Charles Kironji Gatebe

Charles Kironji Gatebe

  • RESEARCH SCIENTIST
  • Additional Roles: Principal Investigator for Cloud Absorption Radiometer
  • 301.614.6228
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 613
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: UNIVERSITIES SPACE RESEARCH ASSOCIATION
  • Brief Bio

    Gatebe works with the Universities Space Research Association based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Climate and Radiation Laboratory. He’s a group lead and the principal investigator of the CAR instrument. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in atmospheric sciences from the University of Witwatersrand, South Africa in 1999. Gatebe has over 19 years experience in airborne measurement and analysis of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), that are needed to study and advance the knowledge of clouds, aerosols, ecosystem structure and function, albedo, and feedbacks to climate. In addition, he has experience in calibration of scanning radiometers, and has led the development of a new instrument (CANS) and BACAR, which is under development. He has participated in many in field experiments, including SnowEx (2017-present); SAFARI-2000 (southern Africa, 2000), CLAMS (USA, 2001), INTEX-B (Mexico, 2006), CLASIC (USA, 2006), ARCTAS (Canada, Greenland and USA, 2008) and DISCOVER-AQ (USA, 2014). Gatebe has received many awards including the 2013 Robert H. Goddard Award for Outreach "for founding, implementing, and continuing to lead the spectacularly successful "Maniac" series of talks at NASA Goddard" and the World Meteorological Organization Young Scientist Award in 2000. Other notable honors include the NASA GSFC's Climate and Radiation Branch award for his outstanding scientific leadership in conducting airborne measurements in 2007 and NASA's Group Achievements awards in 2008 and 2009 for participating in the INTEX-B and ARCTAS field experiments, respectively.

    Research Interests

    Remote sensing of surface bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF)

     The primary objective for my research is to advance the knowledge of clouds aerosols, ecosystem structure and function, albedo, and feedbacks to climate. We are working towards a well-calibrated, atmospherically corrected and feature-rich airborne dataset for calibration and validation of satellite sensors. We conduct elaborate experiments and develop new methods to define important surface and atmosphere radiative transfer functions, and improve remote sensing retrievals of aerosols and clouds using laboratory, ground-based, airborne and satellite remote sensing. We also develop instruments and technologies for new measurements in support of future Earth observing missions.

    Current Projects

    Cloud Absorption Radiometer

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is an airborne multi-wavelength scanning radiometer that can perform several functions including:

    1. determining the single scattering albedo of clouds at selected wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared.

    2. measuring the angular distribution of scattered radiation.

    3. measuring bidirectional reflectance of various surface types. 

    4. acquiring imagery of cloud and Earth surface features.


    SnowEx

    SnowEx is five to six years field campaign, beginning in the 2016-17 Northern Hemisphere winter to help improve measurements of how much snow is on the ground at any given time, and how much liquid water is contained in that snow (Snow Water Equivalent; SWE). The field campaigns will consist of airborne and in-situ ground-based measurements. In addition, modeling is required to help determine how to combine different remote sensing techniques and support modeling to optimize our ability to measure snow properties from space and how to best use multi-sensor data to characterize terrestrial snow.

    BACAR (BRDF, Albedo, Cloud and Aerosol Radiometer)

    This instrument is under development. It  is a novel multi-spectral, multi-angular, scanning radiometer that is needed to advance the knowledge of clouds aerosols, ecosystem structure and function, albedo, and feedbacks to climate. 

    Positions/Employment

    5/2011 - Present

    Group Lead and Research Scientist

    Universities Space Research Association (USRA), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  Group Lead - Responsible for leading and developing employees, employment decisions and performance assessments of an assigned group; lead all aspects of the group under the direction of the program director to include: employee development, encourages a group collaboration environment and promotes team cohesion, promotes implementation of decisions, participates in performance and hiring decisions.

    Research - Conduct elaborate experiments and develop new methods to define important surface and atmosphere radiative transfer functions, and improve remote sensing retrievals of aerosols, clouds, ecosystem structure and function using laboratory, ground-based, airborne and satellite remote sensing. Conceive and develop instruments and technologies for new measurements in support of Earth science missions. Has been funded through NASA GSFC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) to build a new instrument known as BACAR (BRDF, Albedo, Cloud and Aerosol Radiometer), which is a novel multi-spectral, multi-angular, scanning radiometer that is needed to advance the knowledge of clouds aerosols, ecosystem structure and function, albedo, and feedbacks to climate.

    10/2000 - 5/2011

    Associate Research Scientist

    University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center  Conducted research on aerosols in collaboration with scientists at NASA GSFC. Oversaw modification of CAR to include UV bands; led the integration of CAR on several aircrafts and conducted test flights, radiometric calibration, airborne measurements for satellite validation, and data analysis.
    8/1995 - 11/2007

    Lecturer

    University of Nairobi, Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya Taught graduate courses on the use of nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques in environmental pollution monitoring. Conducted pollution monitoring in urban areas in Nairobi and investigated  the long-range inter-hemispheric transport of pollutants using trajectory modeling and measurements on a high mountain,  Mt. Kenya.

    Education

     University of Witwatersrand
    Johannesburg, South Africa
    Doctorate: 6/1999
    Major: Atmospheric Physics

    Thesis title: Characterization and Transport of Atmospheric Aerosols at a High Altitude on Mount Kenya.

    University of Nairobi
    Nairobi, Kenya
    Master's Degree: 12/1994
    Major: Meteorology

    Thesis title: Estimation of Concentration of Carbon Monoxide, Hydrocarbons, and oxides of Nitrogen from Motor Vehicles in Nairobi.

    University of Nairobi
    Nairobi, Kenya
    Bachelor's Degree: 3/1990
    Major: Meteorology and Math
    Minor: Physics

    Project title: Measurements of Total Suspended Particulate Matter in Nairobi City Using Optical Dust Sampler.

    Awards

     2014 Received 2013 Robert H. Goddard Award for Outreach in recognition “for founding, implementing, and continuing to lead the spectacularly successful “Maniac” series of talks at NASA Goddard”.

    2011 Atmospheric Sciences Outstanding Performance at NASA GSFC: Instrumentation.
    Won Outstanding Performance: Instrumentation for elevating the visibility of the CAR instrument with several first-author papers, on ship wakes, on simultaneous CAR+AERONET surface-atmosphere retrievals, and on smoke plume properties in ARCTAS, and for leading the design of the new BACAR aircraft instrument with much broader spectral range than CAR, polarization channels, and improved performance. Earth Sciences Division (Code 610) – Atmospheric Sciences - Peer Awards Ceremony, NASA/GSFC, 28 November 2011.

    2010 Best Science Story Award.
    Won the best science story from over 200 posters spanning all of Goddard's science disciplines at the Third Annual Science and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) New Year's Poster Party Blowout, 28 January 2010.

    2009 NASA Group Achievement Award.
    This award was given in recognition of outstanding accomplishments in the successful Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites in USA, Canada and Greenland.

    2008 NASA Outstanding Scientific Leadership Award
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Climate and Radiation Branch award for demonstrated leadership in conducting airborne measurements with the NASA’s Cloud Absorption Radiometer to elaborate important surface/atmosphere radiative functions and improve remote sensing retrievals of aerosols and clouds.

    2007 NASA Group Achievement Award.
    This awards was given in recognition of outstanding accomplishments in the successful Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment mission conducted in the United States and Mexico.

    2000 WMO Young Scientists Research Award.
    World Meteorological Organization (WMO) research award for young scientists. Awarded in 2000 in recognition of Ph.D. dissertation entitled "Characterization and Transport of Atmospheric Aerosols at a High Altitude on Mount Kenya." The award is competed for annually by all the 185 member countries of the WMO.

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union , 1999 - Present
    member, Associate Editor, Atmospheric Section Newsletter.
    American Meteorological Society , 2002 - Present
    member
    Kenya Meteorological Society , 1996 - Present
    member
    American Association for the Advancement of Science , 1999 - 2006
    member
    National Geographical Society, 2000 - 2007
    member

    Teaching Experience

    Taught graduate courses on the use of nuclear and nuclear related analytical techniques in environmental pollution monitoring (2005-2008) at the University of Nairobi, Kenya

    Professional Service

     NASA Review Panels – Atmospheric Composition: Modeling and Analysis (ACMAP), Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), Advanced Component Technology (ACT), NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR), NASA Postdoc Program (NPP), & Radiation Sciences Program.

    UMBC Promotion Committees – Chair and member of many promotion committees for GEST/JCET faculty at UMBC (2000-2011).

    NASA Scientist, GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to benefit the Environment) Program 2009-2010: Work with GLOBE in the planning and implementation of the GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign, 2011-2013. Blogs for students: http://blog.globe.gov/sciblog/?s=gatebe

    IGARSS (International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium): Chairman, Coastal and Wetlands-1, Cape Town, South Africa, July 12-17 2009 and Sensor Fusion, Seoul, Korea, July 25-29, 2005.

    IAMAS (International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences). Co-convener, Atmospheric Radiation (Symposia 4.1), Innsbruck, Austria, July 16–18, 2001. Other co-conveners: Brent Holben (NASA GSFC) and Alexander Smirnov (SSAI).

    AGU (American Geophysical Union)--Atmospheric Sciences Section: Associate Editor, AGU-Atmosphere Electronic Newsletter.

    World Bank -- Development Market Place Panel of Experts: Review proposals on climate change, biodiversity conservation and climate adaption and select the 100 or so finalist for the Global Development Market Place grant awards.

    South Africa’s National Research Foundation (NRF). Review and evaluate productivity of researchers to help determine a rating used for funding.

    KMS (Kenya Meteorological Society): Secretary, Secretary, the 4th KMS Workshop on Challenges of Meteorology in Sustainable Industrial Development, Mombasa, Kenya, 7–11 September, 1998. Associate Editor, KMS Newsletter, Proceedings of the Second (Dec. 1994) and Third (October 1996) KMS Workshops.

    International Journals -Reviewer: Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, Atmospheric Environment, Oceanologia, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Applied Optics, Optics Express, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, South African Journal of Science, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Remote Sensing of Environment.

    Grants

    06/01/2014 - 05/31/2017 NASA IDS, NASA, NASA NRA #: A.31
    Amplified study of the interactions and feedbacks between biomass burning and water cycle dynamics across the northern sub-Saharan African region. ; Co-Investigator ; 0.20 FTE
    Grant Amount: $$1,465,386

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Melnikova, I., and C. K. Gatebe. 2018. "Vertical profile of cloud optical parameters derived from airborne measurements above, inside and below clouds." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 214: 39-60 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.04.005]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, and T. Hilker. 2017. "Simulation of Multiangular Remote Sensing Products Using Small Satellite Formations." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing, 10 (2): 638 - 653 [10.1109/jstars.2016.2570683]

    Nag, S., T. Hewagama, G. Georgiev, et al. B. Pasquale, S. Aslam, and C. K. Gatebe. 2017. "Multispectral Snapshot Imagers onboard Small Satellite Formations for Multi-Angular Remote Sensing." IEEE Sensors Journal, 17 (16): [10.1109/jsen.2017.2717384]

    Fan, Y., W. Li, C. K. Gatebe, et al. C. Jamet, G. Zibordi, T. Schroeder, and K. Stamnes. 2017. "Atmospheric correction over coastal waters using multilayer neural networks." Remote Sensing of Environment, 199: 218-240 [10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.016]

    Fan, Y., W. Li, K. J. Voss, C. K. Gatebe, and K. Stamnes. 2016. "Neural network method to correct bidirectional effects in water-leaving radiance." Applied Optics, 55 (1): [10.1364/AO.55.000010]

    Lin, Z., L. Wei, C. K. Gatebe, and P. Rajesh. 2016. "Radiative transfer simulations of the two-dimensional ocean glint reflectance and determination of the sea surface roughness." Applied Optics, 55 (6): 1206-1215 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.55.001206]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck. 2016. "Effect of satellite formations and imaging modes on global albedo estimation." Acta Astronautica, 126: 77-97 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.04.004]

    Gatebe, C. K., and M. D. King. 2016. "Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications." Remote Sensing of Environment, 179: 131-148 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029]

    Gautam, R., C. K. Gatebe, M. K. Singh, T. Várnai, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "Radiative characteristics of Clouds Embedded in Smoke derived from airborne multi-angular measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121 (15): 9140–9152 [10.1002/2016jd025309]

    Ichoku, C., L. T. Ellison, K. E. Willmot, et al. T. Matsui, A. K. Dezfuli, C. K. Gatebe, J. Wang, E. M. Wilcox, J. Lee, J. Adegoke, C. Okonkwo, J. Bolten, F. S. Policelli, and S. Habib. 2016. "Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Research Letters, 11 (9): 095005 [10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095005]

    Singh, M. K., R. Gautam, C. K. Gatebe, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "PolarBRDF: A general purpose Python package for visualization and quantitative analysis of multi-angular remote sensing measurements." Computers & Geosciences, 96: 173-180 [10.1016/j.cageo.2016.08.015]

    Engelbrecht, F., J. Adegoke, M.-J. Bopape, et al. M. Naidoo, R. Garland, M. Thatcher, J. McGregor, J. Katzfey, M. Werner, C. M. Ichoku, and C. K. Gatebe. 2015. "Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation." Environ. Res. Lett. , 10 (085004): [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085004]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, and O. d'Weck. 2015. "Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 43: 102-118 [doi:10.1016/j.jag.2015.04.022]

    Gatebe, C., C. Ichoku, R. Poudyal, M. O. Roman, and E. Wilcox. 2014. "Surface albedo darkening from wildfires in northern sub-Saharan Africa." Environ. Res. Lett., 9 (6): 065003 [10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/065003]

    Roman, M. O., C. K. Gatebe, Y. Shuai, et al. Z. Wang, F. Gao, J. Masek, T. He, S. Liang, and C. L. Schaaf. 2013. "Use of In Situ and Airborne Multiangle Data to Assess MODIS- and Landsat-Based Estimates of Directional Reflectance and Albedo." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51 (3): 1393-1404 [10.1109/TGRS.2013.2243457]

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment, 52: 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Gatebe, C. K., R. C. Levy, and A. M. Thompson. 2012. "Atmospheric Chemistry over Southern Africa: Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts over the Southern Africa Region (C4-SAR)." EOS Trans, 93 (10): 110 [10.1029/2012EO100008]

    Román, M., C. K. Gatebe, C. Schaaf, et al. R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, and M. D. King. 2011. "Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30m–500m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment, 115 (9): 2184-2203 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.012]

    Lyapustin, A., C. Gatebe, R. Kahn, et al. R. Brandt, J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. King, C. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky. 2010. "Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10 (9): 4359-4375 [10.5194/acp-10-4359-2010]

    Gatebe, C., R. Poudyal, E. Wilcox, and J. Wang. 2010. "Effects of ship wakes on ocean brightness and radiative forcing over ocean." Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 10 (9): 21683-21696 [10.5194/acpd-10-21683-2010]

    Gatebe, C., O. Dubovik, M. King, and A. Sinyuk. 2010. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10 (6): 2777-2794 [10.5194/acp-10-2777-2010]

    Georgiev, G., C. Gatebe, J. Butler, and M. King. 2009. "BRDF Analysis of Savanna Vegetation and Salt-Pan Samples." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 47 (8): 2546-2556 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2021331]

    Gatebe, C. K., J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Kowalewski, and M. D. King. 2007. "Characterization of errors in the use of integrating-sphere systems in the calibration of scanning radiometers." Appl Opt, 46 (31): 7640-7651 [10.1364/AO.46.007640]

    Abdou, W., S. Pilorz, M. Helmlinger, et al. J. Conel, D. Diner, C. Bruegge, J. Martonchik, C. Gatebe, and M. King. 2006. "Sua pan surface bidirectional reflectance: A case study to evaluate the effect of atmospheric correction on the surface products of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during SAFARI 2000." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 44: 1699-1706.

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann. 2005. "Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance." J Atmos Sci, 62 (4): 1072-1092 [10.1175/JAS3386.1]

    Grab, S., C. Gatebe, and A. Kinyua. 2004. "Ground thermal profiles from Mount Kenya East Africa." Geogr Ann, 86 A (2): 131-141.

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S. Platnick, et al. G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid. 2003. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa." J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D13): 8489 [10.1029/2002JD002397]

    Tyson, P., and C. Gatebe. 2001. "The atmosphere aerosols trace gases and biogeochemical change in southern Africa: a regional integration." South African Journal of Science, 97 (3-4): 106-118.

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, et al. Q. Ji, G. Arnold, and J. Li. 2001. "Sensitivity of off-nadir zenith angles to correlation between visible and near-infrared reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol over land." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 39: 805-819.

    Gatebe, C. K., P. Tyson, H. Annegarn, et al. G. Helas, A. Kinyua, and S. Piketh. 2001. "Characterisation and transport of aerosols over equatorial eastern Africa." Global Biogeochem Cycles, 15 (3): 663-672 [10.1029/2000GB001340]

    Non-Refereed

    Fatoyinbo Agueh, L. E., R. F. Rincon, D. J. Harding, et al. C. K. Gatebe, K. J. Ranson, G. Sun, and M. O. Román. 2012. "The 2011 Eco3D flight campaign: Vegetation structure and biomass estimation from simultaneous SAR, lidar and radiometer measurements." 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 3387–3390 [10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6350694]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2008. "BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples." IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IV-573 - IV-576 [10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779786]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2006. "Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing." Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6296: San Diego, California, 10 pp [10.1117/12.680542]

    Selected Public Outreach

    MANIAC TALKS 10 / 2011 - Present
    http://atmospheres.gsfc.nasa.gov/ext/maniacs/
    Maniac Talks are about what inspired people to do what they are doing now in their career. It's about their driving forces and motivators and what keeps them going. It's about how they overcome obstacles. The format of the talks is informal and discussion is encouraged. All talks are recorded/taped and archived at GSFC Library. The talks are also available on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/GESTARUSRA/videos.
    NASA Scientist, GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to benefit the Environment) Program 2009 - 2010
     Worked with GLOBE in the planning and implementation of the GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign, 2011-2013. Blogs for students:http://globe.gov/explore-science/scientists-blog/archived-posts/

    Brief Bio

    Gatebe works with the Universities Space Research Association based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Climate and Radiation Laboratory. He’s a group lead and the principal investigator of the CAR instrument. He obtained his Ph.D. degree in atmospheric sciences from the University of Witwatersrand, South Africa in 1999. Gatebe has over 19 years experience in airborne measurement and analysis of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), that are needed to study and advance the knowledge of clouds, aerosols, ecosystem structure and function, albedo, and feedbacks to climate. In addition, he has experience in calibration of scanning radiometers, and has led the development of a new instrument (CANS) and BACAR, which is under development. He has participated in many in field experiments, including SnowEx (2017-present); SAFARI-2000 (southern Africa, 2000), CLAMS (USA, 2001), INTEX-B (Mexico, 2006), CLASIC (USA, 2006), ARCTAS (Canada, Greenland and USA, 2008) and DISCOVER-AQ (USA, 2014). Gatebe has received many awards including the 2013 Robert H. Goddard Award for Outreach "for founding, implementing, and continuing to lead the spectacularly successful "Maniac" series of talks at NASA Goddard" and the World Meteorological Organization Young Scientist Award in 2000. Other notable honors include the NASA GSFC's Climate and Radiation Branch award for his outstanding scientific leadership in conducting airborne measurements in 2007 and NASA's Group Achievements awards in 2008 and 2009 for participating in the INTEX-B and ARCTAS field experiments, respectively.

    Selected Publications

    Refereed

    Melnikova, I., and C. K. Gatebe. 2018. "Vertical profile of cloud optical parameters derived from airborne measurements above, inside and below clouds." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 214 39-60 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.04.005]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, and T. Hilker. 2017. "Simulation of Multiangular Remote Sensing Products Using Small Satellite Formations." IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing 10 (2): 638 - 653 [10.1109/jstars.2016.2570683]

    Nag, S., T. Hewagama, G. Georgiev, et al. B. Pasquale, S. Aslam, and C. K. Gatebe. 2017. "Multispectral Snapshot Imagers onboard Small Satellite Formations for Multi-Angular Remote Sensing." IEEE Sensors Journal 17 (16): [10.1109/jsen.2017.2717384]

    Fan, Y., W. Li, C. K. Gatebe, et al. C. Jamet, G. Zibordi, T. Schroeder, and K. Stamnes. 2017. "Atmospheric correction over coastal waters using multilayer neural networks." Remote Sensing of Environment 199 218-240 [10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.016]

    Fan, Y., W. Li, K. J. Voss, C. K. Gatebe, and K. Stamnes. 2016. "Neural network method to correct bidirectional effects in water-leaving radiance." Applied Optics 55 (1): [10.1364/AO.55.000010]

    Lin, Z., L. Wei, C. K. Gatebe, and P. Rajesh. 2016. "Radiative transfer simulations of the two-dimensional ocean glint reflectance and determination of the sea surface roughness." Applied Optics 55 (6): 1206-1215 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.55.001206]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, D. W. Miller, and O. L. de Weck. 2016. "Effect of satellite formations and imaging modes on global albedo estimation." Acta Astronautica 126 77-97 [10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.04.004]

    Gatebe, C. K., and M. D. King. 2016. "Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications." Remote Sensing of Environment 179 131-148 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029]

    Gautam, R., C. K. Gatebe, M. K. Singh, T. Várnai, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "Radiative characteristics of Clouds Embedded in Smoke derived from airborne multi-angular measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121 (15): 9140–9152 [10.1002/2016jd025309]

    Ichoku, C., L. T. Ellison, K. E. Willmot, et al. T. Matsui, A. K. Dezfuli, C. K. Gatebe, J. Wang, E. M. Wilcox, J. Lee, J. Adegoke, C. Okonkwo, J. Bolten, F. S. Policelli, and S. Habib. 2016. "Biomass burning, land-cover change, and the hydrological cycle in Northern sub-Saharan Africa." Environmental Research Letters 11 (9): 095005 [10.1088/1748-9326/11/9/095005]

    Singh, M. K., R. Gautam, C. K. Gatebe, and R. Poudyal. 2016. "PolarBRDF: A general purpose Python package for visualization and quantitative analysis of multi-angular remote sensing measurements." Computers & Geosciences 96 173-180 [10.1016/j.cageo.2016.08.015]

    Engelbrecht, F., J. Adegoke, M.-J. Bopape, et al. M. Naidoo, R. Garland, M. Thatcher, J. McGregor, J. Katzfey, M. Werner, C. M. Ichoku, and C. K. Gatebe. 2015. "Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation." Environ. Res. Lett. 10 (085004): [doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085004]

    Nag, S., C. K. Gatebe, and O. d'Weck. 2015. "Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 43 102-118 [doi:10.1016/j.jag.2015.04.022]

    Gatebe, C., C. Ichoku, R. Poudyal, M. O. Roman, and E. Wilcox. 2014. "Surface albedo darkening from wildfires in northern sub-Saharan Africa." Environ. Res. Lett. 9 (6): 065003 [10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/065003]

    Roman, M. O., C. K. Gatebe, Y. Shuai, et al. Z. Wang, F. Gao, J. Masek, T. He, S. Liang, and C. L. Schaaf. 2013. "Use of In Situ and Airborne Multiangle Data to Assess MODIS- and Landsat-Based Estimates of Directional Reflectance and Albedo." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 51 (3): 1393-1404 [10.1109/TGRS.2013.2243457]

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment 52 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Gatebe, C. K., R. C. Levy, and A. M. Thompson. 2012. "Atmospheric Chemistry over Southern Africa: Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts over the Southern Africa Region (C4-SAR)." EOS Trans 93 (10): 110 [10.1029/2012EO100008]

    Román, M., C. K. Gatebe, C. Schaaf, et al. R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, and M. D. King. 2011. "Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30m–500m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (9): 2184-2203 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.012]

    Lyapustin, A., C. Gatebe, R. Kahn, et al. R. Brandt, J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. King, C. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky. 2010. "Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (9): 4359-4375 [10.5194/acp-10-4359-2010]

    Gatebe, C., R. Poudyal, E. Wilcox, and J. Wang. 2010. "Effects of ship wakes on ocean brightness and radiative forcing over ocean." Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10 (9): 21683-21696 [10.5194/acpd-10-21683-2010]

    Gatebe, C., O. Dubovik, M. King, and A. Sinyuk. 2010. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (6): 2777-2794 [10.5194/acp-10-2777-2010]

    Georgiev, G., C. Gatebe, J. Butler, and M. King. 2009. "BRDF Analysis of Savanna Vegetation and Salt-Pan Samples." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47 (8): 2546-2556 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2021331]

    Gatebe, C. K., J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Kowalewski, and M. D. King. 2007. "Characterization of errors in the use of integrating-sphere systems in the calibration of scanning radiometers." Appl Opt 46 (31): 7640-7651 [10.1364/AO.46.007640]

    Abdou, W., S. Pilorz, M. Helmlinger, et al. J. Conel, D. Diner, C. Bruegge, J. Martonchik, C. Gatebe, and M. King. 2006. "Sua pan surface bidirectional reflectance: A case study to evaluate the effect of atmospheric correction on the surface products of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during SAFARI 2000." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 44 1699-1706

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann. 2005. "Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance." J Atmos Sci 62 (4): 1072-1092 [10.1175/JAS3386.1]

    Grab, S., C. Gatebe, and A. Kinyua. 2004. "Ground thermal profiles from Mount Kenya East Africa." Geogr Ann 86 A (2): 131-141

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S. Platnick, et al. G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid. 2003. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D13): 8489 [10.1029/2002JD002397]

    Tyson, P., and C. Gatebe. 2001. "The atmosphere aerosols trace gases and biogeochemical change in southern Africa: a regional integration." South African Journal of Science 97 (3-4): 106-118

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, et al. Q. Ji, G. Arnold, and J. Li. 2001. "Sensitivity of off-nadir zenith angles to correlation between visible and near-infrared reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol over land." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 39 805-819

    Gatebe, C. K., P. Tyson, H. Annegarn, et al. G. Helas, A. Kinyua, and S. Piketh. 2001. "Characterisation and transport of aerosols over equatorial eastern Africa." Global Biogeochem Cycles 15 (3): 663-672 [10.1029/2000GB001340]

    Non-Refereed

    Fatoyinbo Agueh, L. E., R. F. Rincon, D. J. Harding, et al. C. K. Gatebe, K. J. Ranson, G. Sun, and M. O. Román. 2012. "The 2011 Eco3D flight campaign: Vegetation structure and biomass estimation from simultaneous SAR, lidar and radiometer measurements." 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 3387–3390 [10.1109/IGARSS.2012.6350694]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2008. "BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples." IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IV-573 - IV-576 [10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779786]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2006. "Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing." Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6296 10 pp [10.1117/12.680542]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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