Dr. John C. Pearl

Dr. John C. Pearl

  • EMERITUS
  • 301.286.8487
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 693
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: EMERITUS
  • Brief Bio



    RESEARCH EXPERIENCE:
    Free molecular flow in cavities; kinematics of electron impact excitation of atoms to metastable states; co-investigator on Mariner 9 (Mars orbiter) infrared spectroscopy experiment; planetary atmospheric pressure determination from infrared spectra; co-investigator on Voyager (outer planet flyby mission) infrared spectroscopy experiment; thermal infrared studies of outer planets' satellites; co-investigator on Mars Global Surveyor (orbiter) thermal emission spectroscopy experiment; co-investigator on Cassini (Saturn orbiter) infrared spectroscopy experiment.

    EDUCATION:
    1961 - B.S.E., University of Michigan
    1963 - M.S., University of Michigan
    1970 - Ph.D., Physics, Univ. of Michigan

    PREVIOUS POSITIONS:
    1959-61 - Assistant Research Physicist, Space Physics Research Lab., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
    1961-62 - Instructor (secondary school), Trinity College, Kandy, Ceylon
    1962-70 - Assistant Research Physicist, Space Physics Research Lab., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS:
    American Physical Society
    American Geophysical Union
    Optical Society of America

    HONORS AND
    AWARDS: 2000 - NASA Group Achievement Award
    1999 - NASA Group Achievement Award
    1996 - NASA/GSFC Special Act Award
    1991 - NASA/GSFC Outstanding Performance Award
    1991 - NASA/GSFC Exceptional Performance Award
    1990 - NASA/GSFC Outstanding Performance Award
    1986 - NASA/GSFC Special Achievement Award
    1981 - NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal
    1960 - Tau Beta Pi

    PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT ACTIVITIES:
    NASA REVIEW PANELS: Jupiter Data Analysis, Mars Data Analysis, Planetary Atmospheres, Planetary Geology and Geophysics, MGS Data Analysis, MGS Guest Investigator
    MANUSCRIPT REVIEWS: Science, JGR, Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.
    CONFERENCE ACTIVITIES: Program Committee DPS 1994, 2000; Program Committee Photolysis and Radiolysis of Outer Solar System Ices (PROSSI), 2000

    MENTORING: NRC Postdoctoral Associates: Wallace McMillan (1991-1994); Michael Smith (1995-1998); Joshua Bandfield (2001-2002).
    U.C. Berkely Co-op program (NTESS): Joshua Miele (1992-1993)
    U. Md Co-op program: Lori Fenton (1994-1996)
    SIECA Program: Kendra Walker (Summer 1996)
    UMBC Meyerhoff Program: Bobby Allen (1996-1997)
    UMBC Meyerhoff Program: Ade Gordon (1997-2000)
    Nat. Space Club Scholars Program: Alex Meckelburg (1999-2000)
    Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: David Klassen (Summer 2001)
    International Space University Summer Intern Program: Foy Hubert (Summer 2006)

    EDUCATION AND OUTREACH: Occasional lectures to school classes, astronomy
    clubs, and other groups on Voyager, MGS, atmospheric optics.
    Presentation on atmospheric optics to AMS teachers' conference, 1995
    Invited Science Lecturer, Jakarta International School, Jakarta,
    Indonesia, Feb. 24-28, 1997

    PROJECT WORKING GROUPS: Voyager Satellites WG; Cassini Satellite Surfaces WG;
    Cassini Satellite Orbiter Science Team (SOST), Cassini Atmospheres Target Working
    Team, Cassini Cross-Discipline Target Working Team, Cassini Rings Target
    Working Team

    PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS: Contributed talks at AGU, DPS, OSA meetings

    INVITED TALKS:
    "The Surface Composition of Io," Capistrano Conference no. 3, 1993.
    "13-50 Micrometer Spectral Features on Io," Solar System Ices
    Colloquium, Toulouse, 1995.
    "The Atmosphere of Mars," Colloquium on Solar System Exploration,
    National University of Mexico, Mexico City, 1999.

    SELECTED PUBLICATIONS:

       "Effect of Recoil on the Velocity Distribution of Metastable Atoms Produced by Electron Impact," J.C. Pearl, D.P. Donnelly, and J.C. Zorn, Physics Letters 30A: 145-147 (1969).
       "Mars: Mariner 9 Spectroscopic Evidence for H2O Ice Clouds," R.J. Curran, B.J. Conrath, R.A. Hanel, V.G. Kunde, and J.C. Pearl, Science 182: 381-383 (1973).
       "Identification of Gaseous SO2 and New Upper Limits for Other Gases on Io," J. Pearl, R. Hanel, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, K. Fox, S. Gupta, C. Ponnamperuma, and F. Raulin, Nature 280: 755-758 (1979).
       "Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System from Voyager 1," R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F.M. Flasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, R. Samuelson, L. Herath, M. Allison, D. Cruikshank, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, L. Horn, R. Koppany, and C. Ponnamperuma, Science 212: 192-200 (1980).
       "Hot Spots of Io", J.C. Pearl and W.M. Sinton, in "The Satellites of Jupiter," D. Morrison, ed., U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 724-755 (1982).
       "Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System from Voyager 2," R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F.M. Flasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, R. Samuelson, D. Cruikshank, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, L. Horn, and C. Ponnamperuma, Science 215: 544-548 (1982).
       "Crystalline Sulfur Dioxide: Crystal Field Splittings, Absolute Band Intensities, and Complex Refractive Indices Derived from Infrared Spectra," R.K. Khanna, G. Zhao, M.J. Ospina, and J.C. Pearl, Spectrochimica Acta 44A: 581-586 (1988).
       "The Albedo, Effective Temperature, and Energy Balance of Neptune, as Determined from Voyager IRIS Data," J.C. Pearl, and B.J. Conrath, JGR (Suppl.) 96: 18921-18930 (1991).
       "Optical Constants of Solid Methane and Ethane from 10,000 to 450 cm-1," J.C. Pearl, M. Ngoh, M. Ospina, and R. Khanna, JGR 96: 17477-17482 (1991).
       "Infrared Spectra and Structure of Solid Phases of Sulfur Trioxide: Possible Identification of Solid SO3 on Io's Surface," R.K. Khanna, J.C. Pearl, and R. Dahmani, Icarus 115: 250-257 (1995).
       "Mapping Mariner 9 Dust Opacities," L.K. Fenton, J.C. Pearl, and T.Z. Martin, Icarus 130: 115-124 (1997).
       "IRIS Mariner 9 Data Revisited: 1. An Instrumental Effect," V. Formisano, D. Grassi, G. Piccioni, J. Pearl, R. Hanel, G. Bjoraker, B. Conrath, Plaetary. and Space Science 48: 569-576 (2000).
       "Detection of Crystalline Hematite Mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Near-Surface Water," P.R. Christensen, J.L. Bandfield, R.N. Clark, K.S. Edgett, V.E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H.H. Kieffer, R.O. Kuzmin, M.D. Lane, M.C. Malin, R.V. Morris, J.C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T.L. Roush, S.W. Ruff, M.D. Smith, JGR 105: 9623-9642 (2000).
       "Observations of Martian Ice Clouds by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer: The First Martian Year," J.C. Pearl, M.D. Smith, B.J. Conrath, P.R. Christensen, JGR 106: 12325-12338 (2001).
       "Spectral Imaging of Martian Water Ice Clouds and their Diurnal Behavior During the 1999 Aphelion Season (Ls=130o)", D.A. Glenar, R.E. Samuelson, J.C. Pearl, G.L. Bjoraker, D. Blaney, Icarus 161, 297-318 (2003).
        "Discovery of Olivine in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars". T.M. Hoefen, R.N. Clark, J.L. Bandfield, M.D. Smith, J.C. Pearl, P.R. Christensen, Science 302, 627-630 (2003).
       “Saturn’s Rings in the Thermal Infrared”, L. Spilker, C. Ferrari, J.N. Cuzzi, M. Showalter, J. Pearl, B. Wallis, Plan. Space Sci. 51, 929-935 (2003).
       “Exploring the Saturn System in the Thermal Infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer” Flasar, F. M., V. Kunde, M. Abbas, R. Achterberg, P. Ade, A. Barucci, B. Bezard, G. Bjoraker, J. Brasunas, S. Calcutt, R. Carlson, C. Cesarsky, B. J. Conrath, A. Coradini, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, S. Edberg, S. Edgington, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, K. Grossman, P. Irwin, D. Jennings, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, J. Meyer, C. Nixon, G. Orton, T. Owen, J. Pearl, R. Prange, F. Raulin, P. Read, P. Romani, R. Samuelson, M. Segura, M. Showalter, A. Simon-Miller, M. Smith, J. Spencer, L. Spilker, and F. Taylor, Space Science Reviews. 115 169-297 (2004).
       “Hypervelocity Particle Impact Studies Performed on a Gold-Plated Beryllium Substrate Mirror”. J.B. Heaney, J.C. Pearl, M.A. Stuebig, L.L. Wang, C.C. He, in “Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes,” J.C. Mather, ed, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5487, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp 1100-1110 (2004).
       "Bright-region Radiative Properties within the Mars South Polar Cap (Ls=231) from Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging" (Note). D.A. Glenar, G. Hansen, G. Bjoraker, M. Smith, J. Pearl, D. Blaney. Icarus 174, 600-603 (2005).
       “Cassini CIRS Observations of a Roll-off in Saturn Ring Spectra at Submillimeter Wavelengths.” L.J. Spilker, S.H. Pilorz, B.D. Wallace, S.G. Edgington, S.M. Brooks, J.C. Pearl, F.M. Flasar. Earth, Moon and Planets 96 149-163 (2005).
       “Cassini Encounters Enceladus: Background, and Discovery of a South Polar Hot Spot” J.R. Spencer, J. C. Pearl, M. Segura, F. M. Flasar, A. Mamoutkine, P. Romani, B. J. Buratti, A. R. Hendrix, L. J. Spilker, R. M. C. Lopes, Science 311, 1401-1405 (2006).
       “Cassini Thermal Observations of Saturn’s Main Rings: Implications for Particle Rotation and Vertical Mixing” L.J. Spilker . S.H. Pilorz, B.D. Wallis, J.C. Pearl, J.N. Cuzzi, S.M. Brooks, N. Altobelli, S,G. Edgington, M. Showalter, F.M. Flasar, C. Ferrari C. Leyrat, Planet. Space Sci. 54 1167-1176 (2006).
       “Cassini CIRS Update on Stratospheric Ices at Titan’s Winter Pole.” R.E. Samuelson, M.D. Smith, R.K. Achterberg, J.C. Pearl, Icarus 189 63-71 (2007).
       "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures" D. E. Jennings, F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde., R. E. Samuelson, J. C. Pearl, C. A. Nixon, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamutkin, J. C. Brasunas, E. Guandique, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, P, N. Romani, M. E. Segura, S. A. Albright, M. H. Elliott, J. S. Tingley, S. Calcutt, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin,  Astrophysical Journal, 691, L103-L105 (2009).
       "Thermal Inertia and Bolometric Bond Albedo Values for Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Iapetus as Derived from Cassini/CIRS Measurements" C. J. A. Howett, J. R. Spencer, J. Pearl, M. Segura,  Icarus 206 573-593 (2010).





    Brief Bio



    RESEARCH EXPERIENCE:
    Free molecular flow in cavities; kinematics of electron impact excitation of atoms to metastable states; co-investigator on Mariner 9 (Mars orbiter) infrared spectroscopy experiment; planetary atmospheric pressure determination from infrared spectra; co-investigator on Voyager (outer planet flyby mission) infrared spectroscopy experiment; thermal infrared studies of outer planets' satellites; co-investigator on Mars Global Surveyor (orbiter) thermal emission spectroscopy experiment; co-investigator on Cassini (Saturn orbiter) infrared spectroscopy experiment.

    EDUCATION:
    1961 - B.S.E., University of Michigan
    1963 - M.S., University of Michigan
    1970 - Ph.D., Physics, Univ. of Michigan

    PREVIOUS POSITIONS:
    1959-61 - Assistant Research Physicist, Space Physics Research Lab., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
    1961-62 - Instructor (secondary school), Trinity College, Kandy, Ceylon
    1962-70 - Assistant Research Physicist, Space Physics Research Lab., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS:
    American Physical Society
    American Geophysical Union
    Optical Society of America

    HONORS AND
    AWARDS: 2000 - NASA Group Achievement Award
    1999 - NASA Group Achievement Award
    1996 - NASA/GSFC Special Act Award
    1991 - NASA/GSFC Outstanding Performance Award
    1991 - NASA/GSFC Exceptional Performance Award
    1990 - NASA/GSFC Outstanding Performance Award
    1986 - NASA/GSFC Special Achievement Award
    1981 - NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal
    1960 - Tau Beta Pi

    PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT ACTIVITIES:
    NASA REVIEW PANELS: Jupiter Data Analysis, Mars Data Analysis, Planetary Atmospheres, Planetary Geology and Geophysics, MGS Data Analysis, MGS Guest Investigator
    MANUSCRIPT REVIEWS: Science, JGR, Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.
    CONFERENCE ACTIVITIES: Program Committee DPS 1994, 2000; Program Committee Photolysis and Radiolysis of Outer Solar System Ices (PROSSI), 2000

    MENTORING: NRC Postdoctoral Associates: Wallace McMillan (1991-1994); Michael Smith (1995-1998); Joshua Bandfield (2001-2002).
    U.C. Berkely Co-op program (NTESS): Joshua Miele (1992-1993)
    U. Md Co-op program: Lori Fenton (1994-1996)
    SIECA Program: Kendra Walker (Summer 1996)
    UMBC Meyerhoff Program: Bobby Allen (1996-1997)
    UMBC Meyerhoff Program: Ade Gordon (1997-2000)
    Nat. Space Club Scholars Program: Alex Meckelburg (1999-2000)
    Summer Faculty Fellowship Program: David Klassen (Summer 2001)
    International Space University Summer Intern Program: Foy Hubert (Summer 2006)

    EDUCATION AND OUTREACH: Occasional lectures to school classes, astronomy
    clubs, and other groups on Voyager, MGS, atmospheric optics.
    Presentation on atmospheric optics to AMS teachers' conference, 1995
    Invited Science Lecturer, Jakarta International School, Jakarta,
    Indonesia, Feb. 24-28, 1997

    PROJECT WORKING GROUPS: Voyager Satellites WG; Cassini Satellite Surfaces WG;
    Cassini Satellite Orbiter Science Team (SOST), Cassini Atmospheres Target Working
    Team, Cassini Cross-Discipline Target Working Team, Cassini Rings Target
    Working Team

    PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS: Contributed talks at AGU, DPS, OSA meetings

    INVITED TALKS:
    "The Surface Composition of Io," Capistrano Conference no. 3, 1993.
    "13-50 Micrometer Spectral Features on Io," Solar System Ices
    Colloquium, Toulouse, 1995.
    "The Atmosphere of Mars," Colloquium on Solar System Exploration,
    National University of Mexico, Mexico City, 1999.

    SELECTED PUBLICATIONS:

       "Effect of Recoil on the Velocity Distribution of Metastable Atoms Produced by Electron Impact," J.C. Pearl, D.P. Donnelly, and J.C. Zorn, Physics Letters 30A: 145-147 (1969).
       "Mars: Mariner 9 Spectroscopic Evidence for H2O Ice Clouds," R.J. Curran, B.J. Conrath, R.A. Hanel, V.G. Kunde, and J.C. Pearl, Science 182: 381-383 (1973).
       "Identification of Gaseous SO2 and New Upper Limits for Other Gases on Io," J. Pearl, R. Hanel, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, K. Fox, S. Gupta, C. Ponnamperuma, and F. Raulin, Nature 280: 755-758 (1979).
       "Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System from Voyager 1," R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F.M. Flasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, R. Samuelson, L. Herath, M. Allison, D. Cruikshank, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, L. Horn, R. Koppany, and C. Ponnamperuma, Science 212: 192-200 (1980).
       "Hot Spots of Io", J.C. Pearl and W.M. Sinton, in "The Satellites of Jupiter," D. Morrison, ed., U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp 724-755 (1982).
       "Infrared Observations of the Saturnian System from Voyager 2," R. Hanel, B. Conrath, F.M. Flasar, V. Kunde, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, R. Samuelson, D. Cruikshank, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, L. Horn, and C. Ponnamperuma, Science 215: 544-548 (1982).
       "Crystalline Sulfur Dioxide: Crystal Field Splittings, Absolute Band Intensities, and Complex Refractive Indices Derived from Infrared Spectra," R.K. Khanna, G. Zhao, M.J. Ospina, and J.C. Pearl, Spectrochimica Acta 44A: 581-586 (1988).
       "The Albedo, Effective Temperature, and Energy Balance of Neptune, as Determined from Voyager IRIS Data," J.C. Pearl, and B.J. Conrath, JGR (Suppl.) 96: 18921-18930 (1991).
       "Optical Constants of Solid Methane and Ethane from 10,000 to 450 cm-1," J.C. Pearl, M. Ngoh, M. Ospina, and R. Khanna, JGR 96: 17477-17482 (1991).
       "Infrared Spectra and Structure of Solid Phases of Sulfur Trioxide: Possible Identification of Solid SO3 on Io's Surface," R.K. Khanna, J.C. Pearl, and R. Dahmani, Icarus 115: 250-257 (1995).
       "Mapping Mariner 9 Dust Opacities," L.K. Fenton, J.C. Pearl, and T.Z. Martin, Icarus 130: 115-124 (1997).
       "IRIS Mariner 9 Data Revisited: 1. An Instrumental Effect," V. Formisano, D. Grassi, G. Piccioni, J. Pearl, R. Hanel, G. Bjoraker, B. Conrath, Plaetary. and Space Science 48: 569-576 (2000).
       "Detection of Crystalline Hematite Mineralization on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Evidence for Near-Surface Water," P.R. Christensen, J.L. Bandfield, R.N. Clark, K.S. Edgett, V.E. Hamilton, T. Hoefen, H.H. Kieffer, R.O. Kuzmin, M.D. Lane, M.C. Malin, R.V. Morris, J.C. Pearl, R. Pearson, T.L. Roush, S.W. Ruff, M.D. Smith, JGR 105: 9623-9642 (2000).
       "Observations of Martian Ice Clouds by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer: The First Martian Year," J.C. Pearl, M.D. Smith, B.J. Conrath, P.R. Christensen, JGR 106: 12325-12338 (2001).
       "Spectral Imaging of Martian Water Ice Clouds and their Diurnal Behavior During the 1999 Aphelion Season (Ls=130o)", D.A. Glenar, R.E. Samuelson, J.C. Pearl, G.L. Bjoraker, D. Blaney, Icarus 161, 297-318 (2003).
        "Discovery of Olivine in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars". T.M. Hoefen, R.N. Clark, J.L. Bandfield, M.D. Smith, J.C. Pearl, P.R. Christensen, Science 302, 627-630 (2003).
       “Saturn’s Rings in the Thermal Infrared”, L. Spilker, C. Ferrari, J.N. Cuzzi, M. Showalter, J. Pearl, B. Wallis, Plan. Space Sci. 51, 929-935 (2003).
       “Exploring the Saturn System in the Thermal Infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer” Flasar, F. M., V. Kunde, M. Abbas, R. Achterberg, P. Ade, A. Barucci, B. Bezard, G. Bjoraker, J. Brasunas, S. Calcutt, R. Carlson, C. Cesarsky, B. J. Conrath, A. Coradini, R. Courtin, A. Coustenis, S. Edberg, S. Edgington, C. Ferrari, D. Gautier, P. Gierasch, K. Grossman, P. Irwin, D. Jennings, E. Lellouch, A. Marten, J. Meyer, C. Nixon, G. Orton, T. Owen, J. Pearl, R. Prange, F. Raulin, P. Read, P. Romani, R. Samuelson, M. Segura, M. Showalter, A. Simon-Miller, M. Smith, J. Spencer, L. Spilker, and F. Taylor, Space Science Reviews. 115 169-297 (2004).
       “Hypervelocity Particle Impact Studies Performed on a Gold-Plated Beryllium Substrate Mirror”. J.B. Heaney, J.C. Pearl, M.A. Stuebig, L.L. Wang, C.C. He, in “Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Space Telescopes,” J.C. Mather, ed, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5487, SPIE, Bellingham, WA, pp 1100-1110 (2004).
       "Bright-region Radiative Properties within the Mars South Polar Cap (Ls=231) from Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging" (Note). D.A. Glenar, G. Hansen, G. Bjoraker, M. Smith, J. Pearl, D. Blaney. Icarus 174, 600-603 (2005).
       “Cassini CIRS Observations of a Roll-off in Saturn Ring Spectra at Submillimeter Wavelengths.” L.J. Spilker, S.H. Pilorz, B.D. Wallace, S.G. Edgington, S.M. Brooks, J.C. Pearl, F.M. Flasar. Earth, Moon and Planets 96 149-163 (2005).
       “Cassini Encounters Enceladus: Background, and Discovery of a South Polar Hot Spot” J.R. Spencer, J. C. Pearl, M. Segura, F. M. Flasar, A. Mamoutkine, P. Romani, B. J. Buratti, A. R. Hendrix, L. J. Spilker, R. M. C. Lopes, Science 311, 1401-1405 (2006).
       “Cassini Thermal Observations of Saturn’s Main Rings: Implications for Particle Rotation and Vertical Mixing” L.J. Spilker . S.H. Pilorz, B.D. Wallis, J.C. Pearl, J.N. Cuzzi, S.M. Brooks, N. Altobelli, S,G. Edgington, M. Showalter, F.M. Flasar, C. Ferrari C. Leyrat, Planet. Space Sci. 54 1167-1176 (2006).
       “Cassini CIRS Update on Stratospheric Ices at Titan’s Winter Pole.” R.E. Samuelson, M.D. Smith, R.K. Achterberg, J.C. Pearl, Icarus 189 63-71 (2007).
       "Titan's Surface Brightness Temperatures" D. E. Jennings, F. M. Flasar, V. G. Kunde., R. E. Samuelson, J. C. Pearl, C. A. Nixon, R. C. Carlson, A. A. Mamutkin, J. C. Brasunas, E. Guandique, R. K. Achterberg, G. L. Bjoraker, P, N. Romani, M. E. Segura, S. A. Albright, M. H. Elliott, J. S. Tingley, S. Calcutt, A. Coustenis, R. Courtin,  Astrophysical Journal, 691, L103-L105 (2009).
       "Thermal Inertia and Bolometric Bond Albedo Values for Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Iapetus as Derived from Cassini/CIRS Measurements" C. J. A. Howett, J. R. Spencer, J. Pearl, M. Segura,  Icarus 206 573-593 (2010).





                                                                                                                                                                                            
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