The Solar Isotope Spectrometer provides isotopically resolved measurements of the elements from lithium to zinc over the energy range 10 - 100 MeV/nucleon. The SIS dectector system consists of two identical telescopes composed of stacks of large-area solid-state detectors.
CINDI involves two instruments on the C/NOFS satellite that measure the concentration and kinetic energy of the ions and neutral particles in space as the satellite passes through them. This information will be used in building models to understand the various structures in the ionosphere, such as plasma depletions and associated turbulence in the nightside, low-latitude ionosphere. These structures can interfere with radio signals between Earth and spacecraft in orbit, thus causing errors in tracking and loss of communication.
VEFI measures direct current (DC) electric fields, which cause the bulk plasma motion that drives the ionospheric plasma to be unstable. Additionally, it measures the quasi-DC electric fields within the plasma density depletions to reveal the motions of the depletions relative to the background ionosphere. VEFI also measures the vector AC electric field, which characterizes the ionospheric disturbances associated with spread-F irregularities.
A Plasma Electron And Current Experiment instrument can measure the three dimensional velocity distribution of electrons in a space plasma, for an energy range from a few electronvolts to about 30 kiloelectronvolts. A PEACE instrument is flying on each of the four Cluster II spacecraft, which were launched in the summer of 2000.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) was designed to study the internal structure of the sun, its extensive outer atmosphere, and the origin of the solar wind. The SOHO spacecraft was built in Europe by an industry team under the overall management of the European Space Agency. European and American scientists provided the 12 instruments on SOHO. NASA was responsible for the launch and is now responsible for mission operations, with mission control based at Goddard Space Flight Center. SOHO was launched in December 1995.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory will further our understanding of the sun's influence on Earth and near-Earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time, and in many wavelengths simultaneously.
The Voyager Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) is designed to exploit to the fullest practical degree the proposed trajectories of Voyager-1 and -2. The significance of these measurements will be greatly enhanced by concurrent measurements with similar particle telescopes on satellites such as the Pioneers, IMPs, and similar series in near-earth orbits.
Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) instrument, onboard the WIND spacecraft, was based on the magnetometers previously developed for the Voyager, ISPM, GIOTTO, and Mars Observer missions which represent state-of-the-art instruments with unparalleled performance.
The WAVES instrument, onboard the WIND spacecraft, will provide comprehensive measurements of the radio and plasma wave phenomena which occur in the solar wind upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere and in key regions of the magnetosphere.