Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Nathan Arnold

(Research AST, Meteorological Studies)


Org Code: 610.1

Mail Code: 610.1
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Employer: NASA

Brief Bio

Dr. Nathan Arnold is a Research Meteorologist in the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO, 610.1), where he contributes to development of the GEOS model physics. His research focuses on parameterization of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence, shallow convection, and clouds. Current projects include development of a unified eddy diffusivity mass flux (EDMF) boundary layer scheme with higher order closure (SHOC), representing the influence of surface heterogeneity on the boundary layer, and the assimilation of boundary layer height observations. Previous work in the GMAO has involved cold pools, convective organization/aggregation, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the diurnal cycle of precipitation. Dr. Arnold has expertise with the GEOS single column model and doubly periodic configuration.

Prior to joining NASA GMAO, Dr. Arnold was a NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral fellow at Colorado State University, where he studied the MJO with Prof. David Randall. His previous research topics included atmospheric superrotation, warm anomalies in oceanic upwelling regions during the Pliocene, and the MJO response to global warming.


Research Meteorologist


October 2017 - Present

Research Scientist

USRA / GESTAR - GMAO, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

August 2015 - October 2017

NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellow

Colorado State University - Fort Collins, CO

December 2013 - July 2015


Ph.D. Candidate

Harvard University - Cambridge, MA

October 2008 - November 2013


Research Assistant

Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University - New York, NY

July 2007 - September 2008


Teaching Experience

Harvard University

APM 202:  Partial Differential Equations (graduate)

APM 105:  Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations (undergraduate)

EPS 231:  Climate Dynamics (graduate)

EPS 131:  Physical Oceanography (undergraduate)


Ph.D., Harvard University, Earth and Planetary Sciences
B.S., Columbia University, Applied Physics

Professional Societies


2008 - Present


2008 - Present



Arnold, N. P., R. D. Koster, and A. L. Trayanov. 2023. Representing the Subgrid Surface Heterogeneity of Precipitation in a General Circulation Model Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 15 (9): [10.1029/2022ms003562]

Schmidt, G. A., T. Andrews, S. E. Bauer, et al. P. J. Durack, N. G. Loeb, V. Ramaswamy, N. P. Arnold, M. G. Bosilovich, J. Cole, L. W. Horowitz, G. C. Johnson, J. M. Lyman, B. Medeiros, T. Michibata, D. Olonscheck, D. Paynter, S. P. Raghuraman, M. Schulz, D. Takasuka, V. Tallapragada, P. C. Taylor, and T. Ziehn. 2023. CERESMIP: a climate modeling protocol to investigate recent trends in the Earth's Energy Imbalance Frontiers in Climate 5 [10.3389/fclim.2023.1202161]

Zhu, Y., R. Todling, and N. Arnold. 2022. Observation Impact and Information Retention in the Lower Troposphere of the GMAO GEOS Data Assimilation System Monthly Weather Review [10.1175/MWR-D-21-0334.1]

Lim, Y.-K., N. Arnold, A. M. Molod, and S. Pawson. 2021. Seasonality in prediction skill of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and associated dynamics in Version 2 of NASA's GEOS-S2S forecast system Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres 126 (18): e2021JD034961 [10.1029/2021JD034961]

Arnold, N. P., W. M. Putman, and S. R. Freitas. 2020. Impact of Resolution and Parameterized Convection on the Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in a Global Nonhydrostatic Model Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II 98 [10.2151/jmsj.2020-066]

Freitas, S. R., W. M. Putman, N. P. Arnold, D. K. Adams, and G. A. Grell. 2020. Cascading towards a km‐scale GCM; Impacts of a scale‐aware convection parameterization in the Goddard Earth Observing System GCM Geophysical Research Letters 47 [10.1029/2020gl087682]

Wing, A. A., C. L. Stauffer, T. Becker, et al. K. A. Reed, M. Ahn, N. P. Arnold, S. Bony, M. Branson, G. H. Bryan, J. Chaboureau, S. R. Roode, K. Gayatri, C. Hohenegger, I. Hu, F. Jansson, T. R. Jones, M. Khairoutdinov, D. Kim, Z. K. Martin, S. Matsugishi, B. Medeiros, H. Miura, Y. Moon, S. K. Müller, T. Ohno, M. Popp, T. Prabhakaran, D. Randall, R. Rios‐Berrios, N. Rochetin, R. Roehrig, D. M. Romps, J. H. Ruppert, M. Satoh, L. G. Silvers, M. S. Singh, B. Stevens, L. Tomassini, C. C. Heerwaarden, S. Wang, and M. Zhao. 2020. Clouds and Convective Self‐Aggregation in a Multi‐Model Ensemble of Radiative‐Convective Equilibrium Simulations Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems [10.1029/2020ms002138]

Arnold, N. P., and W. M. Putman. 2018. Nonrotating Convective Self-Aggregation in a Limited Area AGCM Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 10 (4): 1029-1046 [10.1002/2017ms001218]

Arnold, N., and E. Tziperman. 2016. Reductions in mid-latitude upwelling-favorable winds implied by weaker large-scale Pliocene SST gradients Paleoceanography 31 (1): 27–39 [10.1002/2015PA002806]

Arnold, N., and D. A. Randall. 2015. Global-scale convective aggregation: Implications for the Madden-Julian Oscillation Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 7 (4): 1499–1518 [10.1002/2015MS000498]

Arnold, N., M. Branson, Z. Kuang, D. Randall, and E. Tziperman. 2015. The MJO Response to Warming in the Super-Parameterized CESM Journal of Climate 28 (7): 2706–2724

Arnold, N., M. Branson, M. A. Burt, et al. D. S. Abbot, Z. Kuang, D. A. Randall, and E. Tziperman. 2014. Effects of explicit atmospheric convection at high CO2 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (30): 10943-10948

Arnold, N., Z. Kuang, and E. Tziperman. 2013. Enhanced MJO-like Variability at High SST Journal of Climate 26 988–1001

Arnold, N., E. Tziperman, and B. Farrell. 2012. Abrupt Transition to Strong Superrotation Driven by Equatorial Wave Resonance in an Idealized GCM Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 69 626-640

Curtis, D. B., B. Meland, M. Aycibin, et al. N. Arnold, V. H. Grassian, M. A. Young, and P. D. Kleiber. 2008. A Laboratory Investigation of Light Scattering from Representative Components of Mineral Dust Aerosol at a Wavelength of 550nm Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres 113 (D8):