Caroline Freissinet

Caroline Freissinet

  • Astrobiologist
  • 301.614.6854
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 699
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: Science Collaborator
  • Current Projects

    Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM)

     experiment onboard the Curiosity rover, Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, on Mars since August 2012. PI: Paul Mahaffy, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD - USA.

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA),

     experiment onboard ExoMars 2018. PI: Fred Goesmann, Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Lindau - Germany.

    Enhancing SAM science by investigating new protocols to search for amines of biological origin on Mars.

     MSL Participating Scientists. PI: Daniel P. Glavin, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD - USA.

    Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE)

     Field campaign 2011 – 3 weeks – onboard R.V. Lance in Svalbard (Norway) to study environments similar to Mars with instruments and techniques used on MSL and ExoMars. Program Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE). Leader expedition: Hans Amundsen, EPX, Norway. Leader Science: Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW), Washington, USA.

    Greenland Emission of Trace Gases as an Analogue for Methane on Mars (GETGAMM)

     Field campaign 2013 – 1 month – at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, to study isotopically the methane and carbon dioxide cycle in Greenlandic glacier lakes. Program Greenland Emission of Trace Gases as an Analogue for Methane on Mars (GETGAMM) funded by NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP). PIs: Lisa Pratt and Jeffrey White (Indiana University, IN, USA).

    Positions/Employment

    3/2011 - Present

    Postdoctoral Position

    UMBC, then ORAU, NASA GSFC  The SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) experiment: SAM-like investigation of the extraction and derivatization methods on Martian analog soils. SAM data analyses. SAM operations. Organic matter in meteorites. Field work. Interface SAM/MOMA (ExoMars 2018). Preparation for future missions. Skills: space instrumentation, planetology (Mars, Europa), isotopes, field work, proposals for future missions.
    11/2006 - 11/2010

    PhD

    Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry, France  Elaboration of a chiral analysis reactor for in situ enantiomeric separation of organic molecules of exobiological interest.

    Skills: chromatographic techniques, mass spectrometry, biochemistry, organic chemistry.

    In the framework of the future spatial missions and of search of extraterrestrial life, we are developing an automatized system of extraction and analysis of complex organic molecules from complex soils. Those molecules are extracted from complex soils, derivatized, separated in gaseous chromatography and analyzed in mass spectrometry. Derivatization and separation allow not only a differentiation between the different molecules, but also a differentiation of the enantiomers of a same molecule. This property allows us to detect a potential enantiomeric excess of the organic molecules of exobiological interest, excess which can be considered as a bioindicator.

    PhD supervisor: MONCEF STAMBOULI
    Co-supervisors: ARNAUD BUCH – ROBERT STERNBERG

    Teaching Experience

     2010-2011 Teaching assistant at Ecole Centrale Paris (30h)

    2009-2010 Assistant professor in chemistry at Paris-Est University (1/2 ATER - 96h). Organic chemistry, instrumentation (HPLC, GC), space application.

    2006-2009 Teaching assistant for undergraduate students of Ecole Centrale Paris. Quota of 90h per year. Supervision of practical courses, elaboration and supervision of experimental projects. Analytical chemistry (chromatography, mass spectrometry), experimental chemistry, chemical engineering, biocorrosions.

    2004-2005 Scholar assistance (high school) with Acadomia

    Education

     Since 07-2012 NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship (3 years), Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), TN, USA. NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP).

    2011-2012 Research Associate, Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County. USA

    2006-2010 PhD in Analytical Chemistry/Astrobiology. Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés et Matériaux (Ecole Centrale Paris) + Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA) (Paris-Est University). Defended on 29th November 2010, received with highest honor.

    2004-2005 University Paris XI (Orsay, 91 - Essonne), Master2 GCDE (Genomes Cells Development Evolution), major Evolution. Magna cum laude. 2nd out of 14 students.
    Major: epigenetic and populations genetics.
    Thesis chosen on the evolution of the isochors structure in vertebras’ genomes.

    2002-2004 Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon (ENS) (a famous university level institution which trains teachers and researchers),
    1st year: licence ès molecular and cellular biology (equivalent to a Bachelor of Science Degree in Biology). Cum laude.
    Major: Biodiversity and Ecosystems
    Thesis: Study of the evolutive causes of out-of-couple paternity of the alpine marmots.

    2nd year: maîtrise ès molecular and cellular biology (equivalent to a Master’s Degree
    in Science). Cum laude.
    Major: virology and molecular evolution.
    Thesis imposed on the regulation of the nitrogen metabolism in fungi (GATA factors).

    2000-2002 University Claude Bernard Lyon, DEUG ès biology (post-secondary program in two years)
    1st year: cum laude. Major: astrophysics and space sciences
    2nd year: magna cum laude. Major: physics in big instrumentations

    Other Professional Information

     Languages:
    French: native
    English: fluent
    German: basic knowledge

    Publications

    Refereed

    François, P., C. Szopa, A. Buch, et al. P. Coll, A. C. McAdam, P. R. Mahaffy, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, and M. Cabane. 2016. "Magnesium sulfate as a key mineral for the detection of organic molecules on Mars using pyrolysis." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 121 (1): 61-74 [10.1002/2015je004884]

    Freissinet, C., S. Getty, M. G. Trainer, et al. D. P. Glavin, H. L. Mclain, and M. Benna. 2016. "Evaluation of the robustness of chromatographic columns in a simulated highly radiative Jovian environment." Planetary and Space Science, 122: 38-45 [10.1016/j.pss.2016.01.004]

    Farley, K., P. Martin, P. Archer, et al. S. Atreya, P. Conrad, J. Eigenbrode, A. Fairén, H. Franz, C. Freissinet, D. Glavin, P. Mahaffy, C. Malespin, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, and B. Sutter. 2016. "Light and variable 37Cl/35Cl ratios in rocks from Gale Crater, Mars: Possible signature of perchlorate." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 438: 14-24 [10.1016/j.epsl.2015.12.013]

    Goetz, W., W. B. Brinckerhoff, R. Arevalo, et al. C. Freissinet, S. Getty, D. P. Glavin, S. Siljeström, A. Buch, F. Stalport, A. Grubisic, X. Li, V. Pinnick, R. Danell, F. H. van Amerom, F. Goesmann, H. Steininger, N. Grand, F. Raulin, C. Szopa, U. Meierhenrich, and J. R. Brucato. 2016. "MOMA: the challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars." International Journal of Astrobiology, 15 (03): 239-250 [10.1017/s1473550416000227]

    Conrad, P., C. Malespin, H. Franz, et al. R. Pepin, M. Trainer, S. Schwenzer, S. Atreya, C. Freissinet, J. Jones, H. Manning, T. Owen, A. Pavlov, R. Wiens, M. Wong, and P. Mahaffy. 2016. "In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 454: 1-9 [10.1016/j.epsl.2016.08.028]

    Freissinet, C., D. P. Glavin, P. R. Mahaffy, et al. P. R. Miller, J. L. Eigenbrode, R. E. Summons, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, C. Szopa, P. D. Archer, H. B. Franz, S. K. Atreya, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. C. Conrad, D. J. Des Marais, J. P. Dworkin, A. G. Fairén, P. François, J. P. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, I. L. Kate, L. A. Leshin, C. A. Malespin, M. G. Martin, F. J. Martin-Torres, A. C. McAdam, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-González, A. A. Pavlov, B. D. Prats, S. W. Squyres, A. Steele, J. C. Stern, D. Y. Sumner, B. Sutter, and M. P. Zorzano. 2015. "Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 120: 495-514 [10.1002/2014JE004737 ]

    Mahaffy, P. R., C. R. Webster, J. C. Stern, et al. A. E. Brunner, S. K. Atreya, P. G. Conrad, S. Domagal-Goldman, J. L. Eigenbrode, G. J. Flesch, L. E. Christensen, H. B. Franz, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Grotzinger, J. H. Jones, L. A. Leshin, C. Malespin, A. C. McAdam, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, P. B. Niles, T. Owen, A. A. Pavlov, A. Steele, M. G. Trainer, K. H. Williford, and J. J. Wray. 2015. "The imprint of atmospheric evolution in the D/H of Hesperian clay minerals on Mars." Science, Vol 347: 412-414 [[DOI:10.1126/science.1260291]]

    Stern, J. C., B. Sutter, C. Freissinet, et al. R. Navarro-Gonzalez, C. P. McKay, P. D. Archer Jr., A. Buch, A. E. Brunner, P. Coll, J. L. Eigenbrode, A. G. Fairen, H. B. Franz, D. P. Glavin, S. Kashyap, A. C. Mcadam, D. W. Ming, A. Steele, C. Szopa, J. J. Wray, F. J. Martin-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, P. G. Conrad, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2015. "Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars." Proceedings of National Academy of Science, [10.1073/pnas.1420932112]

    Miller, K. E., B. Kotrc, R. E. Summons, et al. I. Belmahdi, A. Buch, J. L. Eigenbrode, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, and C. Szopa. 2015. "Evaluation of the Tenax trap in the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover as a potential hydrocarbon source for chlorinated organics detected in Gale Crater." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 120 (8): 1446-1459 [10.1002/2015je004825]

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, J. Eigenbrode, et al. K. Miller, M. Martin, R. Summons, A. Steele, H. Franz, D. Archer, W. Brinckerhoff, A. Brunner, A. Buch, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. Conrad, D. Coscia, J. P. Dworkin, J. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, P. Mahaffy, C. McKay, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, B. Sutter, C. Szopa, and S. Teinturier. 2014. "Origin of Chlorobenzene Detected by the Curiosity Rover in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for Martian Organics in the Sheepbed Mudstone? ." MSL Science Team, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference , 45: 1157-.

    Steele, A., F. M. McCubbin, L. Benning, et al. S. Siljestrom, G. D. Cody, Y. Goreva, E. H. Hauri, J. Wang, A. Kilcoyne, M. M. Grady, A. Verchovsky, H. Sabbah, C. Smith, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, A. S. Burton, M. D. Fries, J. D. Rodriguez Blanco, M. Glamoclija, K. L. Rogers, S. Mikhail, R. N. Zare, Q. Wu, A. Ismail, J. P. Dworkin, and R. Bhartia. 2014. "Evidence of Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis on Mars from Analysis of the Tissint Meteorite ." LPI Contributions, 1800: 5331-.

    Ming, D. W., P. D. Archer Jr, D. P. Glavin, et al. J. L. Eigenbrode, H. B. Franz, B. Sutter, A. E. Brunner, J. C. Stern, C. Freissinet, A. C. Mcadam, P. R. Mahaffy, M. Cabane, P. Coll, J. L. Campbell, S. K. Atreya, P. B. Niles, J. F. Bell III, D. L. Bish, W. B. Brinckerhoff, A. Buch, P. G. Conrad, D. J. Des Marais, B. L. Ehlmann, A. G. Fairen, K. Farley, G. J. Flesch, P. Francois, R. Gellert, J. A. Grant, J. P. Grotzinger, S. Gupta, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. A. Hurowitz, L. A. Leshin, K. W. Lewis, S. M. McLennan, K. E. Miller, J. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, A. A. Pavlov, G. M. Perrett, I. Pradler, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Summons, A. Steele, E. M. Stolper, D. Y. Sumner, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, M. G. Trainer, A. H. Treiman, D. T. Vaniman, A. R. Vasavada, C. R. Webster, J. J. Wray, and R. A. Yingst. 2014. "Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars." Science, 343: 6169 [doi:10.1126/science.1245267]

    McAdam, A. C., H. B. Franz, B. Sutter, et al. P. D. Archer Jr, C. Freissinet, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. W. Ming, S. K. Atreya, D. L. Bish, D. F. Blake, H. E. Bower, A. Brunner, A. Buch, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Grotzinger, P. R. Mahaffy, S. M. McLennan, R. V. Morris, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, E. B. Rampe, S. W. Squyres, A. Steele, J. C. Stern, D. Y. Sumner, and J. J. Wray. 2014. "Sulfur-bearing Phases Detected by Evolved Gas Analysis of the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit, Gale Crater." J. Geophys. Res., 119: 373-393 [10.1002/2013JE004518]

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, C. Miller, et al. J. L. Eigenbrode, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, B. Sutter, P. D. Archer, S. K. Atreya, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. G. Conrad, D. Coscia, J. P. Dworkin, H. B. Franz, J. P. Grotzinger, L. A. Leshin, M. G. Martin, C. McKay, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-González, A. Pavlov, A. Steele, R. E. Summons, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2013. "Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater ." Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) , 118: 1955-1973 [10.1002/jgre.20144]

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, K. E. Miller, et al. J. L. Eigenbrode, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, B. Sutter, P. D. Archer Jr., S. K. Atreya, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. G. Conrad, D. Coscia, J. P. Dworkin, H. B. Franz, J. P. Grotzinger, L. A. Leshin, M. G. Martin, C. McKay, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-González, A. Pavlov, A. Steele, R. E. Summons, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2013. "Evidence for perchlorates and the origin of chlorinated hydrocarbons detected by SAM at the Rocknest aeolian deposit in Gale Crater." J. Geophys. Res., 118: 1955 – 1973 [10.1002/jgre.20144]

    Leshin, L. A., P. R. Mahaffy, C. R. Webster, et al. M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. G. Conrad, P. D. Archer Jr, S. K. Atreya, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, J. L. Eigenbrode, G. J. Flesch, H. B. Franz, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, A. C. McAdam, K. E. Miller, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, P. B. Niles, T. Owen, R. O. Pepin, S. Squyres, A. Steele, J. C. Stern, R. E. Summons, D. Y. Sumner, B. Sutter, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, M. G. Trainer, J. J. Wray, and J. P. Grotzinger. 2013. "Volatile, Isotope, and Organic Analysis of Martian Fines with the Mars Curiosity Rover." Science, 341: 6153 [10.1126/science.1238937]

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, K. E. Miller, et al. J. L. Eigenbrode, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, B. Sutter, P. D. Archer Jr, S. K. Atreya, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. G. Conrad, D. Coscia, J. P. Dworkin, H. B. Franz, J. P. Grotzinger, L. A. Leshin, M. G. Martin, C. McKay, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, A. Pavlov, A. Steele, R. E. Summons, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2013. "Evidence for Perchlorates and the Origin of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Detected by SAM at the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit in Gale Crater." J. Geophys. Res., 118: 1955-1973.

    Bishop, J., H. B. Franz, W. Goetz, et al. D. Blake, C. Freissinet, H. Steininger, F. Goesmann, W. B. Brinckerhoff, S. A. Getty, V. T. Pinnick, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2012. "Coordinated analyses of Antarctic sediments as Mars analog materials using reflectance spectroscopy and current flight-like instruments for CheMin, SAM and MOMA." Icarus, 224 (2): 309-325 [10.1016/j.icarus.2012.05.014]

    Non-Refereed

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, P. R. Mahaffy, et al. K. Miller, J. Eigenbrode, R. Summons, M. Martin, H. Franz, A. Steele, D. Archer, S. Atreya, W. Brinckerhoff, A. Brunner, A. Buch, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. Conrad, D. Des Marais, J. P. Dworkin, A. Fairen, P. Francois, J. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, C. Malespin, A. McAdam, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, A. Pavlov, S. Squyres, J. Stern, D. Sumner, B. Sutter, and C. Szopa. 2015. "Martian Chlorobenzene Identified by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for the Preservation of Organics in a Mudstone on Mars ." Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 46: 1178- .

    Publications

    Refereed

    François, P., C. Szopa, A. Buch, et al. P. Coll, A. C. McAdam, P. R. Mahaffy, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, and M. Cabane. 2016. "Magnesium sulfate as a key mineral for the detection of organic molecules on Mars using pyrolysis." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 121 (1): 61-74 [10.1002/2015je004884]

    Freissinet, C., S. Getty, M. G. Trainer, et al. D. P. Glavin, H. L. Mclain, and M. Benna. 2016. "Evaluation of the robustness of chromatographic columns in a simulated highly radiative Jovian environment." Planetary and Space Science 122 38-45 [10.1016/j.pss.2016.01.004]

    Farley, K., P. Martin, P. Archer, et al. S. Atreya, P. Conrad, J. Eigenbrode, A. Fairén, H. Franz, C. Freissinet, D. Glavin, P. Mahaffy, C. Malespin, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, and B. Sutter. 2016. "Light and variable 37Cl/35Cl ratios in rocks from Gale Crater, Mars: Possible signature of perchlorate." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 438 14-24 [10.1016/j.epsl.2015.12.013]

    Goetz, W., W. B. Brinckerhoff, R. Arevalo, et al. C. Freissinet, S. Getty, D. P. Glavin, S. Siljeström, A. Buch, F. Stalport, A. Grubisic, X. Li, V. Pinnick, R. Danell, F. H. van Amerom, F. Goesmann, H. Steininger, N. Grand, F. Raulin, C. Szopa, U. Meierhenrich, and J. R. Brucato. 2016. "MOMA: the challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars." International Journal of Astrobiology 15 (03): 239-250 [10.1017/s1473550416000227]

    Conrad, P., C. Malespin, H. Franz, et al. R. Pepin, M. Trainer, S. Schwenzer, S. Atreya, C. Freissinet, J. Jones, H. Manning, T. Owen, A. Pavlov, R. Wiens, M. Wong, and P. Mahaffy. 2016. "In situ measurement of atmospheric krypton and xenon on Mars with Mars Science Laboratory." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 454 1-9 [10.1016/j.epsl.2016.08.028]

    Freissinet, C., D. P. Glavin, P. R. Mahaffy, et al. P. R. Miller, J. L. Eigenbrode, R. E. Summons, A. E. Brunner, A. Buch, C. Szopa, P. D. Archer, H. B. Franz, S. K. Atreya, W. B. Brinckerhoff, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. C. Conrad, D. J. Des Marais, J. P. Dworkin, A. G. Fairén, P. François, J. P. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, I. L. Kate, L. A. Leshin, C. A. Malespin, M. G. Martin, F. J. Martin-Torres, A. C. McAdam, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-González, A. A. Pavlov, B. D. Prats, S. W. Squyres, A. Steele, J. C. Stern, D. Y. Sumner, B. Sutter, and M. P. Zorzano. 2015. "Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 120 495-514 [10.1002/2014JE004737 ]

    Mahaffy, P. R., C. R. Webster, J. C. Stern, et al. A. E. Brunner, S. K. Atreya, P. G. Conrad, S. Domagal-Goldman, J. L. Eigenbrode, G. J. Flesch, L. E. Christensen, H. B. Franz, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Grotzinger, J. H. Jones, L. A. Leshin, C. Malespin, A. C. McAdam, D. W. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, P. B. Niles, T. Owen, A. A. Pavlov, A. Steele, M. G. Trainer, K. H. Williford, and J. J. Wray. 2015. "The imprint of atmospheric evolution in the D/H of Hesperian clay minerals on Mars." Science Vol 347 412-414 [[DOI:10.1126/science.1260291]]

    Stern, J. C., B. Sutter, C. Freissinet, et al. R. Navarro-Gonzalez, C. P. McKay, P. D. Archer Jr., A. Buch, A. E. Brunner, P. Coll, J. L. Eigenbrode, A. G. Fairen, H. B. Franz, D. P. Glavin, S. Kashyap, A. C. Mcadam, D. W. Ming, A. Steele, C. Szopa, J. J. Wray, F. J. Martin-Torres, M.-P. Zorzano, P. G. Conrad, and P. R. Mahaffy. 2015. "Evidence for indigenous nitrogen in sedimentary and aeolian deposits from the Curiosity rover investigations at Gale crater, Mars." Proceedings of National Academy of Science [10.1073/pnas.1420932112]

    Miller, K. E., B. Kotrc, R. E. Summons, et al. I. Belmahdi, A. Buch, J. L. Eigenbrode, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, and C. Szopa. 2015. "Evaluation of the Tenax trap in the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on the Curiosity rover as a potential hydrocarbon source for chlorinated organics detected in Gale Crater." Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets 120 (8): 1446-1459 [10.1002/2015je004825]

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, J. Eigenbrode, et al. K. Miller, M. Martin, R. Summons, A. Steele, H. Franz, D. Archer, W. Brinckerhoff, A. Brunner, A. Buch, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. Conrad, D. Coscia, J. P. Dworkin, J. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, P. Mahaffy, C. McKay, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, B. Sutter, C. Szopa, and S. Teinturier. 2014. "Origin of Chlorobenzene Detected by the Curiosity Rover in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for Martian Organics in the Sheepbed Mudstone? ." MSL Science Team, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 45 1157-

    Steele, A., F. M. McCubbin, L. Benning, et al. S. Siljestrom, G. D. Cody, Y. Goreva, E. H. Hauri, J. Wang, A. Kilcoyne, M. M. Grady, A. Verchovsky, H. Sabbah, C. Smith, C. Freissinet, D. P. Glavin, A. S. Burton, M. D. Fries, J. D. Rodriguez Blanco, M. Glamoclija, K. L. Rogers, S. Mikhail, R. N. Zare, Q. Wu, A. Ismail, J. P. Dworkin, and R. Bhartia. 2014. "Evidence of Hydrothermal Organic Synthesis on Mars from Analysis of the Tissint Meteorite ." LPI Contributions 1800 5331-

    Ming, D. W., P. D. Archer Jr, D. P. Glavin, et al. J. L. Eigenbrode, H. B. Franz, B. Sutter, A. E. Brunner, J. C. Stern, C. Freissinet, A. C. Mcadam, P. R. Mahaffy, M. Cabane, P. Coll, J. L. Campbell, S. K. Atreya, P. B. Niles, J. F. Bell III, D. L. Bish, W. B. Brinckerhoff, A. Buch, P. G. Conrad, D. J. Des Marais, B. L. Ehlmann, A. G. Fairen, K. Farley, G. J. Flesch, P. Francois, R. Gellert, J. A. Grant, J. P. Grotzinger, S. Gupta, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. A. Hurowitz, L. A. Leshin, K. W. Lewis, S. M. McLennan, K. E. Miller, J. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, A. A. Pavlov, G. M. Perrett, I. Pradler, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Summons, A. Steele, E. M. Stolper, D. Y. Sumner, C. Szopa, S. Teinturier, M. G. Trainer, A. H. Treiman, D. T. Vaniman, A. R. Vasavada, C. R. Webster, J. J. Wray, and R. A. Yingst. 2014. "Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars." Science 343 6169 [doi:10.1126/science.1245267]

    McAdam, A. C., H. B. Franz, B. Sutter, et al. P. D. Archer Jr, C. Freissinet, J. L. Eigenbrode, D. W. Ming, S. K. Atreya, D. L. Bish, D. F. Blake, H. E. Bower, A. Brunner, A. Buch, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Grotzinger, P. R. Mahaffy, S. M. McLennan, R. V. Morris, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, E. B. Rampe, S. W. Squyres, A. Steele, J. C. Stern, D. Y. Sumner, and J. J. Wray. 2014. "Sulfur-bearing Phases Detected by Evolved Gas Analysis of the Rocknest Aeolian Deposit, Gale Crater." J. Geophys. Res. 119 373-393 [10.1002/2013JE004518]

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    Non-Refereed

    Glavin, D. P., C. Freissinet, P. R. Mahaffy, et al. K. Miller, J. Eigenbrode, R. Summons, M. Martin, H. Franz, A. Steele, D. Archer, S. Atreya, W. Brinckerhoff, A. Brunner, A. Buch, M. Cabane, P. Coll, P. Conrad, D. Des Marais, J. P. Dworkin, A. Fairen, P. Francois, J. Grotzinger, S. Kashyap, C. Malespin, A. McAdam, D. Ming, R. Navarro-Gonzalez, A. Pavlov, S. Squyres, J. Stern, D. Sumner, B. Sutter, and C. Szopa. 2015. "Martian Chlorobenzene Identified by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for the Preservation of Organics in a Mudstone on Mars ." Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 46 1178-

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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