Brian Cairns

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Brian Cairns

  • RSCH AST, EARTH SCIENCES REMOTE SENS
  • 212.678.5625 | 212.678.5552
  • NASA GISS
  • 2880 Broadway
  • New York , NY 10025
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Cairns was educated in the United Kingdom at Chesterfield School and received an engineering degree from the University of Cambridge before completing a Ph. D. in physics at the Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester. He has worked at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies since 1992. His initial work was focused on developing parameterizations of three-dimensional radiation transport through clouds for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and that parameterization continues to be used in the GISS GCM. Since 1996 he has worked on the use of polarimetric remote sensing of the Earth to determine aerosol and cloud properties using ground based and airborne observations and was one of the developers of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) instrument. The development of the RSP instrument was completed in 1999 and it made its first airborne measurements on a small Cessna survey plane. This sensor has obtained the most accurate polarization measurements of the atmosphere of the Earth ever made and over a broader spectral and angular range than any other polarimeter. The capability of these measurements to accurately retrieve aerosol and cloud properties has been widely recognized and has led to the development and planning of new instruments that attempt to provide similar capabilities. Since 2000 Dr. Cairns has led the integration of the RSP instrument onto five different platforms and supervised seventeen different field deployments from Mexico to the Canadian Arctic. During that time the RSP instrument performed impeccably acquiring more than 2000 hours of remote sensing observations. Dr. Cairns was instrument scientist for the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor, which was on the NASA Glory mission that failed to reach orbit on 4th March 2011 and crashed into the South Pacific. He was also a member of the science-working groups appointed by NASA Headquarters to define the ACE and PACE missions that were recommended by the Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Research Interests

    Polarimetric Calibration

    Efficient and accurate techniques to calibrate polarimetric instrumentation that can be used in laboratory, field or spaceflight applications.

    3D Radiative Transfer

    Effects of three-dimensional variability on radiative transfer and inverse modeling methods for retrieval of 3D distributions of clouds and aerosols from multi-angle multi-spectral intensity and polarization measurements.

    Inversion of multiple-scattering data

    High-dimensional data sets such as those produced by multi-angle multi-spectral intensity and polarimetric measurements require inversion techniques that make optimal use of the available data, whether it be passive only, or include lidar or radar remote sensing observations too. These inverse methods require efficient forward models that also provide the derivatives of the radiation field with respect to the parameters defining the aerosol and cloud fields that are to be retrieved. Efficient analytical methods can use modified vector adding/doubling calculations to implement such forward model capabilities and are currently being tested.

    Hyperspectral Observations

    Atmospheric correction of hyperspectral data and the use of hyperspectral measurements for atmospheric remote sensing. A hyperspectral radiative transfer code with 1 nm spectral resolution has been developed to facilitate the analysis of hyperspectral imaging radiometer data for atmospheric, land and ocean remote sensing.

    Positions/Employment

    4/1986 - 9/1986

    Electro-optical engineer

    Schlumberger Electronics, London, UK Development of sensors for use in Boeing fly-by-light program.  Primary task of developing read head for rotational position sensor using Gray code disk.  Also developed automated test equipment for position sensor using stepper motor and computer to do accelerated life testing of the position sensor.
    2/1992 - 2/2007

    Research Scientist

    Columbia University, Morningside, New York, NY 10025 Developed Monte Carlo radiative transfer code for the evaluation of a renormalization group approach to the incorporation of three-dimensional radiative transfer effects in a GCM.  Subsequently used ISCCP observations to develop an observationally based climatology of the three-dimensional effects as a function of cloud type.  Subsequently developed hyperspectral radiative transfer code for the analysis of Hyperion and HyperSpecTIR sensor imaging spectrometer observations. Developed airborne polarimetric sensor called the Research Scanning Polarimeter in conjunction with SpecTIR LLC. Updated vector radiative transfer code for the analysis of airborne remote sensing observations.
    3/2007 - Present

    Senior Research Scientist

    NASA GSFC, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 Instrument scientist for Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor on the NASA Glory mission.  Principal Investigator (PI) for operation of the Research Scanning Polarimeter in ARCTAS, RACORO, CalNEX, CARES, DEVOTE, TCAP, PODEX, SEAC4RS and SABOR.

    Teaching Experience

    Taught a remote sensing course in the Electrical Engineering department of the City College of New York for four years from 1996 to 2000.

    Education

    March 1992 Ph.D. An investigation of multiple scattering and radiative transfer, University of Rochester, NY.
    June 1988 M.S. Optical Engineering, University of Rochester, NY
    June 1985 B.A. with 1st Class Honours, Cambridge University, Department of Engineering, Electrical Sciences Tripos, Cambridge, UK.

    Professional Societies

    American Geophysical Union, 1996 - Present
    American Meteorological Society, 1993 - 2000

    Professional Service

    Served on ESTO review panels for their ACT and IIP programs.  Also served on numerous NASA science review panels.  Served on AMS Atmospheric Radiation committee and helped to organize 11th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation and the 11th Conference on Cloud Physics, 3-7 June 2002, Ogden, UT.

    Awards

    NASA Group Achievement Award, INTEX-B field campaign, 2007.
    NASA Group Achievement Award, ARCTAS field campaign, 2009.
    Certificate of Appreciation from NASA ESTO, 2010.
    NASA GSFC Special Act – Individual Award, 2010.
    NASA Center Team Award, RACORO field campaign, 2010.
    NASA Performance Award for 2009-2010.
    NASA Group Achievement Award, The Glory Project Team, 2011.
    NASA Group Achievement Award, DEVOTE project team, 2012.
    NASA Group Achievement Award, CLARREO mission concept team, 2012.
    NASA Performance Award for 2012-2013.
    NASA Performance Award for 2013-2014.

    Grants

    08/01/2011 - 07/31/2014 Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols and clouds: Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Calibration and Validation, NASA , NASA NRA #: NNH10ZDA001N-SEAC4RS

    ; Principal Investigator ; 0.75 FTE
    Grant Amount: $$747K

    Other Professional Information

    Proficient German and French speaker.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Ottaviani, M., R. Foster, A. Gilerson, et al. A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic. 2018. "Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: Intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations." Remote Sensing of Environment, 206: 375-390 [10.1016/j.rse.2017.12.015]

    Stamnes, S., C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, et al. S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns. 2018. "Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the “MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products." Applied Optics, 57 (10): 2394 [10.1364/ao.57.002394]

    Gao, M., P.-W. Zhai, B. Franz, et al. Y. Hu, K. Knobelspiesse, P. J. Werdell, A. Ibrahim, F. Xu, and B. Cairns. 2018. "Retrieval of aerosol properties and water-leaving reflectance from multi-angular polarimetric measurements over coastal waters." Optics Express, 26 (7): 8968 [10.1364/oe.26.008968]

    Harten, G. V., D. J. Diner, B. J. Daugherty, et al. B. E. Rheingans, M. A. Bull, F. C. Seidel, R. A. Chipman, B. Cairns, A. P. Wasilewski, and K. D. Knobelspiesse. 2018. "Calibration and validation of Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) polarization measurements." Applied Optics, 57 (16): 4499 [10.1364/ao.57.004499]

    Sinclair, K., B. van Diedenhoven, B. Cairns, et al. J. Yorks, A. Wasilewski, and M. McGill. 2017. "Remote Sensing of Multiple Cloud Layer Heights using Multi-Angular Measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 1-23 [10.5194/amt-2017-2]

    Berg, L. K., J. D. Fast, J. C. Barnard, et al. S. P. Burton, B. Cairns, D. Chand, J. M. Comstock, S. Dunagan, R. A. Ferrare, C. J. Flynn, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, J. Hubbe, A. Jefferson, R. Johnson, E. I. Kassianov, C. D. Kluzek, P. Kollias, K. Lamer, K. Lantz, F. Mei, M. A. Miller, J. Michalsky, I. Ortega, M. Pekour, R. R. Rogers, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Segal-Rosenheimer, B. Schmid, J. E. Shilling, Y. Shinozuka, S. R. Springston, J. M. Tomlinson, M. Tyrrell, J. M. Wilson, R. Volkamer, A. Zelenyuk, and C. M. Berkowitz. 2016. "The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I-Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121 (1): 336-361 [10.1002/2015jd023848]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, C. Emde, et al. A. S. Ackerman, M. Ottaviani, and A. P. Wasilewski. 2016. "Derivation of cumulus cloud dimensions and shape from the airborne measurements by the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Remote Sensing of Environment, 177: 144-152 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.032]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. S. Ackerman, A. M. Fridlind, and B. Cairns. 2016. "On averaging aspect ratios and distortion parameters over ice crystal population ensembles for estimating effective scattering asymmetry parameters." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73 (2): 775-787 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0150.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., I. V. Geogdzhayev, K. Tsigaridis, et al. A. Marshak, R. Levy, and B. Cairns. 2016. "New statistical model for variability of aerosol optical thickness: Theory and application to MODIS data over ocean." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73 (2): 821-837 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0130.1]

    McCorkel, J., B. Cairns, and A. Wasilewski. 2016. "Imager-to-radiometer in-flight cross calibration: RSP radiometric comparison with airborne and satellite sensors." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9 (3): 955-962 [10.5194/amt-9-955-2016]

    Mishchenko, M. I., J. M. Dlugach, M. A. Yurkin, et al. L. Bi, B. Cairns, L. Liu, R. L. Panetta, L. D. Travis, P. Yang, and N. T. Zakharova. 2016. "First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media." Physics Reports, 632: 1-75 [10.1016/j.physrep.2016.04.002]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, B. Cairns, A. S. Ackerman, and J. E. Yorks. 2016. "Vertical variation of ice particle size in convective cloud tops." Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (9): 4586-4593 [10.1002/2016gl068548]

    Mishchenko, M. I., J. A. Lock, A. A. Lacis, L. D. Travis, and B. Cairns. 2016. "First-principles definition and measurement of planetary electromagnetic-energy budget." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 33 (6): 1126 [10.1364/josaa.33.001126]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, B. van Diedenhoven, et al. A. S. Ackerman, A. P. Wasilewski, M. J. McGill, J. E. Yorks, D. L. Hlavka, S. E. Platnick, and G. T. Arnold. 2016. "Polarized view of supercooled liquid water clouds." Remote Sensing of Environment, 181: 96-110 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.002]

    Wu, L., O. Hasekamp, B. van Diedenhoven, et al. B. Cairns, J. E. Yorks, and J. Chowdhary. 2016. "Passive remote sensing of aerosol layer height using near-UV multiangle polarization measurements." Geophysical Research Letters, 43 (16): 8783-8790 [10.1002/2016gl069848]

    Mishchenko, M. I., M. D. Alexandrov, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2016. "Multistatic aerosol–cloud lidar in space: A theoretical perspective." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 184: 180-192 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.015]

    Ottaviani, M., B. van Diedenhoven, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Photopolarimetric retrievals of snow properties." Cryosphere, 9: 1933-1942 [doi:10.5194/tc-9-1933-2015]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, A. P. Wasilewski, et al. A. S. Ackerman, M. J. McGill, J. E. Yorks, J. E. Hlavka, S. E. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, M. Ottaviani, and K. D. Knobelspiesse. 2015. "Liquid water cloud properties during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)." Remote Sens. Environ., 169: 20-36 [doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.07.029]

    Geogdzhayev, I. V., M. I. Mishchenko, J. Li, et al. W. B. Rossow, L. Liu, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Extension and statistical analysis of the GACP aerosol optical thickness record." Atmos. Res., 164-165: 268-277 [doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.05.013]

    Wu, L., O. Hasekamp, B. van Diedenhoven, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Aerosol retrieval from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric measurements: Importance of spectral range and angular resolution." Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8: 2625-2638 [doi:10.5194/amt-8-2625-2015]

    Kokhanovsky, A. A., A. B. Davis, B. Cairns, et al. O. Dubovik, O. P. Hasekamp, I. Sano, S. Mukai, V. V. Rozanov, P. Litvinov, T. Lapyonok, I. S. Kolomiets, Y. A. Oberemok, S. Savenkov, W. G. Martin, A. P. Wasilewski, A. di Noia, A. Stap, J. Rietjens, F. Xu, V. Natraj, M. Duan, T. Cheng, and R. Munro. 2015. "Space-based remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols: The multi-angle spectro-polarimetric frontier." Earth-Sci. Rev., 145: 85-116 [doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.012]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, B. Cairns, and A. S. Ackerman. 2014. "Variation of ice crystal size, shape and asymmetry parameter in tops of tropical deep convective clouds." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (20): 11809-11825 [doi:10.1002/2014JD022385]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, B. Cairns, and D. W. Mackowski. 2014. "Optics of water cloud droplets mixed with black-carbon aerosols." Opt. Lett., 39 (9): 2607 [10.1364/OL.39.002607]

    Van Diedenhoven, B., A. S. Ackerman, B. Cairns, and A. M. Fridlind. 2014. "A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals." J. Atmos. Sci., 71 (5): 1763-1782 [10.1175/JAS-D-13-0205.1]

    Martin, W., B. Cairns, and G. Bal. 2014. "Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 144: 68-85 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.03.030]

    Knobelspiesse, K., B. Cairns, H. T. Jethva, et al. M. Kacenelenbogen, M. Segal-Rosenheimer, and O. Torres. 2014. "Remote sensing of above cloud aerosols." Light Scattering Reviews, 9: 167-210, ISBN: 978-3-642-37984-0 (Print) 978-3-642-37985-7 (Online).

    Remer, L., C. Brogniez, B. Cairns, and N.-Y. C. Hsu. 2013. "Recent instruments and algorithms for passive shortwave remote sensing." Aerosol Remote Sensing, Springer, 185-221.

    Geogdzhayev, I., B. Cairns, M. Alexandrov, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2013. "Statistical analysis of single-track instrument sampling in spaceborne aerosol remote sensing for climate research." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 121: 69-77 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.02.003]

    Ottaviani, M., K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko. 2013. "Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region." Geophys. Res. Lett., 40 (3): 631-634 [10.1002/grl.50148]

    Ryerson, T. B., A. E. Andrews, W. M. Angevine, et al. T. S. Bates, C. A. Brock, B. Cairns, R. C. Cohen, O. R. Cooper, J. A. de Gouw, F. C. Fehsenfeld, R. A. Ferrare, M. L. Fischer, R. C. Flagan, A. H. Goldstein, J. W. Hair, R. M. Hardesty, C. A. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, A. O. Langford, E. McCauley, S. A. McKeen, L. T. Molina, A. Nenes, S. J. Oltmans, D. D. Parrish, J. R. Pederson, R. B. Pierce, K. Prather, P. K. Quinn, J. H. Seinfeld, C. J. Senff, A. Sorooshian, J. Stutz, J. D. Surratt, M. Trainer, R. Volkamer, E. J. Williams, and S. C. Wofsy. 2013. "The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (11): 5830-5866 [10.1002/jgrd.50331]

    van Diedenhoven, B., B. Cairns, A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, and T. J. Garrett. 2013. "Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements – Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (6): 3185-3203 [10.5194/acp-13-3185-2013]

    Zhai, P., Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, et al. B. Cairns, R. A. Ferrare, K. D. Knobelspiesse, D. B. Josset, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and J. Chowdhary. 2013. "Uncertainty and interpretation of aerosol remote sensing due to vertical inhomogeneity." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 114: 91-100 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.08.006]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, and B. Cairns. 2012. "Evaluation of Hydrometeor Phase and Ice Properties in Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Tropical Deep Convection Using Radiance and Polarization Measurements." J Atmos Sci, 69 (11): 3290-3314 [10.1175/JAS-D-11-0314.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2012. "Rainbow Fourier transform." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 113 (18): 2521-2535 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.03.025]

    Zaveri, R. A., W. J. Shaw, D. J. Cziczo, et al. B. Schmid, R. A. Ferrare, M. L. Alexander, M. Alexandrov, R. J. Alvarez, W. P. Arnott, D. B. Atkinson, S. Baidar, R. M. Banta, J. C. Barnard, J. Beranek, L. K. Berg, F. Brechtel, W. A. Brewer, J. F. Cahill, B. Cairns, C. D. Cappa, D. Chand, S. China, J. M. Comstock, M. K. Dubey, R. C. Easter, M. H. Erickson, J. D. Fast, C. Floerchinger, B. A. Flowers, E. Fortner, J. S. Gaffney, M. K. Gilles, K. Gorkowski, W. I. Gustafson, M. Gyawali, J. Hair, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Harworth, S. Herndon, N. Hiranuma, C. Hostetler, J. M. Hubbe, J. T. Jayne, H. Jeong, B. T. Jobson, E. I. Kassianov, L. I. Kleinman, C. Kluzek, B. Knighton, K. R. Kolesar, C. Kuang, A. Kubátová, A. O. Langford, A. Laskin, N. Laulainen, R. D. Marchbanks, C. Mazzoleni, F. Mei, R. C. Moffet, D. Nelson, M. D. Obland, H. Oetjen, T. B. Onasch, I. Ortega, M. Ottaviani, M. Pekour, K. A. Prather, J. G. Radney, R. R. Rogers, S. P. Sandberg, A. Sedlacek, C. J. Senff, G. Senum, A. Setyan, J. E. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, C. Song, S. R. Springston, R. Subramanian, K. Suski, J. Tomlinson, R. Volkamer, H. W. Wallace, J. Wang, A. M. Weickmann, D. R. Worsnop, X. Y. Yu, A. Zelenyuk, and Q. Zhang. 2012. "Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (16): 7647-7687 [10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012]

    van Diedenhoven, B., B. Cairns, I. V. Geogdzhayev, et al. A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, P. Yang, and B. A. Baum. 2012. "Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements. Part I: Methodology and evaluation with simulated measurements." Atmos Meas Tech, 5 (10): 2361-2374 [10.5194/amt-5-2361-2012]

    Ottaviani, M., B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, et al. B. van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. D. Obland, and R. Rogers. 2012. "Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill." Remote Sens Environ, 121: 389-403 [10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.016]

    Ottaviani, M., B. Cairns, R. R. Rogers, and R. Ferrare. 2012. "Iterative atmospheric correction scheme and the polarization color of alpine snow." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 113 (10): 789-804 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.03.014]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, O. Dubovik, and B. Cairns. 2012. "Model for land surface reflectance treatment: Physical derivation, application for bare soil and evaluation on airborne and satellite measurements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 113 (16): 2023-2039 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.06.027]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, et al. J. Chowdhary, K. Tsigaridis, B. Van Diedenhoven, W. Martin, M. Ottaviani, and M. D. Alexandrov. 2012. "Analysis of fine-mode aerosol retrieval capabilities by different passive remote sensing instrument designs." Opt. Express, 20 (19): 21,457-21,484 [10.1364/OE.20.021457]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, F. Waquet, et al. K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko. 2012. "Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign." Remote Sens Environ, 118: 284-308 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.11.003]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, C. Emde, A. S. Ackerman, and B. van Diedenhoven. 2012. "Accuracy assessments of cloud droplet size retrievals from polarized reflectance measurements by the research scanning polarimeter." Remote Sens Environ, 125: 92-111 [10.1016/j.rse.2012.07.012]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, and B. Cairns. 2011. "Models for surface reflection of radiance and polarized radiance: Comparison with airborne multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements and implications for modeling top-of-atmosphere measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment, 115 (2): 781-792 [10.1016/j.rse.2010.11.005]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, et al. R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton. 2011. "Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (14): 7045-7067 [10.5194/acp-11-7045-2011]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl. 2011. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (13): 6245-6263 [10.5194/acp-11-6245-2011]

    Mishchenko, M. I., V. P. Tishkovets, L. D. Travis, et al. B. Cairns, J. M. Dlugach, L. Liu, V. K. Rosenbush, and N. N. Kiselev. 2011. "Electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object: Fundamental concepts and common misconceptions." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 112 (4): 671-692 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.03.016]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, L. D. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3 MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 111 (4): 540-552 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.003]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, B. Cairns, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2010. "Reflection models for soil and vegetation surfaces from multiple-viewing angle photopolarimetric measurements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 111 (4): 529-539 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.001]

    Waquet, F., J. Riédi, L. Labonnote, et al. P. Goloub, B. Cairns, J. Deuzé, and D. Tanré. 2009. "Aerosol Remote Sensing over Clouds Using A-Train Observations." J Atmos Sci, 66 (8): 2468-2480 [10.1175/2009JAS3026.1]

    Waquet, F., B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, et al. J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2009. "Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D1): D01206 [10.1029/2008JD010619]

    Waquet, F., J. Léon, B. Cairns, et al. P. Goloub, J. Deuzé, and F. Auriol. 2009. "Analysis of the spectral and angular response of the vegetated surface polarization for the purpose of aerosol remote sensing over land." Applied Optics, 48 (6): 1228 [10.1364/AO.48.001228]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, et al. A. A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2009. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?" J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 110 (6-7): 402-408 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.01.007]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Schmid, D. D. Turner, et al. B. Cairns, V. Oinas, A. A. Lacis, S. I. Gutman, E. R. Westwater, A. Smirnov, and J. Eilers. 2009. "Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D2): D02306 [10.1029/2008JD010543]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, B. Schmid, M. O. Román, and C. B. Schaaf. 2008. "Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site." J. Geophys. Res., 113 (D20): D20105 [10.1029/2008JD010062]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2008. "Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using MFRSR measurements." J. Geophys. Res., 113 (D8): D08204 [10.1029/2007JD009388]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, D. W. Mackowski, B. Cairns, and G. Videen. 2007. "Multiple scattering by random particulate media: exact 3D results." Opt. Express, 15 (6): 2822-2836 [10.1364/OE.15.002822]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, W. B. Rossow, et al. B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Long-Term Satellite Record Reveals Likely Recent Aerosol Trend." Science, 315 (5818): 1543-1543 [10.1126/science.1136709]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, G. Kopp, et al. C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Accurate Monitoring of Terrestrial Aerosols and Total Solar Irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 88 (5): 677-691 [10.1175/BAMS-88-5-677]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn, 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Diner, D. J., A. Davis, B. Hancock, et al. G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns. 2007. "Dual-photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing." Applied Optics, 46 (35): 8428 [10.1364/AO.46.008428]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, et al. B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 106 (1-3): 325-347 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.01.007]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate, 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Liu, L., M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis. 2006. "Modeling single-scattering properties of small cirrus particles by use of a size-shape distribution of ice spheroids and cylinders." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 101 (3): 488-497 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2006.02.040]

    Liu, L., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, et al. I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 2006. "Assessing Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE aerosol climatology using satellite and ground-based measurements: A comparison study." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D20): D20212 [10.1029/2006JD007334]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, et al. I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis. 2005. "Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites." J Phys Conf Series, 6: 73-89 [10.1088/1742-6596/6/1/005]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, et al. P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell. 2005. "Retrieval of Aerosol Scattering and Absorption Properties from Photopolarimetric Observations over the Ocean during the CLAMS Experiment." J. Atmos. Sci., 62 (4): 1093-1117 [10.1175/JAS3389.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and B. Cairns. 2005. "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D13): D13204 [10.1029/2004JD005226]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, et al. L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle. 2004. "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: Analysis of measurement requirements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 88 (1-3): 149-161 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.03.030]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2004. "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data." Geophys Res Lett, 31 (4): L04118 [10.1029/2003GL019105]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2004. "Scaling properties of aerosol optical thickness retrieved from ground-based measurements." J Atmos Sci, 61: 1024-1039.

    Mishchenko, M., B. Cairns, J. Hansen, et al. L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Martins, and E. Shettle. 2004. "Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements." J Quant Spectros& Rad Trans, 88: 149-161.

    Hansen, J. E., T. Bond, B. Cairns, et al. H. Gaeggler, B. Liepert, T. Novakov, and B. Schichtel. 2004. "Carbonaceous aerosols in the industrial era." Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 85 (25): 241-244 [10.1029/2004EO250001]

    Cairns, B., B. E. Carlson, R. Ying, A. A. Lacis, and V. Oinas. 2003. "Atmospheric correction and its application to an analysis of Hyperion data." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 41 (6): 1232-1245 [10.1109/TGRS.2003.813134]

    Geogdzhayev, I. V., M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis. 2002. "Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data." J Atmos Sci, 59: 262-278.

    Rossow, W. B., C. Delo, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Implications of the observed mesoscale variations of clouds for the Earth's radiation budget." J Climate, 15: 557-585.

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithms." J Atmos Sci, 59: 524-543.

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part II: Climatological applications." J Atmos Sci, 59: 544-566.

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2002. "Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data." J Atmos Sci, 59 (3): 383-397 [10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0383:CSOARO>2.0.CO;2]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis. 2001. "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle Photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 (2): 243-246 [10.1029/2000GL011783]

    Cairns, B., A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2000. "Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models." J Atmos Sci, 57 (5): 700-714 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0700:AWICAI>2.0.CO;2]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis. 1999. "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results." Applied Optics, 38 (36): 7325-7341 [10.1364/AO.38.007325]

    Lacis, A. A., J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 1998. "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: Vector vs scalar treatment." Geophysical Research Letters, 25 (2): 135-138 [10.1029/97GL03613]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, et al. B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, and Q. Han. 1997. "Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: A sensitivity study." Geophysical Research Letters, 24 (21): 2655-2658 [10.1029/97GL02783]

    Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, et al. A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, and J. Zawodny. 1997. "Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change." J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D22): 25679-25720 [10.1029/97JD01495]

    Macke, A., M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 1996. "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles." J. Geophys. Res., 101 (D18): 23311-23316 [10.1029/96JD02364]

    Rossow, W. B., and B. Cairns. 1995. "Monitoring changes of clouds." Climatic Change, 31 (2-4): 305-347 [10.1007/BF01095151]

    Hansen, J., W. Rossow, B. Carlson, et al. A. Lacis, L. Travis, A. Del Genio, I. Fung, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and I. Sato. 1995. "Low-cost long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks." Climatic Change, 31 (2-4): 247-271 [10.1007/BF01095149]

    Fischer, D. G., and B. Cairns. 1995. "Inverse Problems with Quasihomogeneous Random Media Utilizing Scattered Pulses." Journal of Modern Optics, 42 (3): 655-666 [10.1080/09500349514550601]

    Cairns, B. 1995. "Diurnal variations of cloud from ISCCP data." Atmospheric Research, 37 (1-3): 133-146 [10.1016/0169-8095(94)00074-N]

    Cairns, B., and J. T. Foley. 1993. "Contribution of the second-order Born approximation to the scattered intensity." Opt Comm, 101 (3–4): 144-150 [10.1016/0030-4018(93)90356-A]

    Talks, Presentations and Posters

    Invited

    Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Aerosols and Clouds 7 / 3 / 2014
    EUMETSAT is currently developing a polarimetric sensor for the Meteosat Second Generation platform called 3MI.  Dr. Cairns was invited to talk about his experience with the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter and any lessons learned in the development of the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor that might have value in their acquistion of 3MI.

    Selected Public Outreach

    Glory Project Outreach Team 3 / 2007 - 12 / 2009
    RHG Exceptional Achievement Outreach Team award.
    A Polarizing View of Clouds and Aerosols 12 / 2011 - 12 / 2011
    http://myemail.constantcontact.com/A-Polarizing-View-of-Clouds-and-Aerosols--Dr--Brian-Cai Spoke at Desert Research Institute and Pyramid Lake High School on climate and what we can learn from polarimetric remote sensing.
    A handheld polarimeter for aerosol remote sensing 3 / 2007 - Present
    Work with Professor Jame Frost of Laguardia Community College to develop and build hand held polarimeters and analyse the measurements obtained with the hand held instruments.  Students build the instruments, take the measurements and perform the analysis giving them a complete view of what is required of a scientific measurement.

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Cairns was educated in the United Kingdom at Chesterfield School and received an engineering degree from the University of Cambridge before completing a Ph. D. in physics at the Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester. He has worked at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies since 1992. His initial work was focused on developing parameterizations of three-dimensional radiation transport through clouds for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and that parameterization continues to be used in the GISS GCM. Since 1996 he has worked on the use of polarimetric remote sensing of the Earth to determine aerosol and cloud properties using ground based and airborne observations and was one of the developers of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) instrument. The development of the RSP instrument was completed in 1999 and it made its first airborne measurements on a small Cessna survey plane. This sensor has obtained the most accurate polarization measurements of the atmosphere of the Earth ever made and over a broader spectral and angular range than any other polarimeter. The capability of these measurements to accurately retrieve aerosol and cloud properties has been widely recognized and has led to the development and planning of new instruments that attempt to provide similar capabilities. Since 2000 Dr. Cairns has led the integration of the RSP instrument onto five different platforms and supervised seventeen different field deployments from Mexico to the Canadian Arctic. During that time the RSP instrument performed impeccably acquiring more than 2000 hours of remote sensing observations. Dr. Cairns was instrument scientist for the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor, which was on the NASA Glory mission that failed to reach orbit on 4th March 2011 and crashed into the South Pacific. He was also a member of the science-working groups appointed by NASA Headquarters to define the ACE and PACE missions that were recommended by the Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Sciences.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Ottaviani, M., R. Foster, A. Gilerson, et al. A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic. 2018. "Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: Intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations." Remote Sensing of Environment 206 375-390 [10.1016/j.rse.2017.12.015]

    Stamnes, S., C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, et al. S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns. 2018. "Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the “MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products." Applied Optics 57 (10): 2394 [10.1364/ao.57.002394]

    Gao, M., P.-W. Zhai, B. Franz, et al. Y. Hu, K. Knobelspiesse, P. J. Werdell, A. Ibrahim, F. Xu, and B. Cairns. 2018. "Retrieval of aerosol properties and water-leaving reflectance from multi-angular polarimetric measurements over coastal waters." Optics Express 26 (7): 8968 [10.1364/oe.26.008968]

    Harten, G. V., D. J. Diner, B. J. Daugherty, et al. B. E. Rheingans, M. A. Bull, F. C. Seidel, R. A. Chipman, B. Cairns, A. P. Wasilewski, and K. D. Knobelspiesse. 2018. "Calibration and validation of Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) polarization measurements." Applied Optics 57 (16): 4499 [10.1364/ao.57.004499]

    Sinclair, K., B. van Diedenhoven, B. Cairns, et al. J. Yorks, A. Wasilewski, and M. McGill. 2017. "Remote Sensing of Multiple Cloud Layer Heights using Multi-Angular Measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions 1-23 [10.5194/amt-2017-2]

    Berg, L. K., J. D. Fast, J. C. Barnard, et al. S. P. Burton, B. Cairns, D. Chand, J. M. Comstock, S. Dunagan, R. A. Ferrare, C. J. Flynn, J. W. Hair, C. A. Hostetler, J. Hubbe, A. Jefferson, R. Johnson, E. I. Kassianov, C. D. Kluzek, P. Kollias, K. Lamer, K. Lantz, F. Mei, M. A. Miller, J. Michalsky, I. Ortega, M. Pekour, R. R. Rogers, P. B. Russell, J. Redemann, A. J. Sedlacek, M. Segal-Rosenheimer, B. Schmid, J. E. Shilling, Y. Shinozuka, S. R. Springston, J. M. Tomlinson, M. Tyrrell, J. M. Wilson, R. Volkamer, A. Zelenyuk, and C. M. Berkowitz. 2016. "The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I-Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 121 (1): 336-361 [10.1002/2015jd023848]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, C. Emde, et al. A. S. Ackerman, M. Ottaviani, and A. P. Wasilewski. 2016. "Derivation of cumulus cloud dimensions and shape from the airborne measurements by the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Remote Sensing of Environment 177 144-152 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.032]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. S. Ackerman, A. M. Fridlind, and B. Cairns. 2016. "On averaging aspect ratios and distortion parameters over ice crystal population ensembles for estimating effective scattering asymmetry parameters." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 (2): 775-787 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0150.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., I. V. Geogdzhayev, K. Tsigaridis, et al. A. Marshak, R. Levy, and B. Cairns. 2016. "New statistical model for variability of aerosol optical thickness: Theory and application to MODIS data over ocean." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 73 (2): 821-837 [10.1175/jas-d-15-0130.1]

    McCorkel, J., B. Cairns, and A. Wasilewski. 2016. "Imager-to-radiometer in-flight cross calibration: RSP radiometric comparison with airborne and satellite sensors." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9 (3): 955-962 [10.5194/amt-9-955-2016]

    Mishchenko, M. I., J. M. Dlugach, M. A. Yurkin, et al. L. Bi, B. Cairns, L. Liu, R. L. Panetta, L. D. Travis, P. Yang, and N. T. Zakharova. 2016. "First-principles modeling of electromagnetic scattering by discrete and discretely heterogeneous random media." Physics Reports 632 1-75 [10.1016/j.physrep.2016.04.002]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, B. Cairns, A. S. Ackerman, and J. E. Yorks. 2016. "Vertical variation of ice particle size in convective cloud tops." Geophysical Research Letters 43 (9): 4586-4593 [10.1002/2016gl068548]

    Mishchenko, M. I., J. A. Lock, A. A. Lacis, L. D. Travis, and B. Cairns. 2016. "First-principles definition and measurement of planetary electromagnetic-energy budget." J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33 (6): 1126 [10.1364/josaa.33.001126]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, B. van Diedenhoven, et al. A. S. Ackerman, A. P. Wasilewski, M. J. McGill, J. E. Yorks, D. L. Hlavka, S. E. Platnick, and G. T. Arnold. 2016. "Polarized view of supercooled liquid water clouds." Remote Sensing of Environment 181 96-110 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.04.002]

    Wu, L., O. Hasekamp, B. van Diedenhoven, et al. B. Cairns, J. E. Yorks, and J. Chowdhary. 2016. "Passive remote sensing of aerosol layer height using near-UV multiangle polarization measurements." Geophysical Research Letters 43 (16): 8783-8790 [10.1002/2016gl069848]

    Mishchenko, M. I., M. D. Alexandrov, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2016. "Multistatic aerosol–cloud lidar in space: A theoretical perspective." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 184 180-192 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.015]

    Ottaviani, M., B. van Diedenhoven, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Photopolarimetric retrievals of snow properties." Cryosphere 9 1933-1942 [doi:10.5194/tc-9-1933-2015]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, A. P. Wasilewski, et al. A. S. Ackerman, M. J. McGill, J. E. Yorks, J. E. Hlavka, S. E. Platnick, G. T. Arnold, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, M. Ottaviani, and K. D. Knobelspiesse. 2015. "Liquid water cloud properties during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)." Remote Sens. Environ. 169 20-36 [doi:10.1016/j.rse.2015.07.029]

    Geogdzhayev, I. V., M. I. Mishchenko, J. Li, et al. W. B. Rossow, L. Liu, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Extension and statistical analysis of the GACP aerosol optical thickness record." Atmos. Res. 164-165 268-277 [doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2015.05.013]

    Wu, L., O. Hasekamp, B. van Diedenhoven, and B. Cairns. 2015. "Aerosol retrieval from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric measurements: Importance of spectral range and angular resolution." Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8 2625-2638 [doi:10.5194/amt-8-2625-2015]

    Kokhanovsky, A. A., A. B. Davis, B. Cairns, et al. O. Dubovik, O. P. Hasekamp, I. Sano, S. Mukai, V. V. Rozanov, P. Litvinov, T. Lapyonok, I. S. Kolomiets, Y. A. Oberemok, S. Savenkov, W. G. Martin, A. P. Wasilewski, A. di Noia, A. Stap, J. Rietjens, F. Xu, V. Natraj, M. Duan, T. Cheng, and R. Munro. 2015. "Space-based remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols: The multi-angle spectro-polarimetric frontier." Earth-Sci. Rev. 145 85-116 [doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.012]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, B. Cairns, and A. S. Ackerman. 2014. "Variation of ice crystal size, shape and asymmetry parameter in tops of tropical deep convective clouds." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (20): 11809-11825 [doi:10.1002/2014JD022385]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, B. Cairns, and D. W. Mackowski. 2014. "Optics of water cloud droplets mixed with black-carbon aerosols." Opt. Lett. 39 (9): 2607 [10.1364/OL.39.002607]

    Van Diedenhoven, B., A. S. Ackerman, B. Cairns, and A. M. Fridlind. 2014. "A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals." J. Atmos. Sci. 71 (5): 1763-1782 [10.1175/JAS-D-13-0205.1]

    Martin, W., B. Cairns, and G. Bal. 2014. "Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 144 68-85 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.03.030]

    Knobelspiesse, K., B. Cairns, H. T. Jethva, et al. M. Kacenelenbogen, M. Segal-Rosenheimer, and O. Torres. 2014. "Remote sensing of above cloud aerosols." Light Scattering Reviews 9 167-210

    Remer, L., C. Brogniez, B. Cairns, and N.-Y. C. Hsu. 2013. "Recent instruments and algorithms for passive shortwave remote sensing." Aerosol Remote Sensing, Springer 185-221

    Geogdzhayev, I., B. Cairns, M. Alexandrov, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2013. "Statistical analysis of single-track instrument sampling in spaceborne aerosol remote sensing for climate research." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 121 69-77 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.02.003]

    Ottaviani, M., K. Knobelspiesse, B. Cairns, and M. Mishchenko. 2013. "Information content of aerosol retrievals in the sunglint region." Geophys. Res. Lett. 40 (3): 631-634 [10.1002/grl.50148]

    Ryerson, T. B., A. E. Andrews, W. M. Angevine, et al. T. S. Bates, C. A. Brock, B. Cairns, R. C. Cohen, O. R. Cooper, J. A. de Gouw, F. C. Fehsenfeld, R. A. Ferrare, M. L. Fischer, R. C. Flagan, A. H. Goldstein, J. W. Hair, R. M. Hardesty, C. A. Hostetler, J. L. Jimenez, A. O. Langford, E. McCauley, S. A. McKeen, L. T. Molina, A. Nenes, S. J. Oltmans, D. D. Parrish, J. R. Pederson, R. B. Pierce, K. Prather, P. K. Quinn, J. H. Seinfeld, C. J. Senff, A. Sorooshian, J. Stutz, J. D. Surratt, M. Trainer, R. Volkamer, E. J. Williams, and S. C. Wofsy. 2013. "The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (11): 5830-5866 [10.1002/jgrd.50331]

    van Diedenhoven, B., B. Cairns, A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, and T. J. Garrett. 2013. "Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements – Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (6): 3185-3203 [10.5194/acp-13-3185-2013]

    Zhai, P., Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, et al. B. Cairns, R. A. Ferrare, K. D. Knobelspiesse, D. B. Josset, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and J. Chowdhary. 2013. "Uncertainty and interpretation of aerosol remote sensing due to vertical inhomogeneity." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 114 91-100 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.08.006]

    van Diedenhoven, B., A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, and B. Cairns. 2012. "Evaluation of Hydrometeor Phase and Ice Properties in Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Tropical Deep Convection Using Radiance and Polarization Measurements." J Atmos Sci 69 (11): 3290-3314 [10.1175/JAS-D-11-0314.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2012. "Rainbow Fourier transform." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 113 (18): 2521-2535 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.03.025]

    Zaveri, R. A., W. J. Shaw, D. J. Cziczo, et al. B. Schmid, R. A. Ferrare, M. L. Alexander, M. Alexandrov, R. J. Alvarez, W. P. Arnott, D. B. Atkinson, S. Baidar, R. M. Banta, J. C. Barnard, J. Beranek, L. K. Berg, F. Brechtel, W. A. Brewer, J. F. Cahill, B. Cairns, C. D. Cappa, D. Chand, S. China, J. M. Comstock, M. K. Dubey, R. C. Easter, M. H. Erickson, J. D. Fast, C. Floerchinger, B. A. Flowers, E. Fortner, J. S. Gaffney, M. K. Gilles, K. Gorkowski, W. I. Gustafson, M. Gyawali, J. Hair, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Harworth, S. Herndon, N. Hiranuma, C. Hostetler, J. M. Hubbe, J. T. Jayne, H. Jeong, B. T. Jobson, E. I. Kassianov, L. I. Kleinman, C. Kluzek, B. Knighton, K. R. Kolesar, C. Kuang, A. Kubátová, A. O. Langford, A. Laskin, N. Laulainen, R. D. Marchbanks, C. Mazzoleni, F. Mei, R. C. Moffet, D. Nelson, M. D. Obland, H. Oetjen, T. B. Onasch, I. Ortega, M. Ottaviani, M. Pekour, K. A. Prather, J. G. Radney, R. R. Rogers, S. P. Sandberg, A. Sedlacek, C. J. Senff, G. Senum, A. Setyan, J. E. Shilling, M. Shrivastava, C. Song, S. R. Springston, R. Subramanian, K. Suski, J. Tomlinson, R. Volkamer, H. W. Wallace, J. Wang, A. M. Weickmann, D. R. Worsnop, X. Y. Yu, A. Zelenyuk, and Q. Zhang. 2012. "Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (16): 7647-7687 [10.5194/acp-12-7647-2012]

    van Diedenhoven, B., B. Cairns, I. V. Geogdzhayev, et al. A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, P. Yang, and B. A. Baum. 2012. "Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements. Part I: Methodology and evaluation with simulated measurements." Atmos Meas Tech 5 (10): 2361-2374 [10.5194/amt-5-2361-2012]

    Ottaviani, M., B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, et al. B. van Diedenhoven, K. Knobelspiesse, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, J. Hair, M. D. Obland, and R. Rogers. 2012. "Polarimetric retrievals of surface and cirrus clouds properties in the region affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill." Remote Sens Environ 121 389-403 [10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.016]

    Ottaviani, M., B. Cairns, R. R. Rogers, and R. Ferrare. 2012. "Iterative atmospheric correction scheme and the polarization color of alpine snow." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 113 (10): 789-804 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.03.014]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, O. Dubovik, and B. Cairns. 2012. "Model for land surface reflectance treatment: Physical derivation, application for bare soil and evaluation on airborne and satellite measurements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 113 (16): 2023-2039 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.06.027]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, et al. J. Chowdhary, K. Tsigaridis, B. Van Diedenhoven, W. Martin, M. Ottaviani, and M. D. Alexandrov. 2012. "Analysis of fine-mode aerosol retrieval capabilities by different passive remote sensing instrument designs." Opt. Express 20 (19): 21,457-21,484 [10.1364/OE.20.021457]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, F. Waquet, et al. K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko. 2012. "Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: Analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign." Remote Sens Environ 118 284-308 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.11.003]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Cairns, C. Emde, A. S. Ackerman, and B. van Diedenhoven. 2012. "Accuracy assessments of cloud droplet size retrievals from polarized reflectance measurements by the research scanning polarimeter." Remote Sens Environ 125 92-111 [10.1016/j.rse.2012.07.012]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, and B. Cairns. 2011. "Models for surface reflection of radiance and polarized radiance: Comparison with airborne multi-angle photopolarimetric measurements and implications for modeling top-of-atmosphere measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (2): 781-792 [10.1016/j.rse.2010.11.005]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, M. Ottaviani, et al. R. Ferrare, J. Hair, C. Hostetler, M. Obland, R. Rogers, J. Redemann, Y. Shinozuka, A. Clarke, S. Freitag, S. Howell, V. Kapustin, and C. McNaughton. 2011. "Combined retrievals of boreal forest fire aerosol properties with a polarimeter and lidar." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (14): 7045-7067 [10.5194/acp-11-7045-2011]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, J. Redemann, R. W. Bergstrom, and A. Stohl. 2011. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties during the MILAGRO field campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (13): 6245-6263 [10.5194/acp-11-6245-2011]

    Mishchenko, M. I., V. P. Tishkovets, L. D. Travis, et al. B. Cairns, J. M. Dlugach, L. Liu, V. K. Rosenbush, and N. N. Kiselev. 2011. "Electromagnetic scattering by a morphologically complex object: Fundamental concepts and common misconceptions." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112 (4): 671-692 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2010.03.016]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, L. D. Travis, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: 3 MODIS versus MISR versus AERONET." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 111 (4): 540-552 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.003]

    Litvinov, P., O. Hasekamp, B. Cairns, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2010. "Reflection models for soil and vegetation surfaces from multiple-viewing angle photopolarimetric measurements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 111 (4): 529-539 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.11.001]

    Waquet, F., J. Riédi, L. Labonnote, et al. P. Goloub, B. Cairns, J. Deuzé, and D. Tanré. 2009. "Aerosol Remote Sensing over Clouds Using A-Train Observations." J Atmos Sci 66 (8): 2468-2480 [10.1175/2009JAS3026.1]

    Waquet, F., B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, et al. J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko. 2009. "Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D1): D01206 [10.1029/2008JD010619]

    Waquet, F., J. Léon, B. Cairns, et al. P. Goloub, J. Deuzé, and F. Auriol. 2009. "Analysis of the spectral and angular response of the vegetated surface polarization for the purpose of aerosol remote sensing over land." Applied Optics 48 (6): 1228 [10.1364/AO.48.001228]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, et al. A. A. Lacis, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2009. "Toward unified satellite climatology of aerosol properties: What do fully compatible MODIS and MISR aerosol pixels tell us?" J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 110 (6-7): 402-408 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.01.007]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. Schmid, D. D. Turner, et al. B. Cairns, V. Oinas, A. A. Lacis, S. I. Gutman, E. R. Westwater, A. Smirnov, and J. Eilers. 2009. "Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02306 [10.1029/2008JD010543]

    Knobelspiesse, K. D., B. Cairns, B. Schmid, M. O. Román, and C. B. Schaaf. 2008. "Surface BRDF estimation from an aircraft compared to MODIS and ground estimates at the Southern Great Plains site." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D20): D20105 [10.1029/2008JD010062]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2008. "Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using MFRSR measurements." J. Geophys. Res. 113 (D8): D08204 [10.1029/2007JD009388]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. Liu, D. W. Mackowski, B. Cairns, and G. Videen. 2007. "Multiple scattering by random particulate media: exact 3D results." Opt. Express 15 (6): 2822-2836 [10.1364/OE.15.002822]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, W. B. Rossow, et al. B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Long-Term Satellite Record Reveals Likely Recent Aerosol Trend." Science 315 (5818): 1543-1543 [10.1126/science.1136709]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, G. Kopp, et al. C. F. Schueler, B. A. Fafaul, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Hooker, T. Itchkawich, H. B. Maring, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Accurate Monitoring of Terrestrial Aerosols and Total Solar Irradiance: Introducing the Glory Mission." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88 (5): 677-691 [10.1175/BAMS-88-5-677]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 (9): 2287-2312 [10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. P. A. Kharecha, A. A. Lacis, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, K.-W. Lo, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. E. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. D. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. H. Jackman, J. A. Jonas, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. H. Rind, A. Romanou, R. B. Schmunk, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2007. "Climate simulations for 1880–2003 with GISS modelE." Clim Dyn 29 (7-8): 661-696 [10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8]

    Diner, D. J., A. Davis, B. Hancock, et al. G. Gutt, R. A. Chipman, and B. Cairns. 2007. "Dual-photoelastic-modulator-based polarimetric imaging concept for aerosol remote sensing." Applied Optics 46 (35): 8428 [10.1364/AO.46.008428]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, et al. B. E. Carlson, J. Chowdhary, A. A. Lacis, L. Liu, W. B. Rossow, and L. D. Travis. 2007. "Past, present, and future of global aerosol climatologies derived from satellite observations: A perspective." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 106 (1-3): 325-347 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.01.007]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, J. E. Hansen, et al. I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, A. D. Friend, T. M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, R. L. Miller, L. S. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, P. H. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao. 2006. "Present-Day Atmospheric Simulations Using GISS ModelE: Comparison to In Situ, Satellite, and Reanalysis Data." J. Climate 19 (2): 153-192 [10.1175/JCLI3612.1]

    Liu, L., M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, and L. D. Travis. 2006. "Modeling single-scattering properties of small cirrus particles by use of a size-shape distribution of ice spheroids and cylinders." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 101 (3): 488-497 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2006.02.040]

    Liu, L., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, et al. I. V. Geogdzhayev, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 2006. "Assessing Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE aerosol climatology using satellite and ground-based measurements: A comparison study." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D20): D20212 [10.1029/2006JD007334]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, et al. I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, and L. D. Travis. 2005. "Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites." J Phys Conf Series 6 73-89 [10.1088/1742-6596/6/1/005]

    Hansen, J. E., M. Sato, R. A. Ruedy, et al. L. S. Nazarenko, A. A. Lacis, G. A. Schmidt, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. M. Canuto, M. A. Chandler, Y.-B. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. S. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. M. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. T. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. L. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M.-S. Yao, and S. Zhang. 2005. "Efficacy of climate forcings." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D18): D18104 [10.1029/2005JD005776]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, M. I. Mishchenko, et al. P. V. Hobbs, G. F. Cota, J. Redemann, K. Rutledge, B. Holben, and E. Russell. 2005. "Retrieval of Aerosol Scattering and Absorption Properties from Photopolarimetric Observations over the Ocean during the CLAMS Experiment." J. Atmos. Sci. 62 (4): 1093-1117 [10.1175/JAS3389.1]

    Alexandrov, M. D., B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, and B. Cairns. 2005. "Separation of fine and coarse aerosol modes in MFRSR data sets." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D13): D13204 [10.1029/2004JD005226]

    Mishchenko, M. I., B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, et al. L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, and E. P. Shettle. 2004. "Monitoring of aerosol forcing of climate from space: Analysis of measurement requirements." J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 88 (1-3): 149-161 [10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.03.030]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2004. "Automated cloud screening algorithm for MFRSR data." Geophys Res Lett 31 (4): L04118 [10.1029/2003GL019105]

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. Marshak, B. Cairns, A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2004. "Scaling properties of aerosol optical thickness retrieved from ground-based measurements." J Atmos Sci 61 1024-1039.

    Mishchenko, M., B. Cairns, J. Hansen, et al. L. Travis, R. Burg, Y. Kaufman, J. Martins, and E. Shettle. 2004. "Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements." J Quant Spectros& Rad Trans 88 149-161

    Hansen, J. E., T. Bond, B. Cairns, et al. H. Gaeggler, B. Liepert, T. Novakov, and B. Schichtel. 2004. "Carbonaceous aerosols in the industrial era." Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union 85 (25): 241-244 [10.1029/2004EO250001]

    Cairns, B., B. E. Carlson, R. Ying, A. A. Lacis, and V. Oinas. 2003. "Atmospheric correction and its application to an analysis of Hyperion data." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 41 (6): 1232-1245 [10.1109/TGRS.2003.813134]

    Geogdzhayev, I. V., M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, B. Cairns, and A. A. Lacis. 2002. "Global two-channel AVHRR retrievals of aerosol properties over the ocean for the period of NOAA-9 observations and preliminary retrievals using NOAA-7 and NOAA-11 data." J Atmos Sci 59 262-278.

    Rossow, W. B., C. Delo, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Implications of the observed mesoscale variations of clouds for the Earth's radiation budget." J Climate 15 557-585.

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part I: Retrieval algorithms." J Atmos Sci 59 524-543.

    Alexandrov, M. D., A. A. Lacis, B. E. Carlson, and B. Cairns. 2002. "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and trace gases by means of multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer. Part II: Climatological applications." J Atmos Sci 59 544-566.

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis. 2002. "Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data." J Atmos Sci 59 (3): 383-397 [10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0383:CSOARO>2.0.CO;2]

    Chowdhary, J., B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and L. Travis. 2001. "Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangle Photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter." Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 (2): 243-246 [10.1029/2000GL011783]

    Cairns, B., A. A. Lacis, and B. E. Carlson. 2000. "Absorption within inhomogeneous clouds and its parameterization in general circulation models." J Atmos Sci 57 (5): 700-714 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0700:AWICAI>2.0.CO;2]

    Mishchenko, M. I., I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis. 1999. "Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results." Applied Optics 38 (36): 7325-7341 [10.1364/AO.38.007325]

    Lacis, A. A., J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 1998. "Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: Vector vs scalar treatment." Geophysical Research Letters 25 (2): 135-138 [10.1029/97GL03613]

    Mishchenko, M. I., L. D. Travis, W. B. Rossow, et al. B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, and Q. Han. 1997. "Retrieving CCN column density from single-channel measurements of reflected sunlight over the ocean: A sensitivity study." Geophysical Research Letters 24 (21): 2655-2658 [10.1029/97GL02783]

    Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, et al. A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M. P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. L. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, and J. Zawodny. 1997. "Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25679-25720 [10.1029/97JD01495]

    Macke, A., M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns. 1996. "The influence of inclusions on light scattering by large ice particles." J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D18): 23311-23316 [10.1029/96JD02364]

    Rossow, W. B., and B. Cairns. 1995. "Monitoring changes of clouds." Climatic Change 31 (2-4): 305-347 [10.1007/BF01095151]

    Hansen, J., W. Rossow, B. Carlson, et al. A. Lacis, L. Travis, A. Del Genio, I. Fung, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, and I. Sato. 1995. "Low-cost long-term monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks." Climatic Change 31 (2-4): 247-271 [10.1007/BF01095149]

    Fischer, D. G., and B. Cairns. 1995. "Inverse Problems with Quasihomogeneous Random Media Utilizing Scattered Pulses." Journal of Modern Optics 42 (3): 655-666 [10.1080/09500349514550601]

    Cairns, B. 1995. "Diurnal variations of cloud from ISCCP data." Atmospheric Research 37 (1-3): 133-146 [10.1016/0169-8095(94)00074-N]

    Cairns, B., and J. T. Foley. 1993. "Contribution of the second-order Born approximation to the scattered intensity." Opt Comm 101 (3–4): 144-150 [10.1016/0030-4018(93)90356-A]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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