Sciences and Exploration Directorate

Amal El Akkraoui

(Project Lead, Reanalysis )

Amal El Akkraoui's Contact Card & Information.
Phone: 301.614.5500
Org Code: 610.1
Mail Code 610.1
Greenbelt, MD 20771

Brief Bio

Lead research scientist in atmospheric data assimilation and certified Project Management Professional with 12+ years of experience developing and improving data assimilation components for atmospheric Reanalysis and Numerical Weather Prediction applications. Currently leading a multi-year effort at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office to produce the next generation climate reanalysis products. Expertise in variational and ensemble hybrid techniques with successful contributions to various upgrades of the GMAO operational system.

Research Interests

- Coupled atmosphere-ocean reanalysis - Error modeling and estimation - Weak-constraint variational data assimilation.

Earth Science: Analysis


PhD Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
McGill University, Canada, 2010.

Project Management Professional Certification (PMP)

Project Management Institute, 2018

Master and Engineering Degree - meteorology
National School of Meteorology (Ecole Nationale de la Meteorologie - ENM), Toulouse, France, 2004.

Engineering Degree - meteorology
Hassania School of Civil Engineering (Ecole Hassania des Travaux publics - EHTP), Casablanca, Morocco. Joint degree with ENM, 2004.

Teaching Experience

Teaching Assistant at McGill University for various classes:

“Atmospheric and oceanic dynamics”, “Introduction to oceanic studies”, “Introduction to atmospheric studies”.

Other Professional Information

Fluent in Arabic and French.



2023. "The GMAO Hybrid 4D-EnVar Observing System Simulation Experiment framework." Monthly Weather Review 151 1717-1734 [10.1175/mwr-d-22-0254.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2022. "Investigation of the potential saturation of information from Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation observations with an observing system simulation experiment." Monthly Weather Review 150 (6): 1293-1316 [10.1175/mwr-d-21-0230.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2021. "The Role of Analysis Error in the Convergence of Reanalysis Production Streams in MERRA-2." Monthly Weather Review 149 (4): 1041-1054 [10.1175/mwr-d-20-0256.1] [Journal Article/Letter]

2020. "Evaluation of adjoint‐based observation impacts as a function of forecast length using an Observing System Simulation Experiment." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society qj.3909 [10.1002/qj.3909] [Journal Article/Letter]

2013. "Preconditioning of variational data assimilation and the use of a bi-conjugate gradient method." Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 139 (672): 731-741 [10.1002/qj.1997] [Journal Article/Letter]

2010. "Convergence properties of the primal and dual forms of variational data assimilation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 136 (646): 107-115 [10.1002/qj.545] [Journal Article/Letter]

2008. "Intercomparison of the primal and dual formulations of variational data assimilation." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 134 (633): 1015-1025 [10.1002/qj.257] [Journal Article/Letter]


2018. "The GMAO Hybrid Ensemble-Variational Atmospheric Data Assimilation System: Version 2.0." NASA/TM-2018-104606 50 184pp [Full Text] [Report]

2017. "Description of the GMAO OSSE for Weather Analysis Software Package: Version 3." NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation, NASA/TM-2017-104606 48 156 pp. [Full Text] [Report]