Half of asteroid Vesta is likely so cold and receives so little sunlight that water ice could have survived there for billions of years, the first models of Vesta's average global temperatures and illumination show.
Two new NASA missions, one that will roam the surface and another that will orbit the planet and dip briefly into its upper atmosphere, will try to discover what transformed Mars into it's current uninhabitable state.
Auroras are but one part of a complex system of magnetic fields and charged particles surrounding Earth. Instruments on FASTSAT are beginning to paint a picture of how the different components act in concert.
For 40 years, scientists have wondered how a moon without air could have an electrically charged layer called an ionosphere. The answer? The moon, like Pig-Pen in Charlie Brown, is shrouded in a layer of dust.
Jupiter is endowed with the biggest, brawniest magnetic field of any planet in the solar system. The Juno spacecraft's magnetometer, designed and built at Goddard, will figure out how the mighty engine, or dynamo, that powers this field works.
Water ice recently discovered in dust at the bottom of a crater near the moon's south pole is accompanied by metallic elements like mercury, magnesium, calcium, and even a bit of silver. Now you can add sodium to the mix.
Designed and built by a team of scientists, engineers and technicians from Code 695 and elsewhere at Goddard, Juno's magnetometers will measure Jupiter's magnetic field with extraordinary precision to give a detailed picture of the field around the planet as well as deep within.