Dr. Claire L Parkinson

Dr. Claire L Parkinson

  • SENIOR SCIENTIST, CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Additional Roles: Project Scientist for Aqua
  • 301.614.5715 | 301.614.5644
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 615
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

           Claire L. Parkinson has been a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center since July 1978 and a Senior Fellow at Goddard since 2005. Her research emphasis has been on polar sea ice and its connections to the rest of the climate system and to climate change, with a particular emphasis on satellite remote sensing. This work has involved satellite data set generation and analysis, including the determination of decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage since the 1970s and examination of their regional variabilities and impacts, plus the quantification and analysis of the very different time series of sea ice changes in the Antarctic. Claire has also developed a computer model of sea ice, has done field work in both the Arctic and the Antarctic, and is the lead author of an atlas of Arctic sea ice from satellite data and a coauthor of two other sea ice atlases.

    Since May 1993, Claire has additionally been the Project Scientist for the Aqua satellite mission, which launched in May 2002 and is transmitting data on many atmospheric, ocean, land, and ice variables. She has also written an introductory book on examining the Earth with satellite imagery, has coauthored with Warren Washington a university textbook on climate modeling, has coedited two books on satellite observations related to global change, and is lead editor of a Data Products Handbook for NASA's Earth Observing System and lead editor of a NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook. In 2010 she published a book entitled Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix about climate change and her concerns regarding the possibility of implementation of potentially dangerous geoengineering projects. In 2011 she led a ‘Women of Goddard’ outreach effort that included production of a book on Women of Goddard: Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics and a set of six related posters. Outside of her NASA work, she has written a book on the history of western science from 1202 to 1930.

    Claire is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and Phi Beta Kappa. 

    Research Interests

    Sea ice monitoring from satellite observations

    Claire's work on sea ice monitoring involves the development and analysis of satellite-derived sea ice data sets and the use of those data sets to quantify the changes in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers over the course of the satellite record.

    Climate change

    Claire's work on climate change involves analysis of past, ongoing, and modeled future climate change, including placing polar-sea-ice changes into the context of the broader climate system. It also involves consideration of the unintended consequences that might occur if proposals to intentionally alter climate change (geoengineering) were to be implemented.

    Current Projects

    The Earth-observing Aqua satellite mission

    Claire Parkinson is Project Scientist for the Aqua satellite, which is in orbit around the Earth, collecting data on the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, land, and ice. The satellite was launched in May 2002 and carries six Earth-observing instruments, four of which continue to transmit valuable science data, well beyond the satellite's six-year design life. The data are used by hundreds of scientists around the world and in a variety of practical applications.

    Sea ice research

    Claire uses satellite data to determine the state and changes in the sea ice covers of the Arctic and Antarctic. Her ongoing work is helping to clarify major decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage, much smaller increases in Antarctic sea ice coverage, and the connections between the sea ice changes and the rest of the climate system.

    Positions/Employment

    7/1978 - Present

    Research Scientist

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. Research Scientist focused on sea ice research since July 1978; Senior Scientist since 1987; Aqua Project Scientist since 1993; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Senior Fellow since 2005.
    6/1976 - 6/1978

    Research Assistant

    National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, Colorado. Ph.D. dissertation research, developing a dynamic/thermodynamic computer model of sea ice for the Arctic and Antarctic regions, funded through the National Science Foundation.
    1/1973 - 5/1976

    Teaching Assistant and Instructor

    Department of Geography, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Graduate student teaching assistant, initially teaching recitation sections for a course primarily taught by a university professor, and transitioning after the first year into the role of primary instructor for an introductory physical geography course, teaching classes typically of 60 or more students.
    9/1972 - 12/1974

    Research Assistant

    Institute of Polar Studies, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Research assistant engaged in computer programming, field work in Antarctica, and data analysis.

    Education

              Ph.D. in Geography/Climatology from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1977. Thesis: A Numerical Simulation of the Annual Cycle of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic.

              M.A. in Geography/Climatology from The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1974.

              B.A. in Mathematics from Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, 1970 (with highest honors).

     

    Professional Societies

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2004 - Present
    Fellow since 2011; member of the Steering Committee of the Atmospheric and Hydrospheric Sciences Section, 2008-2011; member of the AAAS Council, 2008-2011; member of the Committee on Council Affairs, 2009-2011; member of the Science Journalism Awards Screening Committee, 2002-2012.
    American Meteorological Society, 1980 - Present
    Fellow since 2001; member of the Committee on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, 1984-1986; member of the Committee on the History of Atmospheric Sciences, 1988-1990, chair in 1990; member of the Atmospheric Research Awards Committee, 2012-2014, chair in 2014; member of the Oceanographic Research Awards Committee, 2014; member of the Awards Oversight Committee, 2014.
    American Philosophical Society, 2010 - Present
    Member of the Library Committee since 2011.
    American Polar Society, 2009 - Present
    National Academy of Engineering, 2009 - Present
    Member of the Charles Stark Draper Prize Selection Committee, 2012-2014, and chair of a due-diligence subcommittee, 2014.
    Oceanography Society, 1988 - Present
    Lifetime member since 1989.
    Phi Beta Kappa, 1969 - Present
    Fellow since 1997.

    Awards


    Election to Phi Beta Kappa, Wellesley College, 1969.

    Election to Sigma Xi, Wellesley College, 1970.

    Lewis Atterbury Stimson Award in Mathematics, Wellesley College, 1970.

    Charles Clifford Huntington Award in Geography, Ohio State University, 1976.

    Exceptional Performance Award, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1979.

    NASA Group Achievement Award to the authors of Antarctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976, NASA, 1982.

    Peer Award for Best Paper, Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1984.

    Inclusion of sole-authored Breakthroughs in Library Journal’s list of 100 outstanding science and technology books of 1985.

    Peer Award for Leadership, for the book Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976, Laboratory for Oceans, Goddard Space Flight Center, 1988.

    Peer Award for Outstanding Education/Outreach, Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1997.

    Outstanding Teamwork Award and ‘Best of the Best’ Teamwork Award, presented to the 1999 NASA North Pole Expedition Team, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000.

    Elected a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society, 2000 (effective 2001).

    NASA Exceptional Service Medal for educational outreach, 2001.

    2002 Laurels Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Space (one of four recipients, for the Aqua spacecraft mission), Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2003. 

    NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal for leadership as the Aqua Project Scientist, 2003.

    Richard P. Goldthwait Polar Medal, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, 2004.

    Elected a Goddard Senior Fellow, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2005.

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Excellence in Outreach Award, 2006.

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) 2006 Space Systems Award, awarded to 18 key members of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, 2006.

    NASA Distinguished Performance Awards, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012.

    NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal for exceptional dedication in advancing NASA’s Earth science missions, 2008.

    Election to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, 2009.

    Election to the American Philosophical Society, 2010.

    Elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2010 (effective 2011).

    Remote Sensing Prize, American Meteorological Society, 2011.

    First place in the Environment category of ForeWord Reviews’ Book of the Year Awards, for the book Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix, 2011.

    Certificate of Appreciation for Service to the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society as a 2013 Best Reviewer for the Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (JSTARS), 2013.

    William Nordberg Memorial Award for Earth Science, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2015.

    Election to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, 2016.

    Elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2016.

    Elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2018.

     

     

    Professional Service

    Chair, Remote Sensing of the Cryosphere session, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS '81), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Washington, D.C., June 8-10, 1981.

    Associate Editor, Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society Newsletter, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1982-1984.

    Member, Science Advisory Group for SIR-B (Shuttle Imaging Radar) Investigations over Greenland and Antarctica, 1985-1986.

    Member, Scientific Colloquium Committee, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1986-1999.

    Chair, Sea Ice Session, American Meteorological Society's Second Conference on Polar Meteorology and Oceanography, Madison, Wisconsin, March 1988.

    Associate Editor, Annals of Glaciology, International Glaciological Society, vol. 14, 1989.

    Member, Sea Ice Specialists Panel, Office of Senator Albert Gore, United States Senate, 1990.

    Scientific Editor, Journal of Glaciology, International Glaciological Society, 1990-1992.

    Member, Advisory Panel on Climate and Global Change, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1990-1995.

    Member, Review Panel for Research on the Voyage of the Sovetskiy Soyuz across the Arctic Basin, National Science Foundation, 1991.

    Cochair, Sea Ice Thickness Workshop, New Carrollton, Maryland, November 19-21, 1991.

    NASA Affiliate for the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education program at Ohio State University, 1991-1996.

    Member, Climate Research Committee, National Academy of Sciences, 1994-1996.

    Member, Review Panel for the Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University, 1996.

    Member, Earth Observing System (EOS) Science Executive Committee, 1996-2000.

    Cochair, Contribution of Satellites to Global Climate Modeling session, annual spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), Baltimore, Maryland, May 30, 1997.

    Member, Ph.D. Committee for Valerie Louis, University of Maryland, 1997-2003.

    Chair, meetings of the Aqua Science Working Group, 1997-2004.

    Member, Ph.D. Committee for Keith Henderson, Ohio State University (and Adjunct Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio State University), 1998-2002.

    Chair, plenary session on Variability in the Earth System, Earth Observing System (EOS) Investigators’ Working Group (IWG) meeting, San Antonio, Texas, October 30, 2001.

    A contributing author for the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report and a reviewer for the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.

    Chair, Aqua plenary session, Earth Observing System (EOS) Investigators’ Working Group (IWG) meeting, Ellicott City, Maryland, November 18, 2002.

    Member, Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Science Operations Readiness Review Board, 2002.

    Rapporteur, Breakout Group 1: Climate Change Science Program Elements, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders, Washington, D.C., 2002.

    Guest Editor, Aqua Special Issue, Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2002-2003.

    Co-convener of five Aqua sessions at the December 8-12, 2003 annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, and co-chair of three of those sessions, December 9-10, 2003.

    Chair, session on Time Variations and Teleconnections II, International Conference on the “Central Arctic: Battleground of Natural and Man-Made Climate Forcing,” Palisades, New York, January 8, 2004.

    Member, Panel on Climate Variability and Change for the Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, 2005-2006.

    Member, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Future Planning Effort Red Team Review Panel, 2007-2008.

    Member of committees for various professional societies (see section titled Professional Societies), continuing.


    Special Experience

    Glaciological field work in Antarctica, December 1973-February 1974. 

    Sea ice field work in the Bering Sea, February-March 1981. 

    Leader of a group effort to produce an atlas of Arctic sea ice from satellite passive-microwave data, 1984-1987. 

    Chief Scientist, NASA Expedition to Resolute Bay, Eureka, and the North Pole, April 1999.

    Selected Public Outreach

    Earth & Sky Radio 1998 - 2013
    Member, Science Advisory Board, Earth & Sky Radio, 1998-2013.
    Soundprint Media Center 1998 - 2008
    Member, Science Advisory Board for radio documentaries, Soundprint Media Center, 1998-2008.

    CD-ROM "Welcome to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise" 1998 - 1999
    Member, Oversight Committee for the educational CD-ROM “Welcome to NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise,” NASA, 1998-1999; final product released in August 1999.

    The Earth Observatory 1999 - 2006
    http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov. Member, Editorial Board for the Earth Observatory, a popular, award-winning internet website (recognized by Popular Science as one of the 50 best science and technology websites; repeat winner of Webby People’s Voice Awards; and 2003 winner of the Webby Award for Education from the International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences), 1999-2006.
    Renaissance Weekend 2000 - 2000
    Moderator, forum on Space, Physics, and the Possibilities of the Galaxy, Renaissance Weekend, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, December 30, 2000.
    The JASON Project 2001 - 2002
    Host researcher for JASON XIII: Frozen Worlds, 2001-2002, the thirteenth annual educational program of the JASON Project, led by Dr. Robert Ballard.

    Aqua webcasts 2001 - 2003

    Scientist host for eight live web casts about the Aqua spacecraft, before and after the 2002 Aqua launch, December 2001 – March 2003.

    Children's Museum of Indianapolis Traveling Exhibit 2005 - 2006
    Science advisor and one of several featured scientists in a Children’s Museum of Indianapolis traveling exhibit (October 2006 – December 2011) entitled “National Geographic Maps: Tools for Adventure,” 2005-2006.
    American Museum of Natural History Polar Exhibit 2006 - 2007
    Science advisor to a polar exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, 2006-2007.
    United Nations "Antarctica On Thin Ice" Exhibit 2006 - 2007

    Sole science advisor to the photographic exhibit “Antarctica On Thin Ice” that opened at the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City on December 17, 2007.

    Women of Goddard 2011 - 2011
    Leader of a collaborative outreach effort between NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Maryland Women’s Heritage Center, highlighting exciting career possibilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics through a sampling of the careers of the women of NASA Goddard, resulting in a “Women of Goddard” book and six associated posters, 2011.

    Educational Videos on the Use of Math to Analyze Climate Change, Using the Example of Polar Sea Ice 2013 - 2014
    Writer and on-camera presenter for three 17-20-minute videos instructing middle and high school math students on the use of math in the analysis of satellite sea ice data, 2013-2014. The three videos are titled “Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Coverages, as Derived from Satellite Data,” "Determining Trends in Yearly Average Sea Ice Extents," and "Determining Trends in Sea Ice Extent Monthly Deviations."

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Parkinson, C. L., and N. E. DiGirolamo. 2016. "New visualizations highlight new information on the contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice trends since the late 1970s." Remote Sensing of Environment, 183: 198-204 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.020]

    Porter, S. E., C. L. Parkinson, and E. Mosley-Thompson. 2016. "Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121 (23): 13,886-13,900 [10.1002/2016jd025626]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2014. "Spatially mapped reductions in the length of the Arctic sea ice season." Geophysical Research Letters, 41 (12): 4316-4322 [10.1002/2014GL060434]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2014. "Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends." Journal of Climate, 27 (24): 9377–9382 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00605.1]

    Ainley, D. G., N. Nur, J. T. Eastman, et al. G. Ballard, C. L. Parkinson, C. W. Evans, and A. L. DeVries. 2013. "Decadal trends in abundance, size and condition of Antarctic toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2011." Fish and Fisheries, 14 (3): 343-363 [10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00474.x]

    Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2013. "On the 2012 record low Arctic sea ice cover: Combined impact of preconditioning and an August storm." Geophysical Research Letters, 40 (7): 1356-1361 [10.1002/grl.50349]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2013. "Summarizing the First Ten Years of NASA's Aqua Mission." IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 6 (3): 1179-1188 [10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2239608]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. "Floating ice: Sea ice." Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century, 1386 (A): Washington, D.C.: 345-380 + 415-424.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. "Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010." The Cryosphere, 6 (4): 871-880 [10.5194/tc-6-871-2012]

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2012. "Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010." The Cryosphere, 6 (4): 881-889 [10.5194/tc-6-881-2012]

    Garrott, R. A., J. J. Rotella, D. B. Siniff, C. L. Parkinson, and G. E. Stauffer. 2012. "Environmental variation and cohort effects in an Antarctic predator." Oikos, 121 (7): 1027-1040 [10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19673.x]

    Boisvert, L. N., T. Markus, C. L. Parkinson, and T. Vihma. 2012. "Moisture fluxes derived from EOS aqua satellite data for the north water polynya over 2003–2009." Journal of Geophysical Research, 117 (D6): D06119 [10.1029/2011JD016949]

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, N. DiGirolamo, and A. Ivanoff. 2012. "Intersensor Calibration Between F13 SSMI and F17 SSMIS for Global Sea Ice Data Records." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 9 (2): 233-236 [10.1109/LGRS.2011.2166754]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2010. "Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix." Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 411 pp., ISBN: 978-0-7425-5615-7.

    Ballard, G., V. Toniolo, D. G. Ainley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, K. R. Arrigo, and P. N. Trathan. 2010. "Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries." Ecology, 91 (7): 2056-2069 [10.1890/09-0688.1]

    Huang, N. E., Z. Wu, J. E. Pinzon, et al. C. L. Parkinson, S. R. Long, K. Blank, P. Gloersen, and X. Chen. 2009. "Reductions of noise and uncertainty in annual global surface temperature anomaly data." Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis, 1 (3): 447-460 [10.1142/S1793536909000151]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2008. "Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice." Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Second Edition.: 80-90.

    Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. "Arctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 (C2): C02S05 [10.1029/2007JC004255]

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. "Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 (C7): C07004 [10.1029/2007JC004564]

    Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2008. "Antarctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113 (C2): C02S06 [10.1029/2007JC004253]

    Comiso, J. C., C. L. Parkinson, R. A. Gersten, and L. V. Stock. 2008. "Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover." Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (1): L01703 [10.1029/2007GL031972]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2008. "Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006." Journal of Geophysical Research, 113: C07003 [10.1029/2007JC004558]

    Ukita, J., M. Honda, H. Nakamura, et al. Y. Tachibana, D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, H. Koide, and K. Yamamoto. 2007. "Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability: lag structure and its implications." Tellus A, 59 (2): 261-272 [10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00223.x]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "The Great White Ocean: The Arctic's changing sea ice cover." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 226-231., ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Bound together: Arctic sea ice, ocean, and atmosphere." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, Cambridge, United Kingdom: 232-237, ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Koeln, G. T., Y. Naficy, and C. L. Parkinson. 2007. "Chronicling the destruction of Eden: The draining of the Iraqi marshes." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space, Cambridge, United Kingdom: 312-319., ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Changes in polar sea ice coverage." Sudden and Disruptive Climate Change: Exploring the Real Risks and How We Can Avoid Them, London: 49-62, ISBN: 978-1844074785.

    Parkinson, C. L., K. Y. Vinnikov, and D. J. Cavalieri. 2006. "Evaluation of the simulation of the annual cycle of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverages by 11 major global climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research, 111 (C7): C07012 [10.1029/2005JC003408]

    Stirling, I., and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. "Possible effects of climate warming on selected populatious of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic." Arctic, 59 (3): 261-275.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. "A model assessment of satellite observed trends in polar sea ice extents." Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (5): L05704 [10.1029/2005GL025282]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2006. "Earth's cryosphere: Current state and recent changes." Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31: 33-60 [10.1146/annurev.energy.31.041105.095552]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2004. "Southern Ocean sea ice and its wider linkages: insights revealed from models and observations." Antarctic Science, 16 (4): 387-400 [10.1017/S0954102004002214]

    Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2004. "Satellite-observed changes in the Arctic." Physics Today, 57 (8): 38-44.

    Vaughan, D. G., G. J. Marshall, W. M. Connolley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, R. Mulvaney, D. A. Hodgson, J. C. King, C. J. Pudsey, and J. Turner. 2003. "Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula." Climatic Change, 60 (3): 243-274 [10.1023/A:1026021217991]

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, and K. Y. Vinnikov. 2003. "30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability." Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (18): 1970 [10.1029/2003GL018031]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2003. "Aqua: An Earth-observing satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41 (2): 173-183 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808319]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2003. "Arctic Ocean." Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, 1: Chichester, United Kingdom: 199-201, ISBN: 978-0-470-85360-3.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Agassiz, Louis." Encyclopedia of Global Change: Environmental Change and Human Society, 1: New York: 10-12., ISBN: 978-0195108255 .

    Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, and P. Gloersen. 2002. "Variability of Antarctic sea ice 1979–1998." Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (C5): 9-1 - 9-19. [10.1029/2000JC000733]

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2002. "Analysis of seasonal cycles in climatic trends with application to satellite observations of sea ice extent." Geophysical Research Letters, 29 (9): 24-1 - 24-4 [10.1029/2001GL014481]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2002. "A 21 year record of Arctic sea-ice extents and their regional, seasonal and monthly variability and trends." Annals of Glaciology, 34 (1): 441-446 [10.3189/172756402781817725]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Trends in the length of the Southern Ocean sea-ice season, 1979-99." Annals of Glaciology, 34: 435-440.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2001. "Satellite passive microwave measurements of sea ice." Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, 5: London: 2531-2539.

    Parkinson, C. L., D. Rind, R. J. Healy, and D. G. Martinson. 2001. "The impact of sea ice concentration accuracies on climate model simulations with the GISS GCM." Journal of Climate, 14 (12): 2606-2623.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 2000. "Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent: Response to comments by Moritz and Bitz." Science, 288: 927a. [Full Text (Link)]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2000. "Variability of Arctic sea ice: The view from space, an 18-year record." Arctic, 53 (4): 341-358.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2000. "Recent trend reversals in Arctic sea ice extents: Possible connections to the North Atlantic Oscillation." Polar Geography, 24 (1): 1-12.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 1999. "Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent." Science, 286: 1934-1937.

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. "Deriving long-term time series of sea ice cover from satellite passive-microwave multisensor data sets." Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (C7): 15,803-15,814. [10.1029/1999JC900081]

    Gloersen, P., C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. "Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers: 1978-1996." Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (C9): 20,827-20,835.

    Parkinson, C. L., D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H. J. Zwally, and J. C. Comiso. 1999. "Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996." Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856. [10.1029/1999JC900082]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1998. "Length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1988-1994." Antarctic Sea Ice Physical Properties, Interactions and Variability, Washington, D.C.: 173-186.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "Ice sheets and sea level rise." PUMAS (Practical Uses of Math and Science): The On-Line Journal of Math and Science Examples, 02_10_97_1.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "Earth from Above: Using Color-Coded Satellite Images to Examine the Global Environment." Sausalito, California: University Science Books, 176 pp., ISBN: 978-0935702415.

    Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, C. L. Parkinson, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1997. "Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes." Science, 278: 1104-1106.

    Comiso, J. C., D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, and P. Gloersen. 1997. "Passive microwave algorithms for sea ice concentration: A comparison of two techniques." Remote Sensing of the Environment, 60 (3): 357-384.

    Rind, D., R. J. Healy, C. L. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1997. "The Role of sea ice in 2×CO2 climate model sensitivity: Part II: Hemispheric dependencies." Geophysical Research Letters, 24 (12): 1491-1494 [10.1029/97GL01433]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "Sea ice." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 2: New York: 669-675.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "James Croll." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 1: New York: 207-208.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "Louis Agassiz." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 1: New York: 19-20.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1995. "Satellite sensing of Antarctic sea ice." Space and Atmospheric Sciences in Antarctica, San Jose dos Campos: 87-105.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1995. "Recent sea ice advances in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait and retreats in the Bellingshausen Sea." Annals of Glaciology, 21: 348-352.

    Rind, D., R. Healy, C. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1995. "The role of sea ice in 2 x CO2 climate model sensitivity. Part 1: The total influence of sea ice thickness and extent." Journal of Climate, 8 (3): 449-463.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1994. "Spatial patterns in the length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1979-1986." Journal of Geophysical Research, 99 (C8): 16,327-16,339.

    Foster, J. L., and C. L. Parkinson. 1993. "Indications and effects of human activities." Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom: 425-443.

    Parkinson, C. L., and P. Gloersen. 1993. "Global sea ice coverage." Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom: 371-383.

    Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1993. "Satellite passive microwave observations and analysis of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978-1987." Annals of Glaciology, 17: 149-154.

    Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1992. "Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations and Analysis." NASA SP-511: Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 290 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Interannual variability of monthly Southern Ocean sea ice distributions." Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (C4): 5349-5363.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Southern Ocean sea-ice distributions and extents." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 338 (1285): 243-250.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Spatial patterns of increases and decreases in the length of the sea ice season in the north polar region, 1979–1986." Journal of Geophysical Research, 97 (C9): 14,377-14,388 [10.1029/92JC01367]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Interannual variability of monthly sea ice distributions in the north polar region." Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change, 1: Fairbanks, Alaska: 71-78.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Strengths and weaknesses of sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change." Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change, 1: Fairbanks, Alaska: 17-21.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Interannual variability of the spatial distribution of sea ice in the north polar region." Journal of Geophysical Research, 96 (C3): 4791-4801.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1990. "Search for the Little Ice Age in Southern Ocean sea-ice records." Annals of Glaciology, 14: 221-225.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1990. "The impact of the Siberian High and Aleutian Low on the sea-ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk." Annals of Glaciology, 14: 226-229.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1989. "On the value of long-term satellite passive microwave data sets for sea ice/climate studies." GeoJournal, 18: 9-20.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1989. "Arctic sea ice 1973–1987: Seasonal, regional, and interannual variability." Journal of Geophysical Research, 94 (C10): 14,499-14,523 [10.1029/JC094iC10p14499]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1989. "Dangers of multiyear averaging in analyses of long-term climate trends." Climate Dynamics, 4 (1): 39-44. [10.1007/BF00207398]

    Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. "Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice I: Effect of orbital insolation changes." Climate Dynamics, 3: 85-91.

    Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. "Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice II: Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange." Climate Dynamics, 3: 93-103.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. "Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations." NASA SP-489: Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 296 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1987. "Paradigm transitions in mathematics." Philosophia Mathematica, II (2): 127-150.

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1987. "On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and the fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk seas." Journal of Geophysical Research, 92 (C7): 7141-7162.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. "Seasonal and regional variations of Northern Hemisphere sea ice as illustrated with satellite passive-microwave data for 1974." Annals of Glaciology, 9: 119-126.

    Ling, C. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. "Arctic sea ice extent and drift, modeled as a viscous fluid." Ocean Science and Engineering, 11 (1-2): 71-98.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1985. "Breakthroughs: A Chronology of Great Achievements in Science and Mathematics." Boston: G. K. Hall, 576 pp., ISBN: 978-0816187065 .

    Parkinson, C. L., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1984. "Response of Antarctic sea ice to uniform atmospheric temperature increases." Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Maurice Ewing Series, 5: Washington, D.C.: 254-264.

    Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, et al. W. J. Campbell, F. D. Carsey, and P. Gloersen. 1983. "Antarctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations." NASA SP-459: Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 206 pp.

    Martin, S., P. Kauffman, and C. Parkinson. 1983. "The movement and decay of ice edge bands in the winter Bering Sea." Journal of Geophysical Research, 88: 2803-2812.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1983. "On the development and cause of the Weddell polynya in a sea ice simulation." Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13: 501-511.

    Parkinson, C. L., and A. J. Gratz. 1983. "On the seasonal sea ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk." Journal of Geophysical Research, 88: 2793-2802.

    Zwally, H. J., C. L. Parkinson, and J. C. Comiso. 1983. "Variability of Antarctic sea ice and changes in carbon dioxide." Science, 220 (4601): 1005-1012.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1982. "Interannual sea-ice variations and sea-ice/atmosphere interactions in the Southern Ocean, 1973-1975." Annals of Glaciology, 3: 249-254.

    Crawford, J. P., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. "Wintertime microwave observations of the North Water polynya." Oceanography from Space, New York: 839-844.

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. "Large-scale variations in observed Antarctic sea ice extent and associated atmospheric circulation." Monthly Weather Review, 109 (11): 2323-2336.

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1980. "Summary of a large-scale sea-ice model." Sea Ice Processes and Models, Seattle: 224-233.

    Parkinson, C. L., and G. F. Herman. 1980. "Sea ice simulations based on fields generated by the GLAS GCM." Monthly Weather Review, 108: 2080-2091.

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. W. Kellogg. 1979. "Arctic sea ice decay simulated for a CO2-induced temperature rise." Climatic Change, 2 (2): 149-162 [10.1007/BF00133221]

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1979. "A large-scale numerical model of sea ice." Journal of Geophysical Research, 84 (C1): 311-337 [10.1029/JC084iC01p00311]

    Non-Refereed

    Hart, M. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 2013. "The Newton Awards: A History of Genius in Science and Technology." Whitefish, Montana: Washington Summit Publishers, 523 pp., ISBN: 978-1593680121.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2012. "Moustafa T. Chahine, 1935-2011." National Academy of Engineering of the United States of America Memorial Tributes Washington, D.C.: 46-51.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2012. "Aqua 10 years after launch." The Earth Observer 24 (6): 4-17.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Review of ‘ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance’." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 (2): 255-257.

    Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2005. "An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling." Second Edition: Sausalito, California: University Science Books, 353 pp., ISBN: 9781891389351.

    Graham, S. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2003. "Aqua mission sponsors 2003 engineering competition." The Earth Observer 15 (3): 21-22.

    Parkinson, C. L., M. T. Chahine, C. D. Kummerow, and V. V. Salomonson. 2003. "Foreword to the EOS Aqua Special Issue." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41 (2): 172.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Satellite imagery for environmental reporting." Nieman Reports: The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University 56 (4): 86-89.

    Parkinson, C. L., and L. J. Ruark. 2000. "Journey to the end of the Earth: An expedition to the North Pole." Wellesley Magazine 84 (4): 24-29.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "PM Science Working Group meeting on spacecraft maneuvers." The Earth Observer 9 (3): 3-6.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1994. "Review of "Glaciers of Europe"." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75 (5): 860-862.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1987. "Satellite-derived ice data sets No. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976." NASA Technical Memorandum 87825 Greenbelt, Maryland: 39 pp.

    Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. "An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling." Mill Valley, California: University Science Books, 422 pp., ISBN: 9780935702521.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1979. "A simple parameterization for salt flux to the upper ocean owing to freezing and melting at the surface." Antarctic Journal of the United States 14 (5): 103-104.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1978. "A Numerical Simulation of the Annual Cycle of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic." NCAR Cooperative Thesis No. 46 Boulder, Colorado: National Center for Atmospheric Research, 191 pp.

    Brief Bio

           Claire L. Parkinson has been a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center since July 1978 and a Senior Fellow at Goddard since 2005. Her research emphasis has been on polar sea ice and its connections to the rest of the climate system and to climate change, with a particular emphasis on satellite remote sensing. This work has involved satellite data set generation and analysis, including the determination of decreases in Arctic sea ice coverage since the 1970s and examination of their regional variabilities and impacts, plus the quantification and analysis of the very different time series of sea ice changes in the Antarctic. Claire has also developed a computer model of sea ice, has done field work in both the Arctic and the Antarctic, and is the lead author of an atlas of Arctic sea ice from satellite data and a coauthor of two other sea ice atlases.

    Since May 1993, Claire has additionally been the Project Scientist for the Aqua satellite mission, which launched in May 2002 and is transmitting data on many atmospheric, ocean, land, and ice variables. She has also written an introductory book on examining the Earth with satellite imagery, has coauthored with Warren Washington a university textbook on climate modeling, has coedited two books on satellite observations related to global change, and is lead editor of a Data Products Handbook for NASA's Earth Observing System and lead editor of a NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook. In 2010 she published a book entitled Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix about climate change and her concerns regarding the possibility of implementation of potentially dangerous geoengineering projects. In 2011 she led a ‘Women of Goddard’ outreach effort that included production of a book on Women of Goddard: Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics and a set of six related posters. Outside of her NASA work, she has written a book on the history of western science from 1202 to 1930.

    Claire is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Philosophical Society, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and Phi Beta Kappa. 

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Parkinson, C. L., and N. E. DiGirolamo. 2016. "New visualizations highlight new information on the contrasting Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice trends since the late 1970s." Remote Sensing of Environment 183 198-204 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.020]

    Porter, S. E., C. L. Parkinson, and E. Mosley-Thompson. 2016. "Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 121 (23): 13,886-13,900 [10.1002/2016jd025626]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2014. "Spatially mapped reductions in the length of the Arctic sea ice season." Geophysical Research Letters 41 (12): 4316-4322 [10.1002/2014GL060434]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2014. "Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends." Journal of Climate 27 (24): 9377–9382 [10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00605.1]

    Ainley, D. G., N. Nur, J. T. Eastman, et al. G. Ballard, C. L. Parkinson, C. W. Evans, and A. L. DeVries. 2013. "Decadal trends in abundance, size and condition of Antarctic toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2011." Fish and Fisheries 14 (3): 343-363 [10.1111/j.1467-2979.2012.00474.x]

    Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2013. "On the 2012 record low Arctic sea ice cover: Combined impact of preconditioning and an August storm." Geophysical Research Letters 40 (7): 1356-1361 [10.1002/grl.50349]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2013. "Summarizing the First Ten Years of NASA's Aqua Mission." IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 6 (3): 1179-1188 [10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2239608]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. "Floating ice: Sea ice." Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World: State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century 1386 (A): 345-380 + 415-424.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2012. "Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010." The Cryosphere 6 (4): 871-880 [10.5194/tc-6-871-2012]

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2012. "Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010." The Cryosphere 6 (4): 881-889 [10.5194/tc-6-881-2012]

    Garrott, R. A., J. J. Rotella, D. B. Siniff, C. L. Parkinson, and G. E. Stauffer. 2012. "Environmental variation and cohort effects in an Antarctic predator." Oikos 121 (7): 1027-1040 [10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.19673.x]

    Boisvert, L. N., T. Markus, C. L. Parkinson, and T. Vihma. 2012. "Moisture fluxes derived from EOS aqua satellite data for the north water polynya over 2003–2009." Journal of Geophysical Research 117 (D6): D06119 [10.1029/2011JD016949]

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, N. DiGirolamo, and A. Ivanoff. 2012. "Intersensor Calibration Between F13 SSMI and F17 SSMIS for Global Sea Ice Data Records." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 9 (2): 233-236 [10.1109/LGRS.2011.2166754]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2010. "Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix." 411 pp.

    Ballard, G., V. Toniolo, D. G. Ainley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, K. R. Arrigo, and P. N. Trathan. 2010. "Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries." Ecology 91 (7): 2056-2069 [10.1890/09-0688.1]

    Huang, N. E., Z. Wu, J. E. Pinzon, et al. C. L. Parkinson, S. R. Long, K. Blank, P. Gloersen, and X. Chen. 2009. "Reductions of noise and uncertainty in annual global surface temperature anomaly data." Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis 1 (3): 447-460 [10.1142/S1793536909000151]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2008. "Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice." Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences Second Edition. 80-90.

    Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. "Arctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I." Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C2): C02S05 [10.1029/2007JC004255]

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 2008. "Antarctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006." Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C7): C07004 [10.1029/2007JC004564]

    Parkinson, C. L., and J. C. Comiso. 2008. "Antarctic sea ice parameters from AMSR-E data using two techniques and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I." Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (C2): C02S06 [10.1029/2007JC004253]

    Comiso, J. C., C. L. Parkinson, R. A. Gersten, and L. V. Stock. 2008. "Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover." Geophysical Research Letters 35 (1): L01703 [10.1029/2007GL031972]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2008. "Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2006." Journal of Geophysical Research 113 C07003 [10.1029/2007JC004558]

    Ukita, J., M. Honda, H. Nakamura, et al. Y. Tachibana, D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, H. Koide, and K. Yamamoto. 2007. "Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability: lag structure and its implications." Tellus A 59 (2): 261-272 [10.1111/j.1600-0870.2006.00223.x]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "The Great White Ocean: The Arctic's changing sea ice cover." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 226-231.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Bound together: Arctic sea ice, ocean, and atmosphere." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 232-237

    Koeln, G. T., Y. Naficy, and C. L. Parkinson. 2007. "Chronicling the destruction of Eden: The draining of the Iraqi marshes." Our Changing Planet: The View from Space 312-319.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Changes in polar sea ice coverage." Sudden and Disruptive Climate Change: Exploring the Real Risks and How We Can Avoid Them 49-62

    Parkinson, C. L., K. Y. Vinnikov, and D. J. Cavalieri. 2006. "Evaluation of the simulation of the annual cycle of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverages by 11 major global climate models." Journal of Geophysical Research 111 (C7): C07012 [10.1029/2005JC003408]

    Stirling, I., and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. "Possible effects of climate warming on selected populatious of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic." Arctic 59 (3): 261-275.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2006. "A model assessment of satellite observed trends in polar sea ice extents." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (5): L05704 [10.1029/2005GL025282]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2006. "Earth's cryosphere: Current state and recent changes." Annual Review of Environment and Resources 31 33-60 [10.1146/annurev.energy.31.041105.095552]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2004. "Southern Ocean sea ice and its wider linkages: insights revealed from models and observations." Antarctic Science 16 (4): 387-400 [10.1017/S0954102004002214]

    Comiso, J. C., and C. L. Parkinson. 2004. "Satellite-observed changes in the Arctic." Physics Today 57 (8): 38-44.

    Vaughan, D. G., G. J. Marshall, W. M. Connolley, et al. C. L. Parkinson, R. Mulvaney, D. A. Hodgson, J. C. King, C. J. Pudsey, and J. Turner. 2003. "Recent Rapid Regional Climate Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula." Climatic Change 60 (3): 243-274 [10.1023/A:1026021217991]

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, and K. Y. Vinnikov. 2003. "30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability." Geophysical Research Letters 30 (18): 1970 [10.1029/2003GL018031]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2003. "Aqua: An Earth-observing satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41 (2): 173-183 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808319]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2003. "Arctic Ocean." Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change 1 199-201

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Agassiz, Louis." Encyclopedia of Global Change: Environmental Change and Human Society 1 10-12.

    Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, and P. Gloersen. 2002. "Variability of Antarctic sea ice 1979–1998." Journal of Geophysical Research 107 (C5): 9-1 - 9-19. [10.1029/2000JC000733]

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, D. J. Cavalieri, and C. L. Parkinson. 2002. "Analysis of seasonal cycles in climatic trends with application to satellite observations of sea ice extent." Geophysical Research Letters 29 (9): 24-1 - 24-4 [10.1029/2001GL014481]

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 2002. "A 21 year record of Arctic sea-ice extents and their regional, seasonal and monthly variability and trends." Annals of Glaciology 34 (1): 441-446 [10.3189/172756402781817725]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Trends in the length of the Southern Ocean sea-ice season, 1979-99." Annals of Glaciology 34 435-440.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2001. "Satellite passive microwave measurements of sea ice." Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences 5 2531-2539.

    Parkinson, C. L., D. Rind, R. J. Healy, and D. G. Martinson. 2001. "The impact of sea ice concentration accuracies on climate model simulations with the GISS GCM." Journal of Climate 14 (12): 2606-2623.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 2000. "Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent: Response to comments by Moritz and Bitz." Science 288 927a. [Full Text (Link)]

    Parkinson, C. L. 2000. "Variability of Arctic sea ice: The view from space, an 18-year record." Arctic 53 (4): 341-358.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2000. "Recent trend reversals in Arctic sea ice extents: Possible connections to the North Atlantic Oscillation." Polar Geography 24 (1): 1-12.

    Vinnikov, K. Y., A. Robock, R. J. Stouffer, et al. J. E. Walsh, C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. F. Mitchell, D. Garrett, and V. F. Zakharov. 1999. "Global warming and Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent." Science 286 1934-1937.

    Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. "Deriving long-term time series of sea ice cover from satellite passive-microwave multisensor data sets." Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C7): 15,803-15,814. [10.1029/1999JC900081]

    Gloersen, P., C. L. Parkinson, D. J. Cavalieri, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1999. "Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers: 1978-1996." Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,827-20,835.

    Parkinson, C. L., D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, H. J. Zwally, and J. C. Comiso. 1999. "Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978–1996." Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (C9): 20,837-20,856. [10.1029/1999JC900082]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1998. "Length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1988-1994." Antarctic Sea Ice Physical Properties, Interactions and Variability 173-186.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "Ice sheets and sea level rise." PUMAS (Practical Uses of Math and Science): The On-Line Journal of Math and Science Examples 02_10_97_1.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "Earth from Above: Using Color-Coded Satellite Images to Examine the Global Environment." 176 pp.

    Cavalieri, D. J., P. Gloersen, C. L. Parkinson, J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1997. "Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes." Science 278 1104-1106.

    Comiso, J. C., D. J. Cavalieri, C. L. Parkinson, and P. Gloersen. 1997. "Passive microwave algorithms for sea ice concentration: A comparison of two techniques." Remote Sensing of the Environment 60 (3): 357-384.

    Rind, D., R. J. Healy, C. L. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1997. "The Role of sea ice in 2×CO2 climate model sensitivity: Part II: Hemispheric dependencies." Geophysical Research Letters 24 (12): 1491-1494 [10.1029/97GL01433]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "Sea ice." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 2 669-675.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "James Croll." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 1 207-208.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1996. "Louis Agassiz." Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather 1 19-20.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1995. "Satellite sensing of Antarctic sea ice." Space and Atmospheric Sciences in Antarctica 87-105.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1995. "Recent sea ice advances in Baffin Bay/Davis Strait and retreats in the Bellingshausen Sea." Annals of Glaciology 21 348-352.

    Rind, D., R. Healy, C. Parkinson, and D. Martinson. 1995. "The role of sea ice in 2 x CO2 climate model sensitivity. Part 1: The total influence of sea ice thickness and extent." Journal of Climate 8 (3): 449-463.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1994. "Spatial patterns in the length of the sea ice season in the Southern Ocean, 1979-1986." Journal of Geophysical Research 99 (C8): 16,327-16,339.

    Foster, J. L., and C. L. Parkinson. 1993. "Indications and effects of human activities." Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change 425-443.

    Parkinson, C. L., and P. Gloersen. 1993. "Global sea ice coverage." Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change 371-383.

    Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1993. "Satellite passive microwave observations and analysis of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978-1987." Annals of Glaciology 17 149-154.

    Gloersen, P., W. J. Campbell, D. J. Cavalieri, et al. J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, and H. J. Zwally. 1992. "Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations and Analysis." NASA SP-511 290 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Interannual variability of monthly Southern Ocean sea ice distributions." Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C4): 5349-5363.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Southern Ocean sea-ice distributions and extents." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 338 (1285): 243-250.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1992. "Spatial patterns of increases and decreases in the length of the sea ice season in the north polar region, 1979–1986." Journal of Geophysical Research 97 (C9): 14,377-14,388 [10.1029/92JC01367]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Interannual variability of monthly sea ice distributions in the north polar region." Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change 1 71-78.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Strengths and weaknesses of sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change." Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change 1 17-21.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1991. "Interannual variability of the spatial distribution of sea ice in the north polar region." Journal of Geophysical Research 96 (C3): 4791-4801.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1990. "Search for the Little Ice Age in Southern Ocean sea-ice records." Annals of Glaciology 14 221-225.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1990. "The impact of the Siberian High and Aleutian Low on the sea-ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk." Annals of Glaciology 14 226-229.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1989. "On the value of long-term satellite passive microwave data sets for sea ice/climate studies." GeoJournal 18 9-20.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1989. "Arctic sea ice 1973–1987: Seasonal, regional, and interannual variability." Journal of Geophysical Research 94 (C10): 14,499-14,523 [10.1029/JC094iC10p14499]

    Parkinson, C. L. 1989. "Dangers of multiyear averaging in analyses of long-term climate trends." Climate Dynamics 4 (1): 39-44. [10.1007/BF00207398]

    Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. "Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice I: Effect of orbital insolation changes." Climate Dynamics 3 85-91.

    Crowley, T. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1988. "Late Pleistocene variations in Antarctic sea ice II: Effect of interhemispheric deep-ocean heat exchange." Climate Dynamics 3 93-103.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. "Arctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations." NASA SP-489 296 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1987. "Paradigm transitions in mathematics." Philosophia Mathematica II (2): 127-150.

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1987. "On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and the fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk seas." Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (C7): 7141-7162.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, H. J. Zwally, et al. D. J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W. J. Campbell. 1987. "Seasonal and regional variations of Northern Hemisphere sea ice as illustrated with satellite passive-microwave data for 1974." Annals of Glaciology 9 119-126.

    Ling, C. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. "Arctic sea ice extent and drift, modeled as a viscous fluid." Ocean Science and Engineering 11 (1-2): 71-98

    Parkinson, C. L. 1985. "Breakthroughs: A Chronology of Great Achievements in Science and Mathematics." 576 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L., and R. A. Bindschadler. 1984. "Response of Antarctic sea ice to uniform atmospheric temperature increases." Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, Maurice Ewing Series 5 254-264.

    Zwally, H. J., J. C. Comiso, C. L. Parkinson, et al. W. J. Campbell, F. D. Carsey, and P. Gloersen. 1983. "Antarctic Sea Ice, 1973-1976: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations." NASA SP-459 206 pp.

    Martin, S., P. Kauffman, and C. Parkinson. 1983. "The movement and decay of ice edge bands in the winter Bering Sea." Journal of Geophysical Research 88 2803-2812.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1983. "On the development and cause of the Weddell polynya in a sea ice simulation." Journal of Physical Oceanography 13 501-511.

    Parkinson, C. L., and A. J. Gratz. 1983. "On the seasonal sea ice cover of the Sea of Okhotsk." Journal of Geophysical Research 88 2793-2802.

    Zwally, H. J., C. L. Parkinson, and J. C. Comiso. 1983. "Variability of Antarctic sea ice and changes in carbon dioxide." Science 220 (4601): 1005-1012.

    Parkinson, C. L., and D. J. Cavalieri. 1982. "Interannual sea-ice variations and sea-ice/atmosphere interactions in the Southern Ocean, 1973-1975." Annals of Glaciology 3 249-254.

    Crawford, J. P., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. "Wintertime microwave observations of the North Water polynya." Oceanography from Space 839-844.

    Cavalieri, D. J., and C. L. Parkinson. 1981. "Large-scale variations in observed Antarctic sea ice extent and associated atmospheric circulation." Monthly Weather Review 109 (11): 2323-2336.

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1980. "Summary of a large-scale sea-ice model." Sea Ice Processes and Models 224-233.

    Parkinson, C. L., and G. F. Herman. 1980. "Sea ice simulations based on fields generated by the GLAS GCM." Monthly Weather Review 108 2080-2091.

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. W. Kellogg. 1979. "Arctic sea ice decay simulated for a CO2-induced temperature rise." Climatic Change 2 (2): 149-162 [10.1007/BF00133221]

    Parkinson, C. L., and W. M. Washington. 1979. "A large-scale numerical model of sea ice." Journal of Geophysical Research 84 (C1): 311-337 [10.1029/JC084iC01p00311]

    Non-Refereed

    Hart, M. H., and C. L. Parkinson. 2013. "The Newton Awards: A History of Genius in Science and Technology." 523 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2012. "Moustafa T. Chahine, 1935-2011." National Academy of Engineering of the United States of America Memorial Tributes 46-51.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2012. "Aqua 10 years after launch." The Earth Observer 24 (6): 4-17

    Parkinson, C. L. 2007. "Review of ‘ICE: The Nature, the History, and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance’." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 (2): 255-257.

    Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2005. "An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling." Second Edition 353 pp.

    Graham, S. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 2003. "Aqua mission sponsors 2003 engineering competition." The Earth Observer 15 (3): 21-22

    Parkinson, C. L., M. T. Chahine, C. D. Kummerow, and V. V. Salomonson. 2003. "Foreword to the EOS Aqua Special Issue." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 41 (2): 172.

    Parkinson, C. L. 2002. "Satellite imagery for environmental reporting." Nieman Reports: The Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University 56 (4): 86-89.

    Parkinson, C. L., and L. J. Ruark. 2000. "Journey to the end of the Earth: An expedition to the North Pole." Wellesley Magazine 84 (4): 24-29.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1997. "PM Science Working Group meeting on spacecraft maneuvers." The Earth Observer 9 (3): 3-6.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1994. "Review of "Glaciers of Europe"." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 75 (5): 860-862.

    Parkinson, C. L., J. C. Comiso, and H. J. Zwally. 1987. "Satellite-derived ice data sets No. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976." NASA Technical Memorandum 87825 39 pp.

    Washington, W. M., and C. L. Parkinson. 1986. "An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling." 422 pp.

    Parkinson, C. L. 1979. "A simple parameterization for salt flux to the upper ocean owing to freezing and melting at the surface." Antarctic Journal of the United States 14 (5): 103-104

    Parkinson, C. L. 1978. "A Numerical Simulation of the Annual Cycle of Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic." NCAR Cooperative Thesis No. 46 191 pp.

                                                                                                                                                                                            
    NASA Logo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration