Y. V. Vikhliaev, S. C. Bloom, A. Collow, S. Firth, G. J. Labow, G. S. Partyka, S. Pawson, O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, and M. J. Suarez. 2015. "MERRA-2: Initial Evaluation of the Climate." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 43 (NASA/TM–2015–10) 139 pp.

    Gelaro, R., W. M. Putman, S. Pawson, et al. C. S. Draper, A. M. Molod, P. M. Norris, L. E. Ott, N. C. Privé, O. Reale, D. Achuthavarier, M. G. Bosilovich, V. J. Buchard, W. C. Chao, L. Coy, R. I. Cullather, A. M. Da Silva, A. S. Darmenov, R. M. Errico, M. Fuentes, M.-J. Kim, R. D. Koster, W. R. Mccarty, J. Nattala, G. S. Partyka, S. D. Schubert, G. R. Vernieres, Y. V. Vikhliaev, and K. Wargan. 2015. "Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation 36 (NASA/TM-2014-104606):

                                                                                                                                                                                            
    NASA Logo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration