Dr. Ann M Parsons

Dr. Ann M Parsons

  • (AST, FIELDS & PARTICLES)
  • 301.286.1107 | 301.286.0212
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 691
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    I have had great experience applying new instrumentation technology to real space science missions. From my involvement in the extremely successful Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer launched in 2004, I have had the opportunity to participate in the full life cycle of a space science mission. I began the Cadmium Zinc Telluride gamma ray detector technology development at Goddard in 1993 that eventually led to the successful Swift mission proposal in 1998. I fully participated in the design, fabrication and calibration of the Burst Alert Explorer (BAT) as well as its integration with the Swift spacecraft and the following environmental testing. I have also been involved in the science operation of the satellite since its launch. My scientific interests have since broadened to include the study of the origin and evolution of the planets. My new direction in developing novel detector systems for planetary science applications came when Dr. Jack Trombka invited me to lead the technical R&D aspect of his venerable planetary science research group in the Solar System Exploration Division at Goddard. My knowledge of gamma ray and x-ray detectors used for astrophysics transferred straightforwardly to the gamma ray neutron technology described in this proposal. Upon Dr. Trombka's retirement I became the group's new leader and am currently building a new nuclear planetary science instrumentation program at Goddard to build new scientific instruments to make measurements in space that are critical to our understanding how our universe and solar system work.

    Positions/Employment

    8/2007 - Present

    Astrophysicist

    Solar System Exploration Division, NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center , Greenbelt, MD 20771
    1/1995 - 8/2007

    Astrophysicist

    Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771
    5/1993 - 1/1995

    Postdoctoral Fellow

    National Research Council, NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771

    Teaching Experience

    Supervised 3 Ph D Students:

    2013 Suzanne Nowicki, Department of Applied Physics, University of Michigan
    Thesis title: “Characterization of Pixelated CdZnTe Gamma-Ray Detectors at High Energies for In Situ Planetary Science Applications”

    2013 Julia Bodnarik, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Vanderbilt University
    Thesis title: “Using In Situ Neutron and Gamma–ray Spectroscopy to Characterize Asteroids”

    2006 Derek Hullinger, Department of Physics, University of Maryland
    Thesis title: “Early Afterglow Evolution of X-Ray Flashes Observed By Swift”


    Education

    1993 - PhD, Physics, University of California, Berkeley
    1986 - BS with High Distinction and Highest Honors, Physics, University of Michigan

    Professional Societies

    Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2012 - Present
    American Astronomical Society, Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) , 2007 - Present

    Awards

    2011 Robert H Goddard Award for Exceptional Achievement for Science – Planetary Geochemical Instrument Team
    2007 Shared the AAS Bruno Rossi Prize with the rest of the Swift Team "for gamma-ray burst discoveries with the Swift mission"
    2006 NASA Honor Award for Group Achievement - Swift BAT Instrument Team

    Publications

    Refereed

    Lim, L. F., R. D. Starr, L. G. Evans, et al. A. M. Parsons, M. E. Zolensky, and W. V. Boynton. 2016. "Modeling orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments at carbonaceous asteroids." Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 52 (1): 174-190 [10.1111/maps.12786]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    McClanahan, T., I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus, 255: 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Nowicki, S. F., S. D. Hunter, and A. M. Parsons. 2013. "Development of a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV Gamma Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, [10.1016/j.nima.2012.12.066]

    Bodnarik, J. G., D. M. Burger, A. Burger, et al. L. G. Evans, A. M. Parsons, J. S. Schweitzer, R. D. Starr, and K. G. Stassun. 2013. "Time-resolved neutron/gamma-ray data acquisition for in situ subsurface planetary geochemistry." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, [10.1016/j.nima.2012.12.110]

    Parsons, A., T. McClanahan, J. Bodnarik, et al. L. Evans, S. Nowicki, J. Schweitzer, and R. Starr. 2013. "Subsurface In situ elemental composition measurements with PING." Proceedings of the Aerospace Conference, 2013 IEEE. 2-9 March 2013. Big Sky, MT. ISBN: 978-1-4673-1812-9, id.111, [10.1109/AERO.2013.6496922]

    Parsons, A., J. Bodnarik, L. Evans, et al. S. Floyd, L. Lim, T. McClanahan, M. Namkung, S. Nowicki, J. Schweitzer, R. Starr, and J. Trombka. 2011. "Active neutron and gamma-ray instrumentation for in situ planetary science applications." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 652: 674-679 [10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.157]

    Sakamoto, T., S. Barthelmy, W. Baumgartner, et al. J. Cummings, E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm, C. Markwardt, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, and T. Ukwatta. 2011. "Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs." GAMMA RAY BURSTS 2010 AIP Conference Proceedings, 1358: 51 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1063/1.3621736]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2011. "The second Swift BAT GRB catalog (BAT2) (Sakamoto+, 2011)." VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/ApJS/195/2 Originally published in: 2011ApJS1952S, 219: 50002 [Full Text (Link)]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2011. "The Second Swift Burst Alert Telescope Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement, [10.1088/0067-0049/195/1/2]

    Sakamoto, T., V. Pal'Shin, K. Yamaoka, et al. M. Ohno, G. Sato, R. Aptekar, S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, D. Frederiks, N. Gehrels, S. Golenetskii, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, K. Onda, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, S. Sugita, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, and T. N. Ukwatta. 2011. "Spectral Cross-Calibration of the Konus-Wind, the Suzaku/WAM, and the Swift/BAT Data Using Gamma-Ray Bursts." Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 63 (1): 215 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1093/pasj/63.1.215]

    Sakamoto, T., L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, and J. Tueller. 2011. "Probing the nature of short swift bursts via deep INTEGRAL monitoring of GRB 050925." Advances in Space Research, 47: 1346 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.asr.2010.08.004]

    Tueller, J., W. H. Baumgartner, C. B. Markwardt, et al. G. K. Skinner, R. F. Mushotzky, M. Ajello, S. Barthelmy, A. Beardmore, W. N. Brandt, D. Burrows, G. Chincarini, S. Campana, J. Cummings, G. Cusumano, P. Evans, E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, O. Godet, D. Grupe, S. Holland, J. Kennea, H. A. Krimm, M. Koss, A. Moretti, K. Mukai, J. P. Osborne, T. Okajima, C. Pagani, K. Page, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, D. P. Schneider, T. Sakamoto, R. Sambruna, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, M. Stroh, T. Ukwata, and L. Winter. 2010. "The 22 Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement, 186: 378 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0067-0049/186/2/378]

    Reich, J. P., J. Cox, R. Davila, et al. A. Parsons, M. M. Kuznetsova, D. Berrios, M. Hesse, A. Pulkkinen, P. J. MacNeice, M. Maddox, L. Rastaetter, and A. Taktakishvili. 2009. "AFWA-CCMC Partnership to Augment USAF Space Weather Forecasting Capabilities." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A3-:

    Sakamoto, T., G. Sato, L. Barbier, et al. S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, D. Q. Lamb, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, and T. N. Ukwatta. 2009. "E peak Estimator for Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal, 693: 922 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/693/1/922]

    Kuin, N. P., W. Landsman, M. J. Page, et al. P. Schady, M. Still, A. A. Breeveld, M. de Pasquale, P. W. Roming, P. J. Brown, M. Carter, C. James, P. A. Curran, A. Cucchiara, C. Gronwall, S. T. Holland, E. A. Hoversten, S. Hunsberger, T. Kennedy, S. Koch, H. Lamoureux, F. E. Marshall, S. R. Oates, A. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, and P. J. Smith. 2009. "GRB 081203A: Swift UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, 395: L21 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00632.x]

    Sakamoto, T., D. Hullinger, G. Sato, et al. R. Yamazaki, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, D. Q. Lamb, C. B. Markwardt, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, and J. Tueller. 2008. "Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Swift." The Astrophysical Journal, 679: 570 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/586884]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, L. Barbier, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2008. "The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 175: 179 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/523646]

    Gehrels, C., J. P. Norris, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. Granot, Y. Kaneko, C. Kouveliotou, C. B. Markwardt, P. Mészáros, E. Nakar, J. A. Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, P. W. Roming, T. Sakamoto, C. L. Sarazin, P. Schady, M. Stamatikos, and S. E. Woosley. 2006. "A new γ-ray burst classification scheme from GRB060614." Nature, 444: 1044 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature05376]

    Sakamoto, T., L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, and J. Tueller. 2006. "Confirmation of the Esrcpeak-Eiso (Amati) Relation from the X-Ray Flash XRF 050416AObserved by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal, 636: L73 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/500261]

    Blustin, A. J., D. Band, S. Barthelmy, et al. P. Boyd, M. Capalbi, S. T. Holland, F. E. Marshall, K. O. Mason, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Roming, S. Rosen, P. Schady, M. Still, B. Zhang, L. Angelini, L. Barbier, A. Beardmore, A. Breeveld, D. N. Burrows, J. R. Cummings, J. Cannizzo, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, A. Cucchiara, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, S. Hunsberger, K. C. Hurley, M. Ivanushkina, J. A. Kennea, H. A. Krimm, P. Kumar, W. Landsman, V. La Parola, C. B. Markwardt, K. McGowan, P. Mészáros, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, A. Morgan, J. Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, M. J. Page, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, J. Rhoads, P. Romano, T. Sakamoto, G. Sato, G. Tagliaferri, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, and N. E. White. 2006. "Swift Panchromatic Observations of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 050525a." The Astrophysical Journal, 637: 901 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/498425]

    Gehrels, N., C. L. Sarazin, P. T. OBrien, et al. B. Zhang, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, A. Blustin, D. N. Burrows, J. Cannizzo, J. R. Cummings, M. Goad, S. T. Holland, C. P. Hurkett, J. A. Kennea, A. Levan, C. B. Markwardt, K. O. Mason, P. Meszaros, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, R. Willingale, L. Angelini, A. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, A. Breeveld, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, G. Cusumano, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, P. Giommi, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, J. Hjorth, D. Hullinger, K. C. Hurley, S. Klose, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, H. A. Krimm, V. Mangano, F. E. Marshall, K. McGowan, A. Moretti, R. F. Mushotzky, K. Nakazawa, J. P. Norris, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Romano, P. Roming, S. Rosen, G. Sato, P. Schady, A. P. Smale, J. Sollerman, R. Starling, M. Still, M. Suzuki, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, and R. Wijers. 2005. "A short gamma-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225." Nature, 437: 851-854 [10.1038/nature04142]

    Barthelmy, S. D., L. M. Barbier, J. R. Cummings, et al. E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, and J. Tueller. 2005. "The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the SWIFT Midex Mission." Space Science Reviews, 120: 143 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-005-5096-3]

    Gehrels, N., C. L. Sarazin, P. T. O'Brien, et al. B. Zhang, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, A. Blustin, D. N. Burrows, J. Cannizzo, J. R. Cummings, M. Goad, S. T. Holland, C. P. Hurkett, J. A. Kennea, A. Levan, C. B. Markwardt, K. O. Mason, P. Meszaros, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, R. Willingale, L. Angelini, A. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, A. Breeveld, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, G. Cusumano, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, P. Giommi, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, J. Hjorth, D. Hullinger, K. C. Hurley, S. Klose, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, H. A. Krimm, V. Mangano, F. E. Marshall, K. McGowan, A. Moretti, R. F. Mushotzky, K. Nakazawa, J. P. Norris, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, S. Rosen, G. Sato, P. Schady, A. P. Smale, J. Sollerman, R. Starling, M. Still, M. Suzuki, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, and R. A. Wijers. 2005. "A short γ-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0225." Nature, 437: 851 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature04142]

    McLean, K., E. Fenimore, D. Palmer, et al. S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm, C. Markwardt, A. Parsons, J. Tueller, and M. Stephens. 2005. "Follow up ability for GRB observations on Swift." Il Nuovo Cimento C, vol 28, Issue 4, p837, 28: 837 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1393/ncc/i2005-10168-3]

    Blake, C. H., J. S. Bloom, D. L. Starr, et al. E. E. Falco, M. Skrutskie, E. E. Fenimore, G. Duchêne, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Hornstein, J. X. Prochaska, C. McCabe, A. Ghez, Q. Konopacky, K. Stapelfeldt, K. Hurley, R. Campbell, M. Kassis, F. Chaffee, N. Gehrels, S. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, K. McLean, and J. Tueller. 2005. "An infrared flash contemporaneous with the γ-rays of GRB 041219a." Nature, 435: 181 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03520]

    Vestrand, W. T., P. R. Wozniak, J. A. Wren, et al. E. E. Fenimore, T. Sakamoto, R. R. White, D. Casperson, H. Davis, S. Evans, M. Galassi, K. E. McGowan, J. A. Schier, J. W. Asa, S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, K. McLean, D. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, and J. Tueller. 2005. "A link between prompt optical and prompt γ-ray emission in γ-ray bursts." Nature, 435: 178 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03515]

    Palmer, D. M., S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, et al. R. M. Kippen, T. Cayton, C. Kouveliotou, D. Eichler, R. A. Wijers, P. M. Woods, J. Granot, Y. E. Lyubarsky, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, L. Barbier, M. Chester, J. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, M. H. Finger, B. M. Gaensler, D. Hullinger, H. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, J. A. Nousek, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, T. Sakamoto, G. Sato, M. Suzuki, and J. Tueller. 2005. "A giant γ-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806 - 20." Nature, 434: 1107 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03525]

    Gehrels, N., G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, et al. K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Mészáros, P. W. Roming, L. Angelini, L. M. Barbier, T. Belloni, P. T. Boyd, S. Campana, P. A. Caraveo, M. M. Chester, O. Citterio, T. L. Cline, M. S. Cropper, J. R. Cummings, A. J. Dean, E. D. Feigelson, E. E. Fenimore, D. A. Frail, A. S. Fruchter, G. P. Garmire, K. Gendreau, G. Ghisellini, J. Greiner, J. E. Hill, S. D. Hunsberger, H. A. Krimm, S. R. Kulkarni, P. Kumar, F. Lebrun, N. M. Lloyd-Ronning, C. B. Markwardt, B. J. Mattson, R. F. Mushotzky, J. P. Norris, B. Paczynski, D. M. Palmer, H. Park, A. M. Parsons, J. Paul, M. J. Rees, C. S. Reynolds, J. E. Rhoads, T. P. Sasseen, B. E. Schaefer, A. T. Short, A. P. Smale, I. A. Smith, L. Stella, M. Still, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, L. K. Townsley, J. Tueller, M. J. Turner, M. Vietri, W. Voges, M. J. Ward, R. Willingale, F. M. Zerbi, and W. W. Zhang. 2005. "Erratum: ``The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission'' (ApJ, 611, 1005 [2004])." The Astrophysical Journal, 621: 558 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/427409]

    Gehrels, N., C. L. Sarazin, P. T. O'Brien, et al. B. Zhang, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, A. Blustin, D. N. Burrows, J. Cannizzo, J. R. Cummings, M. Goad, S. T. Holland, C. P. Hurkett, J. A. Kennea, A. Levan, C. B. Markwardt, K. O. Mason, P. Meszaros, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, R. Willingale, L. Angelini, A. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, A. Breeveld, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, G. Cusumano, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, P. Giommi, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, J. Hjorth, D. Hullinger, K. C. Hurley, S. Klose, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, H. A. Krimm, V. Mangano, F. E. Marshall, K. McGowan, A. Moretti, R. F. Mushotzky, K. Nakazawa, J. P. Norris, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, S. Rosen, G. Sato, P. Schady, A. P. Smale, J. Sollerman, R. Starling, M. Still, M. Suzuki, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, and R. A. Wijers. 2005. "A short γ-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225." Nature, 437 (7060): 851-854 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature04142]

    Fenimore, E. E., K. McLean, D. Palmer, et al. S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm, C. Markwardt, A. Parsons, and J. Tueller. 2004. "Swift's Ability to Detect Gamma-Ray Bursts." Baltic Astronomy, Vol 13, p 301-306, 13: 301 [Full Text (Link)]

    Gehrels, N., G. Chincarini, P. Giommi, et al. K. O. Mason, J. A. Nousek, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, S. D. Barthelmy, D. N. Burrows, L. R. Cominsky, K. C. Hurley, F. E. Marshall, P. Mészáros, P. W. Roming, L. Angelini, L. M. Barbier, T. Belloni, S. Campana, P. A. Caraveo, M. M. Chester, O. Citterio, T. L. Cline, M. S. Cropper, J. R. Cummings, A. J. Dean, E. D. Feigelson, E. E. Fenimore, D. A. Frail, A. S. Fruchter, G. P. Garmire, K. Gendreau, G. Ghisellini, J. Greiner, J. E. Hill, S. D. Hunsberger, H. A. Krimm, S. R. Kulkarni, P. Kumar, F. Lebrun, N. M. Lloyd-Ronning, C. B. Markwardt, B. J. Mattson, R. F. Mushotzky, J. P. Norris, J. Osborne, B. Paczynski, D. M. Palmer, H. Park, A. M. Parsons, J. Paul, M. J. Rees, C. S. Reynolds, J. E. Rhoads, T. P. Sasseen, B. E. Schaefer, A. T. Short, A. P. Smale, I. A. Smith, L. Stella, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, L. K. Townsley, J. Tueller, M. J. Turner, M. Vietri, W. Voges, M. J. Ward, R. Willingale, F. M. Zerbi, and W. W. Zhang. 2004. "The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission." The Astrophysical Journal, 611 (2): 1005-1020 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/422091]

    Non-Refereed

    Glavin, D. P., A. A. Pavlov, J. C. Stern, et al. J. E. Elsila, J. E. Cook, A. M. Parsons, J. P. Dworkin, D. S. Lauretta, H. C. Connolly, and K. Nakamura-Messenger. 2015. "Investigating the Effects of Cosmic Ray Exposure on Amino Acids in Meteorites: Implications for Future Small Body Sample Return Missions ." LPI Contributions 1829: 6003-.

    Noll, K., L. McFadden, A. Rhoden, et al. L. Lim, W. Boynton, L. Carter, G. Collins, J. Englander, S. Goossens, W. Grundy, J.-Y. Li, S. Mottola, J. Oberst, R. Orosei, A. Parsons, F. Preusker, D. Reuter, A. Simon, C. Thomas, K. Walsh, and M. Zolensky. 2015. "DARe: Dark Asteroid Rendezvous." Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 46: 2835.

    Lim, L. F., R. D. Starr, L. G. Evans, et al. A. M. Parsons, M. E. Zolensky, W. V. Boynton, and C. A. Thomas. 2014. "Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy." AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 46: #415.07.

    Farrell, W. M., J. E. Bleacher, T. J. Ames, et al. L. M. Carter, C. Y. Cheung, M. R. Collier, J. F. Cooper, R. L. Hudson, T. L. Jackson, J. W. Keller, R. M. Killen, M. M. Kuznetsova, M. J. Loeffler, R. J. MacDowall, A. M. Parsons, N. E. Petro, A. A. Pulkkinen, Y. Zheng, and M. I. Zimmerman. 2013. "'Where to Hide?': A Tele-Robotic Application for HEOMD's Earth-Moon L2 Mission." Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 44: 2514.

    Brief Bio

    I have had great experience applying new instrumentation technology to real space science missions. From my involvement in the extremely successful Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer launched in 2004, I have had the opportunity to participate in the full life cycle of a space science mission. I began the Cadmium Zinc Telluride gamma ray detector technology development at Goddard in 1993 that eventually led to the successful Swift mission proposal in 1998. I fully participated in the design, fabrication and calibration of the Burst Alert Explorer (BAT) as well as its integration with the Swift spacecraft and the following environmental testing. I have also been involved in the science operation of the satellite since its launch. My scientific interests have since broadened to include the study of the origin and evolution of the planets. My new direction in developing novel detector systems for planetary science applications came when Dr. Jack Trombka invited me to lead the technical R&D aspect of his venerable planetary science research group in the Solar System Exploration Division at Goddard. My knowledge of gamma ray and x-ray detectors used for astrophysics transferred straightforwardly to the gamma ray neutron technology described in this proposal. Upon Dr. Trombka's retirement I became the group's new leader and am currently building a new nuclear planetary science instrumentation program at Goddard to build new scientific instruments to make measurements in space that are critical to our understanding how our universe and solar system work.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Lim, L. F., R. D. Starr, L. G. Evans, et al. A. M. Parsons, M. E. Zolensky, and W. V. Boynton. 2016. "Modeling orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments at carbonaceous asteroids." Meteoritics & Planetary Science 52 (1): 174-190 [10.1111/maps.12786]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    McClanahan, T., I. Mitrofanov, W. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Nandikotkur, A. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. Starr, J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Mcclanahan, T. P., I. G. Mitrofanov, W. V. Boynton, et al. G. Chin, J. Bodnarik, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, D. Golovin, D. Hamara, K. Harshman, M. Litvak, T. A. Livengood, A. Malakhov, E. Mazarico, G. Nandikotkur, A. M. Parsons, R. Sagdeev, A. Sanin, R. D. Starr, J. J. Su, and J. Murray. 2015. "Evidence for the sequestration of hydrogen-bearing volatiles towards the Moon’s southern pole-facing slopes." Icarus 255 88-99 [10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.001]

    Nowicki, S. F., S. D. Hunter, and A. M. Parsons. 2013. "Development of a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV Gamma Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A [10.1016/j.nima.2012.12.066]

    Bodnarik, J. G., D. M. Burger, A. Burger, et al. L. G. Evans, A. M. Parsons, J. S. Schweitzer, R. D. Starr, and K. G. Stassun. 2013. "Time-resolved neutron/gamma-ray data acquisition for in situ subsurface planetary geochemistry." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A [10.1016/j.nima.2012.12.110]

    Parsons, A., T. McClanahan, J. Bodnarik, et al. L. Evans, S. Nowicki, J. Schweitzer, and R. Starr. 2013. "Subsurface In situ elemental composition measurements with PING." Proceedings of the Aerospace Conference, 2013 IEEE. 2-9 March 2013. Big Sky, MT. ISBN: 978-1-4673-1812-9, id.111 [10.1109/AERO.2013.6496922]

    Parsons, A., J. Bodnarik, L. Evans, et al. S. Floyd, L. Lim, T. McClanahan, M. Namkung, S. Nowicki, J. Schweitzer, R. Starr, and J. Trombka. 2011. "Active neutron and gamma-ray instrumentation for in situ planetary science applications." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 652 674-679 [10.1016/j.nima.2010.09.157]

    Sakamoto, T., S. Barthelmy, W. Baumgartner, et al. J. Cummings, E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm, C. Markwardt, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, and T. Ukwatta. 2011. "Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs." GAMMA RAY BURSTS 2010 AIP Conference Proceedings 1358 51 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1063/1.3621736]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2011. "The second Swift BAT GRB catalog (BAT2) (Sakamoto+, 2011)." VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/ApJS/195/2 Originally published in: 2011ApJS1952S 219 50002 [Full Text (Link)]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2011. "The Second Swift Burst Alert Telescope Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement [10.1088/0067-0049/195/1/2]

    Sakamoto, T., V. Pal'Shin, K. Yamaoka, et al. M. Ohno, G. Sato, R. Aptekar, S. D. Barthelmy, W. H. Baumgartner, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, D. Frederiks, N. Gehrels, S. Golenetskii, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, K. Onda, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, S. Sugita, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, and T. N. Ukwatta. 2011. "Spectral Cross-Calibration of the Konus-Wind, the Suzaku/WAM, and the Swift/BAT Data Using Gamma-Ray Bursts." Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 63 (1): 215 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1093/pasj/63.1.215]

    Sakamoto, T., L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, and J. Tueller. 2011. "Probing the nature of short swift bursts via deep INTEGRAL monitoring of GRB 050925." Advances in Space Research 47 1346 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1016/j.asr.2010.08.004]

    Tueller, J., W. H. Baumgartner, C. B. Markwardt, et al. G. K. Skinner, R. F. Mushotzky, M. Ajello, S. Barthelmy, A. Beardmore, W. N. Brandt, D. Burrows, G. Chincarini, S. Campana, J. Cummings, G. Cusumano, P. Evans, E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, O. Godet, D. Grupe, S. Holland, J. Kennea, H. A. Krimm, M. Koss, A. Moretti, K. Mukai, J. P. Osborne, T. Okajima, C. Pagani, K. Page, D. Palmer, A. Parsons, D. P. Schneider, T. Sakamoto, R. Sambruna, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, M. Stroh, T. Ukwata, and L. Winter. 2010. "The 22 Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-ray Survey." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement 186 378 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0067-0049/186/2/378]

    Reich, J. P., J. Cox, R. Davila, et al. A. Parsons, M. M. Kuznetsova, D. Berrios, M. Hesse, A. Pulkkinen, P. J. MacNeice, M. Maddox, L. Rastaetter, and A. Taktakishvili. 2009. "AFWA-CCMC Partnership to Augment USAF Space Weather Forecasting Capabilities." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts A3-

    Sakamoto, T., G. Sato, L. Barbier, et al. S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, D. Q. Lamb, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, and T. N. Ukwatta. 2009. "E peak Estimator for Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 693 922 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1088/0004-637X/693/1/922]

    Kuin, N. P., W. Landsman, M. J. Page, et al. P. Schady, M. Still, A. A. Breeveld, M. de Pasquale, P. W. Roming, P. J. Brown, M. Carter, C. James, P. A. Curran, A. Cucchiara, C. Gronwall, S. T. Holland, E. A. Hoversten, S. Hunsberger, T. Kennedy, S. Koch, H. Lamoureux, F. E. Marshall, S. R. Oates, A. Parsons, D. M. Palmer, and P. J. Smith. 2009. "GRB 081203A: Swift UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters 395 L21 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1111/j.1745-3933.2009.00632.x]

    Sakamoto, T., D. Hullinger, G. Sato, et al. R. Yamazaki, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, H. A. Krimm, D. Q. Lamb, C. B. Markwardt, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, M. Stamatikos, and J. Tueller. 2008. "Global Properties of X-Ray Flashes and X-Ray-Rich Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by Swift." The Astrophysical Journal 679 570 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/586884]

    Sakamoto, T., S. D. Barthelmy, L. Barbier, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Stamatikos, J. Tueller, T. N. Ukwatta, and B. Zhang. 2008. "The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 175 179 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/523646]

    Gehrels, C., J. P. Norris, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. Granot, Y. Kaneko, C. Kouveliotou, C. B. Markwardt, P. Mészáros, E. Nakar, J. A. Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, P. W. Roming, T. Sakamoto, C. L. Sarazin, P. Schady, M. Stamatikos, and S. E. Woosley. 2006. "A new γ-ray burst classification scheme from GRB060614." Nature 444 1044 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature05376]

    Sakamoto, T., L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, et al. J. R. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, G. Sato, and J. Tueller. 2006. "Confirmation of the Esrcpeak-Eiso (Amati) Relation from the X-Ray Flash XRF 050416AObserved by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 636 L73 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/500261]

    Blustin, A. J., D. Band, S. Barthelmy, et al. P. Boyd, M. Capalbi, S. T. Holland, F. E. Marshall, K. O. Mason, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Roming, S. Rosen, P. Schady, M. Still, B. Zhang, L. Angelini, L. Barbier, A. Beardmore, A. Breeveld, D. N. Burrows, J. R. Cummings, J. Cannizzo, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, A. Cucchiara, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, S. Hunsberger, K. C. Hurley, M. Ivanushkina, J. A. Kennea, H. A. Krimm, P. Kumar, W. Landsman, V. La Parola, C. B. Markwardt, K. McGowan, P. Mészáros, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, A. Morgan, J. Nousek, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, M. J. Page, D. M. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, J. Rhoads, P. Romano, T. Sakamoto, G. Sato, G. Tagliaferri, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, and N. E. White. 2006. "Swift Panchromatic Observations of the Bright Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 050525a." The Astrophysical Journal 637 901 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1086/498425]

    Gehrels, N., C. L. Sarazin, P. T. OBrien, et al. B. Zhang, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, A. Blustin, D. N. Burrows, J. Cannizzo, J. R. Cummings, M. Goad, S. T. Holland, C. P. Hurkett, J. A. Kennea, A. Levan, C. B. Markwardt, K. O. Mason, P. Meszaros, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, R. Willingale, L. Angelini, A. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, A. Breeveld, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, G. Cusumano, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, P. Giommi, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, J. Hjorth, D. Hullinger, K. C. Hurley, S. Klose, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, H. A. Krimm, V. Mangano, F. E. Marshall, K. McGowan, A. Moretti, R. F. Mushotzky, K. Nakazawa, J. P. Norris, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Romano, P. Roming, S. Rosen, G. Sato, P. Schady, A. P. Smale, J. Sollerman, R. Starling, M. Still, M. Suzuki, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, and R. Wijers. 2005. "A short gamma-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.225." Nature 437 851-854 [10.1038/nature04142]

    Barthelmy, S. D., L. M. Barbier, J. R. Cummings, et al. E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. M. Palmer, A. Parsons, G. Sato, M. Suzuki, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, and J. Tueller. 2005. "The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the SWIFT Midex Mission." Space Science Reviews 120 143 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1007/s11214-005-5096-3]

    Gehrels, N., C. L. Sarazin, P. T. O'Brien, et al. B. Zhang, L. Barbier, S. D. Barthelmy, A. Blustin, D. N. Burrows, J. Cannizzo, J. R. Cummings, M. Goad, S. T. Holland, C. P. Hurkett, J. A. Kennea, A. Levan, C. B. Markwardt, K. O. Mason, P. Meszaros, M. Page, D. M. Palmer, E. Rol, T. Sakamoto, R. Willingale, L. Angelini, A. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, A. Breeveld, S. Campana, M. M. Chester, G. Chincarini, L. R. Cominsky, G. Cusumano, M. de Pasquale, E. E. Fenimore, P. Giommi, C. Gronwall, D. Grupe, J. E. Hill, D. Hinshaw, J. Hjorth, D. Hullinger, K. C. Hurley, S. Klose, S. Kobayashi, C. Kouveliotou, H. A. Krimm, V. Mangano, F. E. Marshall, K. McGowan, A. Moretti, R. F. Mushotzky, K. Nakazawa, J. P. Norris, J. A. Nousek, J. P. Osborne, K. Page, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, M. Perri, T. Poole, P. Romano, P. W. Roming, S. Rosen, G. Sato, P. Schady, A. P. Smale, J. Sollerman, R. Starling, M. Still, M. Suzuki, G. Tagliaferri, T. Takahashi, M. Tashiro, J. Tueller, A. A. Wells, N. E. White, and R. A. Wijers. 2005. "A short γ-ray burst apparently associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0225." Nature 437 851 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature04142]

    McLean, K., E. Fenimore, D. Palmer, et al. S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, H. Krimm, C. Markwardt, A. Parsons, J. Tueller, and M. Stephens. 2005. "Follow up ability for GRB observations on Swift." Il Nuovo Cimento C, vol 28, Issue 4, p837 28 837 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1393/ncc/i2005-10168-3]

    Blake, C. H., J. S. Bloom, D. L. Starr, et al. E. E. Falco, M. Skrutskie, E. E. Fenimore, G. Duchêne, A. Szentgyorgyi, S. Hornstein, J. X. Prochaska, C. McCabe, A. Ghez, Q. Konopacky, K. Stapelfeldt, K. Hurley, R. Campbell, M. Kassis, F. Chaffee, N. Gehrels, S. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, D. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, K. McLean, and J. Tueller. 2005. "An infrared flash contemporaneous with the γ-rays of GRB 041219a." Nature 435 181 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03520]

    Vestrand, W. T., P. R. Wozniak, J. A. Wren, et al. E. E. Fenimore, T. Sakamoto, R. R. White, D. Casperson, H. Davis, S. Evans, M. Galassi, K. E. McGowan, J. A. Schier, J. W. Asa, S. D. Barthelmy, J. R. Cummings, N. Gehrels, D. Hullinger, H. A. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, K. McLean, D. Palmer, A. M. Parsons, and J. Tueller. 2005. "A link between prompt optical and prompt γ-ray emission in γ-ray bursts." Nature 435 178 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03515]

    Palmer, D. M., S. Barthelmy, N. Gehrels, et al. R. M. Kippen, T. Cayton, C. Kouveliotou, D. Eichler, R. A. Wijers, P. M. Woods, J. Granot, Y. E. Lyubarsky, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, L. Barbier, M. Chester, J. Cummings, E. E. Fenimore, M. H. Finger, B. M. Gaensler, D. Hullinger, H. Krimm, C. B. Markwardt, J. A. Nousek, A. M. Parsons, S. Patel, T. Sakamoto, G. Sato, M. Suzuki, and J. Tueller. 2005. "A giant γ-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806 - 20." Nature 434 1107 [Full Text (Link)] [10.1038/nature03525]

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