James C. Tilton NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Mail Code 935 Greenbelt, MD 20771 (301) 286-9510 firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstract. At Frontiers' 90 we reported on our port of an Iterative Parallel Region Growing (IPRG) algorithm onto the MasPar MP-1 from the now decommissioned Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then we improved the efficiency of our implementation, the MasPar MP-1 has been upgraded to a MasPar MP-2, and we have implemented additional dissimilarity criteria for region growing. We have also further investigated the use of the algorithm in Earth science applications. After a brief background section, we describe the IPRG algorithm, and give some implementation considerations together with timing results from different implementations. Finally we show segmentation results for a Landsat Thematic Mapper image.
A compromise solution to this problem is to merge a selected set of region pairs, in parallel, each iteration. The problem reduces to finding an effective approach for finding some best set of region pairs to merge at each iteration. Our solution is to define subimages centered on each region (the subimages may overlap), and to merge the most similar pair of regions within each subimage each iteration. The specification of the subimages is given in the description of the Iterative Parallel Region Growing (IPRG) algorithm given in a later section.
The original IPRG algorithm (then called SCC, see Tilton and Cox, 1983) used a similarity criterion based on a combination of a pair of statistical hypothesis tests. Both tests consider whether a pair of regions come from the same probability distribution. The first test checks the mean values of the regions, assuming unequal region variances, and the second test checks the variances of the regions. The current MasPar implementation of IPRG does not employ this similarity criterion. How to define a variance for a one pixel region is one reason this criterion is not currently implemented. The earlier implementation of IPRG could use this criterion without complication since it started from 2x2 pixel regions rather than 1 pixel regions.
The current MasPar implementation of IPRG uses simpler similarity criteria (actually, dissimilarity criteria) based on minimizing the increase in mean square error and on minimizing the change in image entropy as regions grow. (These are dissimilarity criteria rather than similarity criteria because their values increase with increasing dissimilarity between a pair of regions.) For a complete description of these dissimilarity criteria see Tilton (1991b).
Baraldi and Parmiggiani (1994b) propose a dissimilarity criterion based on "vector degree of match." They construct their Normalized Vector Distance (NVD) as follows: They define the factors and based on the match, respectively, between the modulus and the angle of the two vectors. These factors are constructed such that = 1 and = 1 signify vector equivalence. Both and range from 0 to 1. They then define as the product of and . Finally, NVD is defined as 1-.
Schoenmakers (1994) proposes a dissimilarity criterion based on
Euclidean spectral distance, defined simply as (for regions i and j):
C = [(µ - µ) + ... + (µ - µ)] where c is the number of channels.
The current IPRG implementation has an option to select any of the dissimilarity criterion discussed above, viz. Euclidean Spectral Distance, Normalized Vector Distance, band average Normalized Mean Squared Error, band maximum Normalized Mean Squared Error, and Entropy Difference (summed over bands).
Both Baraldi and Parmiggiani (1994b) and Schoenmakers (1994) note that their dissimilarity criterion are not influenced by the size of the regions being compared. In contrast, the Mean Squared Error and Entropy based criterion explicitly contain reference to region size in their formulation such that merges of small regions into larger ones are favored. We will see how this bias against small regions affects the segmentation results in the "Segmentation Results" section below.
Subimages. A subimage with respect to a particular region can be defined recursively as follows: A level 0 subimage for any region is the empty set. A level 1 subimage, with respect to a region, is the region itself. A level 2 subimage, with respect to a region, is the level 1 subimage, with respect to that region, plus all regions that are spatially adjacent to the level 1 subimage. Finally, a level n subimage, with respect to a region, is the level n-1 subimage, with respect to that region, plus all regions that are spatially adjacent to the (n-1) level subimage.
Merge Constraint Levels. Merge constraint level n signifies that merges are constrained to be the best merge within the union of the level n subimages with respect to each of the potentially merging region pairs. Merge constraint level n-0.5 signifies merges are constrained to the best merge within the level n subimage with respect to only one of the potentially merging region pairs. (By the definition of a level n subimage, the level n-1 subimage of a region is contained within the level n subimage of an adjacent region. Thus, a n-0.5 merge constraint level, is equivalent to constraining to the best merge within the union of the level n subimage for one region and the level n-1 subimage for the other region. The notation "n-0.5 merge constraint level" thus refers to the average level of the two subimages controlling the merging process.)
Employing merge constraint level 0.5 in the IPRG algorithm is equivalent to performing the best merge for each region in each iteration, without regard to what the best merge is for any neighboring region. This means that any particular region can be involved in more than one merge each iteration: its best merge plus the best merge of any other neighboring region. A combination of a 0.5 merge constraint level with an ad hoc global threshold is equivalent to the merge constraint used by an earlier version of the IPRG algorithm (see Tilton, 1988).
The merge constraint level 1.0 is equivalent to performing the pairwise mutually best merges for all pairs of spatially adjacent regions (with ties broken arbitrarily). The IPRG algorithm can also employ merge constraint levels higher than 1.0, in addition to levels 0.5 and 1.0. The higher the merge constraint level, the closer IPRG comes to matching the scheme of one best merge per iteration over the whole image. However, a merge constraint level of 1.0 is often high enough to give reasonable results.
This approach is generally too tedious to use except for relatively small images (say, 256-by-256). This approach can be made somewhat less tedious by recording the hierarchical segmentation at selected points in the region growing process. We have experimented with recording the segmentations after the IPRG algorithm converged at sets of increasing dissimilarity criterion values. See the Segmentation Results section below.
The hierarchical virtualization supported by MasPar is a much better virtualization for the IPRG program. Under this virtualization, a pixel's nearest neighbor is always either in the same processor or in a physically adjacent processor. We used MasPar's Image Processing Library and Pointwise Routine Generator to implement the IPRG program under this virtualization.
Some comparative timing results:
Comparative Timing Results (Merge Control Level = 1.0, band average Mean Squared Error) Virtualization Speed-up Data Set Cut-and-Stack Hierarchical Factor ------------------- ------------- ------------ -------- 2048-by-2048 pixels 7 spectral band 5 hours 28 minutes 42 minutes 7.8 (down to about 3300 regions) 1024-by-1024 pixels 7 spectral bands 5576 seconds 969 seconds 5.7 (down to 1 region) (about 1.5 hours) (about 16 minutes) 368-by-468 pixels 7 spectral bands 656 seconds 150 seconds 4.4 (down to 1 region) 512-by-512 pixels 4 spectral bands 781 seconds 195 seconds 5.0 (down to 1 region)The IPRG program can produce (at the user's option) region label maps, region mean value image, and/or a complete segmentation history (in the form of a hierarchical edge map). To make it possible to store the complete hierarchical segmentation history in byte arrays (limited to 255 levels), the IPRG program performs edge map compaction. This compaction is done such that the segmentation order is preserved, though the absolute iteration at which a particular merge occurred is lost. The original implementation of this edge map compaction was very inefficient, partly because it was a separate subroutine that was called only when the edge map levels reached 255. A new very efficient method of edge map compaction has now been implemented which compacts the edge map "on the fly" during each iteration.
Until recently, edge map compaction was thought to be very important for IPRG segmentation of moderate to large images. Edge map was required in order to effectively inspect the hierarchical segmentation and select the appropriate final segmentation. However, recently a new approach was devised in which the IPRG segmentation is run to convergence at a sequence of dissimilarity function threshold values, and the hierarchical edge map is stored only at these points (typically 10 to 20 hierarchical levels). Obviously, edge map compaction is not required with this new approach.
Nevertheless we report here the substantial improvement in processing speeds with the new edge map compaction method:
Comparative Timing Results (Merge Control Level = 1.0, band average Mean Squared Error) Old edge New edge Speed-up Data Set map compaction map compaction Factor ------------------- -------------- -------------- -------- 2048-by-2048 pixels 7 spectral bands 18 hours 42 min. 1 hour 48 min. 10.4 (down to 1 region) 1024-by-1024 pixels 7 spectral bands 969 seconds 841 seconds 1.15 (down to 1 region) (about 16 minutes) (about 14 minutes) 368-by-468 pixels 7 spectral bands 150 seconds 113 seconds 1.33 (down to 1 region) 512-by-512 pixels 4 spectral bands 195 seconds 153 seconds 1.27 (down to 1 region)The combined effect of the efficiency improvements in edge map compaction and virtualization are as follows: An approximate 80 time speed-up was seen for a 2048-by-2048 pixel 7-band image (current absolute runtime: 1 hour, 48 minutes). A speed-up of 6.7 times was seen for a 1024-by-1024 pixel 7-band image (current absolute runtime: 14 minutes). A speed-up of 5.1 times was seen for a 512-by-512 pixel 4-band image (current absolute runtime: 2.5 minutes). Absolute run-times are given for processing down to 1 region. Specifying an earlier convergence will give faster execution times.
(NOTE: The images linked to below have been lost. Sorry!)
Image segmentation sequence for band maximum Mean Squared Error: 65507 regions, 32549 regions, 19846 regions, 9801 regions, 5193 regions, 2619 regions, 1310 regions, 618 regions, 324 regions, 197 regions, 99 regions, 53 regions, 27 regions, 13 regions, 7 regions, and 1 region.
Image segmentation sequence for band average Mean Squared Error: 65507 regions, 32609 regions, 19647 regions, 9802 regions, 5257 regions, 2603 regions, 1302 regions, 657 regions, 326 regions, 197 regions, 99 regions, 52 regions, 26 regions, 13 regions, 8 regions, and 1 region.
Image segmentation sequence for Entropy difference: 65507 regions, 32937 regions, 19660 regions, 9872 regions, 5221 regions, 2627 regions, 1317 regions, 657 regions, 333 regions, 198 regions, 98 regions, 53 regions, 26 regions, 13 regions, 7 regions, and 1 region.
Image segmentation sequence for Normalized Vector Distance (Vector Degree of Match): 65507 regions, 33020 regions, 19301 regions, 9798 regions, 5289 regions, 2627 regions, 1329 regions, 660 regions, 328 regions, 197 regions, 94 regions, 50 regions, 23 regions, 14 regions, 7 regions, and 1 region.
Image segmentation sequence for Euclidean Spectral Distance: 65507 regions, 32732 regions, 19802 regions, 9843 regions, 5227 regions, 2612 regions, 1318 regions, 651 regions, 326 regions, 197 regions, 98 regions, 52 regions, 26 regions, 13 regions, 7 regions, and 1 region.
The results clearly show the bias of the Mean Squared Error based dissimilarity criterion against small regions. However, which dissimilarity criterion is best still depends on the particular application being pursued.
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