Dr. Scott A Braun

Dr. Scott A Braun

  • RESEARCH AST, METEOROLOGICAL STUDIES
  • Additional Roles: Deputy Project Scientist for Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R , Project Scientist for Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission , and Principal Investigator for Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel .
  • 301.614.6316 | 301.614.5492
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 612
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Scott A. Braun, a research meteorologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., specializes in the area hurricanes. Scott is an expert at using satellite and aircraft data, along with computer modeling, to investigate how hurricanes form and intensify, including their interaction with the Saharan Air Layer. Scott is the deputy project scientist for GOES-R and the project scientist for the Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS, https://tropics.ll.mit.edu) mission. TROPICS involves a constellation of 12 Cubesat microwave radiometers, to launch in 2019 or 2020, that will measure precipitation structure, vertical profiles of temperature and humidity, and tropical cyclone intensity across the global Tropics. 

    Scott was the Principal Investigator for NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HS3 was a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean basin. In his role, Scott led a diverse team of hurricane and instrument scientists to design and conduct experiments using unmanned aircraft to understand better the meteorological conditions that favor storm formation and often lead to the development of major hurricanes. To learn more about HS3, visit: espo.nasa.gov/hs3.

    He is also the project scientist for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, since 2008) and works with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission project scientist to lead NASA's efforts to improve precipitation measurement from space.

    Scott has a doctorate in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington, Seattle, and a bachelor's degree in science, with a concentration in meteorology from San Francisco State University. He was a research assistant at the University of Washington in Seattle, Wash.; a Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo.; and has worked at Goddard since 1997.

    Scott is experienced in the physical and dynamic processes within hurricanes, with particular emphasis on the influence of the storm environment on storm formation, intensification, structure, and precipitation. He studies hurricanes using a wide array of data including NASA satellites such as TRMM and Aqua, aircraft data from field campaigns, and computer modeling using the NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale models. The modeling and data analysis work supports NASA programs that have major hurricane components such as the Convection and Moisture Experiments (CAMEX-3 in 1998 and CAMEX-4 in 2001), the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010, and HS3 in 2012-2014. It also supports research related to observations of precipitation in hurricanes and winter storms from the TRMM satellite by examining processes that control the amount and organization of precipitation in these storms.

    Scott has received numerous awards including the Goddard Earth Science Achievement Award, the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, and group achievement awards for participating in NASA's CAMEX-4, TCSP, GRIP, and HS3 missions.

    Current Projects

    Principal Investigator for the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) investigation

    HS3 is a multi-year investigation of the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensification, with special emphasis on the relative roles of the environment and inner-core processes.  HS3 is using two of NASA's unmanned Global Hawk aircraft, one equipped with a payload designed to sample environmental winds, temperature, and humidity; the other with a payload focused on measurement of the 3D structure of precipitation and winds within the inner-core region.  The Global Hawks will be deployed from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia for 4-5 weeks during the hurricane seasons of 2012, 2013, and 2014. Information on HS3 can be found at http://espo.nasa.gov/hs3.

    Project Scientist for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

    TRMM is a joint project between NASA and the Japanese space agency, JAXA. It was launched on November 27, 1997 and continues to provide the research and operational communities unique precipitation information from space. The first-time use of both active and passive microwave instruments and the precessing, low inclination orbit (35°) make TRMM the world’s foremost satellite for the study of precipitation and associated storms and climate processes in the tropics. Complete information about the TRMM mission can be found at the U.S. TRMM web site http://pmm.nasa.gov/TRMM.

    Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS)

    TROPICS is an Earth Venture Instrument selected in 2016 to use a constellation of 12 CubeSat microwave radiometers to measure precipitation structure, storm intensity, and temperature and humidity profiles in and around tropical cyclones. The radiometers include 12 channels, with imaging channels at 90 and 206 GHz, 7 temperature channels near 118 GHz, and 3 moisture channels near 183 GHz. TROPICS will provide observations in the global Tropics (±40°) with a median revisit rate of 21 minutes. Scott is the project scientist for the mission. William Blackwell of MIT/Lincoln Labs is the PI.

    Positions/Employment

    1998 - Present

    Research Meteorologist

    NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    1997 - 1998

    Visiting Fellow

    Universities Space Research Association, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD
    1995 - 1997

    Advanced Study Program Postdoctoral Fellow

    NCAR, Boulder, CO
    1989 - 1995

    Research Assistant

    University of Washington, Seattle, WA

    Education

    1989 - B.A. in Science, concentration in meteorology, San Francisco State University
    1995 - Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington

    Professional Service

    Internal Service
    2002–03 Co-lead on Extreme Weather working group developing NASA Earth Science Vision for 2010-2025
    2002       Proposal Review Committee, New Investigator Program
    2003       Proposal Review Committee, AQUA, TERRA, ACRIM recompetition
    2004–06 Laboratory for Atmospheres Seminar Series Committee member
    2005–     Member, Earth-Sun Exploration Div. Science—Public Affairs Office Committee
    2006       Proposal Review Committee, NASA AMMA-06
    2008       Organizer, 3rd TRMM Science Conference
    2009-10  Proposal Review Committees (Dec. 2009, Jan. 2010) for PMM
    2013       Precipitation Processing System review committee member
    2014       Review committee member for IPHeX mission readiness review (MRR)
    2015       Proposal Review Committee, Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM)
    2016       Proposal Review Committee, New Investigator Program

    External Service
    2000       Max Eaton Award Committee member, 24th Conf. on Hurr. and Trop. Meteor.
    2002       NOAA Technology Infusion Plan, team member
    2004       Max Eaton Award Committee member, 26th Conf. on Hurr. and Trop. Meteor.
    2005–06 Member, Joint Action Group for Tropical Cyclone Research (NOAA/NASA/ONR)
    2005–07 Associate Editor, Monthly Weather Review
    2005–10 AMS Mesoscale Processes Conference Committee Member
    2007       Program Chair, 12th Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Summer 2007
    2008–     Member, Working Group for Tropical Cyclone Research (NOAA/NASA/ONR)
    2009–     Associate Editor, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
    2012–13 Member, Working Group for Unmanned Airborne System for Environmental Monitoring (NOAA/NASA/ONR)
    2014-      Advisor to NOAA Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) program on application of the Global Hawk UAS for hurricane research
    2014       Provided input for NOAA AOML Stakeholder review
    2015-16  Advanced Phased Arrary Radar Advisory Panel


    Educational Service
    2004–07 PhD advisory committee for Joseph Olson, SUNY-Stoneybrook
    2005–08 PhD advisory committee for Jason Sippel, Texas A&M University
    2006–11 Masters/PhD advisory committee for Samuel Trahan, UMBC
    2008–10 PhD advisory committee for Matthew Miller at North Carolina State University
    2011–13 Masters advisory committee for Alexandra St. Pe at Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore Co. (UMBC)

    Awards

    2007 NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal
    2006 Goddard Honor Award for Earth Science Achievement
    2001 Scientific Research Award, Laboratory for Atmospheres
    1989 Howard H. Hanks, Jr. Memorial Scholarship in Meteorology, AMS
    1989 School of Science Honoree, San Francisco State University (SFSU)



    Publications

    Refereed

    Braun, S. A., P. Newman, and G. M. Heymsfield. 2016. "NASA’s Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Investigation." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (In Press) [10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00186.1]

    Sippel, J., F. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. A. Braun, and D. Cecil. 2016. "Further Exploring the Potential for Assimilation of Unmanned Aircraft Observations to Benefit Hurricane Analyses and Forecasts,." Tropical Cyclone Research and Review, 4 (2): [NA]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. S. A. Braun, K. Garrett, E. Jones, A. L. Mcnally, G. S. Jackson, E. F. Stocker, H. Wu, and B. Zaitchik. 2016. "NASA’s Remotely-sensed Precipitation: A Reservoir for Applications Users." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (Submitted)

    Munsell, E., F. Zhang, J. A. Sippel, and S. A. Braun. 2016. "Dynamics and predictability of the rapid intensification of Hurricane Edouard (2014)." Monthly Weather Review, (Submitted)

    Abarca, S. F., M. T. Montgomery, S. A. Braun, and J. Dunion. 2016. "On the secondary eyewall formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014)." Monthly Weather Review, MWR-D-15-0421.1 (In Press) [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0421.1]

    Munsell, E. B., J. A. Sippel, S. A. Braun, Y. Weng, and F. Zhang. 2015. "Dynamics and Predictability of Hurricane Nadine (2012) Evaluated through Convection-Permitting Ensemble Analysis and Forecasts." Monthly Weather Review, 143 (11): 4514-4532 [10.1175/mwr-d-14-00358.1]

    Sippel, J. A., F. Zhang, Y. Weng, et al. L. Tian, G. M. Heymsfield, and S. A. Braun. 2014. "Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of HIWRAP Observations of Hurricane Karl (2010) from the Unmanned Global Hawk Aircraft." Mon. Wea. Rev., 142 (12): 4559-4580 [10.1175/MWR-D-14-00042.1]

    Braun, S. A., J. A. Sippel, C.-L. Shie, and R. A. Boller. 2013. "The Evolution and Role of the Saharan Air Layer during Hurricane Helene (2006)." Mon. Weather Rev., 141 (12): 4269-4295 [10.1175/MWR-D-13-00045.1]

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, T. Matsui, and C. Williams. 2013. "Evaluation of cloud microphysics schemes in simulations of a winter storm using radar and radiometer measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (3): 1401-1419 [10.1002/jgrd.50115]

    Braun, S. A., R. Kakar, E. Zipser, et al. G. M. Heymsfield, C. Albers, S. Brown, S. Durden, S. Guimond, J. Halverson, A. Heymsfield, S. Ismail, B. Lambrigtsen, T. Miller, S. Tanelli, J. Thomas, and J. Zawislak. 2013. "NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (3): 345-363 [10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00232.1]

    Sippel, J. A., S. A. Braun, F. Zhang, and Y. Weng. 2013. "Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of simulated HIWRAP Doppler velocity data in a hurricane." Monthly Weather Review, 141 (8): 2683-2704 [10.1175/MWR-D-12-00157.1]

    Braun, S., J. Sippel, and D. Nolan. 2012. "The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow." J Atmos Sci, 69 (1): 236-257 [10.1175/JAS-D-10-05007.1]

    Sippel, J., S. A. Braun, and C. Shie. 2011. "Environmental Influences on the Strength of Tropical Storm Debby (2006)." J Atmos Sci, 68 (11): 2557–2581 [10.1175/2011JAS3648.1]

    Yang, M., S. A. Braun, and C. Deng-Shun. 2011. "Water Budget of Typhoon Nari (2001)." Mon. Wea. Rev., 139 (12): 3809-3828 [10.1175/MWR-D-10-05090.1]

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, W. S. Olson, P. O. Persson, and J. Bao. 2010. "Application of TRMM PR and TMI Measurements to Assess Cloud Microphysical Schemes in the MM5 for a Winter Storm." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49 (6): 1129-1148 [10.1175/2010JAMC2327.1]

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, K. Mallen, and P. Reasor. 2010. "Simulation and Interpretation of the Genesis of Tropical Storm Gert (2005) as Part of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes Experiment." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 67 (4): 999-1025 [10.1175/2009JAS3140.1]

    Braun, S. A. 2010. "Comments on “Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenetic Processes during SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System”." J Atmos Sci, 67 (7): 2402-2410 [10.1175/2010JAS3458.1]

    Braun, S. A. 2010. "Reevaluating the Role of the Saharan Air Layer in Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis and Evolution." Mon. Wea. Rev., 138 (6): 2007-2037 [10.1175/2009MWR3135.1]

    Braun, S. A., and C.-L. Shie. 2010. "Improving our understanding of Atlantic tropical cyclones through knowledge of the Saharan Air Layer: Hope or hype?" Bull Amer Meteoro Soc,

    Tao, W.-K., J. Shi, S. Chen, et al. E. A. Lee, S.-Y. Hong, C. Peters-Lidard, S. A. Braun, G. Thompson, and J. Simpson. 2010. "New, improved bulk-microphysical schemes for studying precipitation processes in WRF: Part I: Comparison with different microphysical schemes." Mon Wea Rev,

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, P. O. Persson, and J. Bao. 2009. "Alongfront Variability of Precipitation Associated with a Midlatitude Frontal Zone: TRMM Observations and MM5 Simulation." Mon. Wea. Rev., 137 (3): 1008-1028 [10.1175/2008MWR2465.1]

    Wu, L., B. Wang, and S. A. Braun. 2008. "Implications of tropical cyclone power dissipation index." Int. J. Climatol., 28 (6): 727-731 [10.1002/joc.1573]

    Halverson, J., M. Black, S. A. Braun, et al. D. Cecil, M. Goodman, A. Heymsfield, G. M. Heymsfield, R. Hood, T. Krishnamurti, G. McFarquhar, M. J. Mahoney, J. Molinari, R. Rogers, J. Turk, C. Velden, D. Zhang, E. Zipser, and R. Kakar. 2007. "NASA's Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) Experiment: Investigating Tropical Cyclogenesis and Hurricane Intensity Change." Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 88: 867-882.

    Cram, T., J. Persing, M. Montgomery, and S. A. Braun. 2007. "A Lagrangian Trajectory View on Transport and Mixing Processes between the Eye, Eyewall, and Environment Using a High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998)." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 64 (6): 1835-1856 [10.1175/JAS3921.1]

    Braun, S. A., and L. Wu. 2007. "A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part II: Shear and the Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion." Mon Wea Rev, 135 (4): 1179-1194 [10.1175/MWR3336.1]

    Olson, W., C. Kummerow, S. Yang, et al. G. Petty, W. Tao, T. Bell, S. Braun, Y. Wang, S. Lang, D. Johnson, and C. Chiu. 2006. "Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Improved method and uncertainties." J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 45 (5): 702-720.

    Braun, S. A. 2006. "High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part II: Water Budget." J. Atmos. Sci., 63 (1): 43-64 [10.1175/JAS3609.1]

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, and Z. Pu. 2006. "High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion." J. Atmos. Sci., 63 (1): 19-42 [10.1175/JAS3598.1]

    Wu, L., S. A. Braun, J. J. Qu, and X. Hao. 2006. "Simulating the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) with AIRS data." Geophysical Research Letters, 33 (4): L04804 [10.1029/2005GL024665]

    Wu, L., S. A. Braun, J. Halverson, and G. M. Heymsfield. 2006. "A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part I: Model Verification and Storm Evolution." J Atmos Sci, 63 (1): 65-86 [10.1175/JAS3597.1]

    Wu, L., B. Wang, and S. A. Braun. 2005. "Impacts of air-sea interaction on tropical cyclone track and intensity." Mon. Wea. Rev., 133: 3299-3314.

    Wu, L., and S. A. Braun. 2004. "Effects of Environmentally Induced Asymmetries on Hurricane Intensity: A Numerical Study." J. Atmos. Sci., 61 (24): 3065-3081 [10.1175/JAS-3343.1]

    Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, S. E. Lang, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. O. Starr, C. Sui, Y. Wang, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Microphysics radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCM) model." Meteor Atmos Phys, 82: 97-137.

    Tao, W., R. F. Adler, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M. Chou, M. Jasinski, Y. Jia, R. Kakar, M. Karyampudi, S. E. Lang, W. K. Lau, B. Lynn, Z. Pu, M. Shepherd, J. Simpson, D. O. Starr, Y. Wang, W. Weinman, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Regional Scale Modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Recent Research Developments in Atmospheric Science." Research Signpost, 2: 1-52.

    Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M.-D. Chou, M. Jasinski, Y. Jia, R. Kakar, M. Karyampudi, E. A. Lee, W. K. Lau, B. Lynn, Z.-X. Pu, M. Shepherd, J. Simpson, D. Starr, Y. Wang, W. Weinman, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Regional Scale Modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Recent Research Developments in Atmospheric Science." Research Signpost, 2: 18994.

    Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M.-D. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, E. A. Lee, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. Starr, C.-H. Sui, Y. Wang, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Microphysics, radiation and surface processes in a non-hydrostatic model." Meteor Atmos Phy, 82: 97-137.

    Tao, W., C. Shie, J. Simpson, et al. S. A. Braun, R. Johnson, and P. Ciesielski. 2003. "Convective systems over the South China sea: Cloud-resolving model simulations." J Atmos Sci, 60 (24): 2929-2956 [10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2929:CSOTSC>2.0.CO;2]

    Rao, P. A., C. Velden, and S. A. Braun. 2002. "The vertical error characteristics of GOES-derived winds: Description and impact on numerical weather prediction ." J. Appl. Meteor., 41: 253-271.

    Pu, Z., W. Tao, S. A. Braun, et al. J. Simpson, Y. Jia, J. Halverson, A. Y. Hou, and W. S. Olson. 2002. "The impact of TRMM data on mesoscale numerical simulation of Super typhoon Paka." Mon Wea Rev, 130: 2448-2458.

    Braun, S. A. 2002. "A cloud-resolving simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991): Storm structure and eyewall buoyancy." Mon Wea Rev, 130 (6): 1573-1592 [10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1573:ACRSOH>2.0.CO;2]

    Olson, W. S., S. Yang, C. A. Kummerow, et al. Z. Haddad, W.-K. Tao, E. A. Lee, D. E. Johnson, S. A. Braun, C. Chiu, and J.-J. Wang. 2002. "Estimation of precipitation and latent heating distributions by satellite passive/active microwave remote sensing." Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment, 50-57.

    Pu, Z., and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Evaluation of bogus vortex techniques with four-dimensional variational data assimilation." Mon Wea Rev, 129 (8): 2023 - 2039.

    Braun, S. A., and W. Tao. 2000. "Sensitivity of High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterizations." Mon Wea Rev, 128 (12): 3941-3961.

    Tao, W., R. F. Adler, S. A. Braun, et al. F. Einaudi, B. Ferrier, J. Halverson, G. M. Heymsfield, C. Kummerow, A. Negri, and R. Kakar. 2000. "Summary of a Symposium on Cloud Systems Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career - The First Fifty Years." Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 81: 2463-2474.

    Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, S. A. Braun, et al. F. Einaudi, B. Ferrier, J. Halverson, G. M. Heymsfield, C. Kummerow, A. Negri, and R. Kakar. 2000. "Summary of a Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr Joanne Simpson's Career - The First Fifty Years." Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 81: 2463-2474.

    Braun, S. A., R. Rotunno, and J. B. Klemp. 1999. "Effects of Coastal Orography on Landfalling Cold Fronts. Part I: Dry, Inviscid Dynamics." J Atmos Sci, 56 (4): 517-533 [10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0517:EOCOOL>2.0.CO;2]

    Braun, S. A., R. Rotunno, and J. B. Klemp. 1999. "Effects of Coastal Orography on Landfalling Cold Fronts. Part II: Effects of Surface Friction." J Atmos Sci, 56 (19): 3366-3384 [10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<3366:EOCOOL>2.0.CO;2]

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1997. "On the evolution of the 10-11 June 1985 PRE-STORM squall line: Initiation, development of rear inflow, and dissipation." Mon. Wea. Rev., 125: 478-504.

    Braun, S. A., J. R. Houze, and B. F. Smull. 1997. "Airborne dual-Doppler observations of an intense frontal system approaching the Pacific Northwest coast ." Mon. Wea. Rev., 125: 3131-3156.

    Braun, S. A., and J. R. Houze. 1997. "On the evolution of the 10-11 June 1985 PRE-STORM squall line: Initiation, development of rear inflow, and dissipation." Mon. Wea. Rev., 125: 478-504.

    Braun, S. A., R. A. Houze, and M.-J. Yng. 1996. "Comments on “The impact of the ice phase and radiation on a midlatitude squall line system." J. Atmos. Sci., 53: 1343-1351.

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1996. "The heat budget of a midlatitude squall line and implications for potential vorticity production ." J. Atmos. Sci., 53: 1217-1240.

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1995. "Melting and freezing within a midlatitude mesoscale convective system." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121: 55-77.

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1995. "Diagnosis of hydrometeor profiles from area-mean vertical velocity data." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121: 23-53.

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1994. "The transition zone and secondary maximum of radar reflectivity behind a midlatitude squall line: Results retrieved from Doppler radar data ." J. Atmos. Sci., 51: 2733-2755.

    Sun, J., S. A. Braun, M. I. Biggerstaff, R. G. Fovell, and R. A. Houze. 1993. "Warm upper-level downdrafts associated with a squall line." Mon. Wea. Rev., 121: 2919-2927.

    Braun, S. A., and J. P. Monteverdi. 1991. "An analysis of a mesocyclone-induced tornado occurrence in northern California ." Wea. Forecasting, 6: 13-31.

    Monteverdi, J. P., S. A. Braun, and T. C. Trimble. 1988. "Funnel clouds in the San Joaquin Valley, California." Mon. Wea. Rev., 116: 782-789.

    Non-Refereed

    Davies, D. K., K. J. Murphy, K. Michael, et al. I. Becker-Reshef, C. O. Justice, R. A. Boller, S. A. Braun, J. E. Schmaltz, M. Wong, A. N. Pasch, T. S. Dye, A. M. Da Silva, H. M. Goodman, and P. J. Morin. 2015. "The Use of NASA LANCE Imagery and Data for Near Real-Time Applications." Time-Sensitive Remote Sensing New York: 165-182, ISBN: 978-1-4939-2601-5. [10.1007/978-1-4939-2602-2_11]

    Shirah, G. W., L. K. Perkins, H. G. Mitchell, et al. S. A. Snodgrass, B. A. Kekesi, J. W. Williams, M. Newcombe, W. T. Bridgman, C. L. Starr, H. G. Kostis, and S. A. Braun. 2007. "Towers in the Tempest." IEEE Visualization 2007 Scientific American Theater Sacramento, CA.

    Mcgill, M. J., D. Hlvaka, W. D. Hart, J. Spinhirne, and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements during the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign." 2001 AGU Fall Meeting San Fransico, CA.

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, J. Fulton, and D. Nolan. 2001. "Warm-Core Intensification of a Hurricane Through Horizontal Eddy Heat Transports Inside the Eye." USWRP Science Symposium Orlando, FL.

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, J. Fulton, and D. Nolan. 2001. "Warm-Core Intensification through Horizontal Eddy Heat Transports into the Eye." Ninth Conference Mesoscale Processes Ft Lauderdale, FL.

    Pu, Z.-X., and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Evaluation of Bogus Vortex Techniques Using Four-Demensional Variational Data Assimilation." 14th and 18th Conference Ft Lauderdale, FL.

    Pu, Z., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, et al. S. A. Braun, J. Halverson, A. Y. Hou, and W. S. Olson. 2001. "The Impact of TRMM Data on Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of Super Typhoon Paka." 9th Conference Mesoscale Processes Ft Lauderdale, FL.

    Braun, S. A., J. Simpson, and W.-K. Tao. 2000. "Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined from a 13-KM Resolution Numerical Simulation." AMS Spring Meeting

    Pu, Z.-X., S. A. Braun, and W.-K. Tao. 1999. "Four-Dimensional Data Assimulation and Numerical Simulation of Hurricane George (1998)." 9th MM5 Users Workshop Boulder, CO.

    Pu, Z.-X., S. A. Braun, and W.-K. Tao. 1999. "Four-Dimensional Data Assimulation and Numerical Simulation of Hurricanes." 3rd WMO Symposium on Data Assimilation Quebec, Canada.

    Braun, S. A., and W.-K. Tao. 1998. "Evaluation of the Goddard and Reisner Cloud Microphysical Parameterizations in a Simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991)." MM5 Users Workshop 49-52 Boulder, CO.

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Scott A. Braun, a research meteorologist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., specializes in the area hurricanes. Scott is an expert at using satellite and aircraft data, along with computer modeling, to investigate how hurricanes form and intensify, including their interaction with the Saharan Air Layer. Scott is the deputy project scientist for GOES-R and the project scientist for the Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS, https://tropics.ll.mit.edu) mission. TROPICS involves a constellation of 12 Cubesat microwave radiometers, to launch in 2019 or 2020, that will measure precipitation structure, vertical profiles of temperature and humidity, and tropical cyclone intensity across the global Tropics. 

    Scott was the Principal Investigator for NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HS3 was a five-year mission specifically targeted to investigate hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean basin. In his role, Scott led a diverse team of hurricane and instrument scientists to design and conduct experiments using unmanned aircraft to understand better the meteorological conditions that favor storm formation and often lead to the development of major hurricanes. To learn more about HS3, visit: espo.nasa.gov/hs3.

    He is also the project scientist for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, since 2008) and works with the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission project scientist to lead NASA's efforts to improve precipitation measurement from space.

    Scott has a doctorate in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington, Seattle, and a bachelor's degree in science, with a concentration in meteorology from San Francisco State University. He was a research assistant at the University of Washington in Seattle, Wash.; a Postdoctoral Fellow at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo.; and has worked at Goddard since 1997.

    Scott is experienced in the physical and dynamic processes within hurricanes, with particular emphasis on the influence of the storm environment on storm formation, intensification, structure, and precipitation. He studies hurricanes using a wide array of data including NASA satellites such as TRMM and Aqua, aircraft data from field campaigns, and computer modeling using the NCAR Mesoscale Model Version 5 (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale models. The modeling and data analysis work supports NASA programs that have major hurricane components such as the Convection and Moisture Experiments (CAMEX-3 in 1998 and CAMEX-4 in 2001), the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005, the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in 2010, and HS3 in 2012-2014. It also supports research related to observations of precipitation in hurricanes and winter storms from the TRMM satellite by examining processes that control the amount and organization of precipitation in these storms.

    Scott has received numerous awards including the Goddard Earth Science Achievement Award, the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, and group achievement awards for participating in NASA's CAMEX-4, TCSP, GRIP, and HS3 missions.

    Publications

    Refereed

    Braun, S. A., P. Newman, and G. M. Heymsfield. 2016. "NASA’s Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Investigation." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (In Press) [10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00186.1]

    Sippel, J., F. Zhang, Y. Wang, S. A. Braun, and D. Cecil. 2016. "Further Exploring the Potential for Assimilation of Unmanned Aircraft Observations to Benefit Hurricane Analyses and Forecasts,." Tropical Cyclone Research and Review 4 (2): [NA]

    Kirschbaum, D. B., G. J. Huffman, R. Adler, et al. S. A. Braun, K. Garrett, E. Jones, A. L. Mcnally, G. S. Jackson, E. F. Stocker, H. Wu, and B. Zaitchik. 2016. "NASA’s Remotely-sensed Precipitation: A Reservoir for Applications Users." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Submitted)

    Munsell, E., F. Zhang, J. A. Sippel, and S. A. Braun. 2016. "Dynamics and predictability of the rapid intensification of Hurricane Edouard (2014)." Monthly Weather Review (Submitted)

    Abarca, S. F., M. T. Montgomery, S. A. Braun, and J. Dunion. 2016. "On the secondary eyewall formation of Hurricane Edouard (2014)." Monthly Weather Review (In Press) MWR-D-15-0421.1 [10.1175/mwr-d-15-0421.1]

    Munsell, E. B., J. A. Sippel, S. A. Braun, Y. Weng, and F. Zhang. 2015. "Dynamics and Predictability of Hurricane Nadine (2012) Evaluated through Convection-Permitting Ensemble Analysis and Forecasts." Monthly Weather Review 143 (11): 4514-4532 [10.1175/mwr-d-14-00358.1]

    Sippel, J. A., F. Zhang, Y. Weng, et al. L. Tian, G. M. Heymsfield, and S. A. Braun. 2014. "Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of HIWRAP Observations of Hurricane Karl (2010) from the Unmanned Global Hawk Aircraft." Mon. Wea. Rev. 142 (12): 4559-4580 [10.1175/MWR-D-14-00042.1]

    Braun, S. A., J. A. Sippel, C.-L. Shie, and R. A. Boller. 2013. "The Evolution and Role of the Saharan Air Layer during Hurricane Helene (2006)." Mon. Weather Rev. 141 (12): 4269-4295 [10.1175/MWR-D-13-00045.1]

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, T. Matsui, and C. Williams. 2013. "Evaluation of cloud microphysics schemes in simulations of a winter storm using radar and radiometer measurements." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (3): 1401-1419 [10.1002/jgrd.50115]

    Braun, S. A., R. Kakar, E. Zipser, et al. G. M. Heymsfield, C. Albers, S. Brown, S. Durden, S. Guimond, J. Halverson, A. Heymsfield, S. Ismail, B. Lambrigtsen, T. Miller, S. Tanelli, J. Thomas, and J. Zawislak. 2013. "NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94 (3): 345-363 [10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00232.1]

    Sippel, J. A., S. A. Braun, F. Zhang, and Y. Weng. 2013. "Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of simulated HIWRAP Doppler velocity data in a hurricane." Monthly Weather Review 141 (8): 2683-2704 [10.1175/MWR-D-12-00157.1]

    Braun, S., J. Sippel, and D. Nolan. 2012. "The Impact of Dry Midlevel Air on Hurricane Intensity in Idealized Simulations with No Mean Flow." J Atmos Sci 69 (1): 236-257 [10.1175/JAS-D-10-05007.1]

    Sippel, J., S. A. Braun, and C. Shie. 2011. "Environmental Influences on the Strength of Tropical Storm Debby (2006)." J Atmos Sci 68 (11): 2557–2581 [10.1175/2011JAS3648.1]

    Yang, M., S. A. Braun, and C. Deng-Shun. 2011. "Water Budget of Typhoon Nari (2001)." Mon. Wea. Rev. 139 (12): 3809-3828 [10.1175/MWR-D-10-05090.1]

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, W. S. Olson, P. O. Persson, and J. Bao. 2010. "Application of TRMM PR and TMI Measurements to Assess Cloud Microphysical Schemes in the MM5 for a Winter Storm." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 49 (6): 1129-1148 [10.1175/2010JAMC2327.1]

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, K. Mallen, and P. Reasor. 2010. "Simulation and Interpretation of the Genesis of Tropical Storm Gert (2005) as Part of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes Experiment." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 67 (4): 999-1025 [10.1175/2009JAS3140.1]

    Braun, S. A. 2010. "Comments on “Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenetic Processes during SOP-3 NAMMA in the GEOS-5 Global Data Assimilation and Forecast System”." J Atmos Sci 67 (7): 2402-2410 [10.1175/2010JAS3458.1]

    Braun, S. A. 2010. "Reevaluating the Role of the Saharan Air Layer in Atlantic Tropical Cyclogenesis and Evolution." Mon. Wea. Rev. 138 (6): 2007-2037 [10.1175/2009MWR3135.1]

    Braun, S. A., and C.-L. Shie. 2010. "Improving our understanding of Atlantic tropical cyclones through knowledge of the Saharan Air Layer: Hope or hype?" Bull Amer Meteoro Soc

    Tao, W.-K., J. Shi, S. Chen, et al. E. A. Lee, S.-Y. Hong, C. Peters-Lidard, S. A. Braun, G. Thompson, and J. Simpson. 2010. "New, improved bulk-microphysical schemes for studying precipitation processes in WRF: Part I: Comparison with different microphysical schemes." Mon Wea Rev

    Han, M., S. A. Braun, P. O. Persson, and J. Bao. 2009. "Alongfront Variability of Precipitation Associated with a Midlatitude Frontal Zone: TRMM Observations and MM5 Simulation." Mon. Wea. Rev. 137 (3): 1008-1028 [10.1175/2008MWR2465.1]

    Wu, L., B. Wang, and S. A. Braun. 2008. "Implications of tropical cyclone power dissipation index." Int. J. Climatol. 28 (6): 727-731 [10.1002/joc.1573]

    Halverson, J., M. Black, S. A. Braun, et al. D. Cecil, M. Goodman, A. Heymsfield, G. M. Heymsfield, R. Hood, T. Krishnamurti, G. McFarquhar, M. J. Mahoney, J. Molinari, R. Rogers, J. Turk, C. Velden, D. Zhang, E. Zipser, and R. Kakar. 2007. "NASA's Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) Experiment: Investigating Tropical Cyclogenesis and Hurricane Intensity Change." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 88 867-882

    Cram, T., J. Persing, M. Montgomery, and S. A. Braun. 2007. "A Lagrangian Trajectory View on Transport and Mixing Processes between the Eye, Eyewall, and Environment Using a High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998)." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 64 (6): 1835-1856 [10.1175/JAS3921.1]

    Braun, S. A., and L. Wu. 2007. "A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part II: Shear and the Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion." Mon Wea Rev 135 (4): 1179-1194 [10.1175/MWR3336.1]

    Olson, W., C. Kummerow, S. Yang, et al. G. Petty, W. Tao, T. Bell, S. Braun, Y. Wang, S. Lang, D. Johnson, and C. Chiu. 2006. "Precipitation and latent heating distributions from satellite passive microwave radiometry. Part I: Improved method and uncertainties." J Appl Meteorol Climatol 45 (5): 702-720

    Braun, S. A. 2006. "High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part II: Water Budget." J. Atmos. Sci. 63 (1): 43-64 [10.1175/JAS3609.1]

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, and Z. Pu. 2006. "High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion." J. Atmos. Sci. 63 (1): 19-42 [10.1175/JAS3598.1]

    Wu, L., S. A. Braun, J. J. Qu, and X. Hao. 2006. "Simulating the formation of Hurricane Isabel (2003) with AIRS data." Geophysical Research Letters 33 (4): L04804 [10.1029/2005GL024665]

    Wu, L., S. A. Braun, J. Halverson, and G. M. Heymsfield. 2006. "A numerical study of Hurricane Erin (2001). Part I: Model Verification and Storm Evolution." J Atmos Sci 63 (1): 65-86 [10.1175/JAS3597.1]

    Wu, L., B. Wang, and S. A. Braun. 2005. "Impacts of air-sea interaction on tropical cyclone track and intensity." Mon. Wea. Rev. 133 3299-3314

    Wu, L., and S. A. Braun. 2004. "Effects of Environmentally Induced Asymmetries on Hurricane Intensity: A Numerical Study." J. Atmos. Sci. 61 (24): 3065-3081 [10.1175/JAS-3343.1]

    Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, S. E. Lang, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. O. Starr, C. Sui, Y. Wang, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Microphysics radiation and surface processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCM) model." Meteor Atmos Phys 82 97-137

    Tao, W., R. F. Adler, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M. Chou, M. Jasinski, Y. Jia, R. Kakar, M. Karyampudi, S. E. Lang, W. K. Lau, B. Lynn, Z. Pu, M. Shepherd, J. Simpson, D. O. Starr, Y. Wang, W. Weinman, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Regional Scale Modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Recent Research Developments in Atmospheric Science." Research Signpost 2 1-52

    Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M.-D. Chou, M. Jasinski, Y. Jia, R. Kakar, M. Karyampudi, E. A. Lee, W. K. Lau, B. Lynn, Z.-X. Pu, M. Shepherd, J. Simpson, D. Starr, Y. Wang, W. Weinman, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Regional Scale Modeling at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Recent Research Developments in Atmospheric Science." Research Signpost 2 18994

    Tao, W.-K., J. Simpson, D. Baker, et al. S. A. Braun, M.-D. Chou, B. Ferrier, D. Johnson, A. Khain, E. A. Lee, B. Lynn, C.-L. Shie, D. Starr, C.-H. Sui, Y. Wang, and P. Wetzel. 2003. "Microphysics, radiation and surface processes in a non-hydrostatic model." Meteor Atmos Phy 82 97-137

    Tao, W., C. Shie, J. Simpson, et al. S. A. Braun, R. Johnson, and P. Ciesielski. 2003. "Convective systems over the South China sea: Cloud-resolving model simulations." J Atmos Sci 60 (24): 2929-2956 [10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2929:CSOTSC>2.0.CO;2]

    Rao, P. A., C. Velden, and S. A. Braun. 2002. "The vertical error characteristics of GOES-derived winds: Description and impact on numerical weather prediction ." J. Appl. Meteor. 41 253-271

    Pu, Z., W. Tao, S. A. Braun, et al. J. Simpson, Y. Jia, J. Halverson, A. Y. Hou, and W. S. Olson. 2002. "The impact of TRMM data on mesoscale numerical simulation of Super typhoon Paka." Mon Wea Rev 130 2448-2458

    Braun, S. A. 2002. "A cloud-resolving simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991): Storm structure and eyewall buoyancy." Mon Wea Rev 130 (6): 1573-1592 [10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1573:ACRSOH>2.0.CO;2]

    Olson, W. S., S. Yang, C. A. Kummerow, et al. Z. Haddad, W.-K. Tao, E. A. Lee, D. E. Johnson, S. A. Braun, C. Chiu, and J.-J. Wang. 2002. "Estimation of precipitation and latent heating distributions by satellite passive/active microwave remote sensing." Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment 50-57

    Pu, Z., and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Evaluation of bogus vortex techniques with four-dimensional variational data assimilation." Mon Wea Rev 129 (8): 2023 - 2039

    Braun, S. A., and W. Tao. 2000. "Sensitivity of High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterizations." Mon Wea Rev 128 (12): 3941-3961

    Tao, W., R. F. Adler, S. A. Braun, et al. F. Einaudi, B. Ferrier, J. Halverson, G. M. Heymsfield, C. Kummerow, A. Negri, and R. Kakar. 2000. "Summary of a Symposium on Cloud Systems Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career - The First Fifty Years." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 81 2463-2474

    Tao, W.-K., R. Adler, S. A. Braun, et al. F. Einaudi, B. Ferrier, J. Halverson, G. M. Heymsfield, C. Kummerow, A. Negri, and R. Kakar. 2000. "Summary of a Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr Joanne Simpson's Career - The First Fifty Years." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 81 2463-2474

    Braun, S. A., R. Rotunno, and J. B. Klemp. 1999. "Effects of Coastal Orography on Landfalling Cold Fronts. Part I: Dry, Inviscid Dynamics." J Atmos Sci 56 (4): 517-533 [10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0517:EOCOOL>2.0.CO;2]

    Braun, S. A., R. Rotunno, and J. B. Klemp. 1999. "Effects of Coastal Orography on Landfalling Cold Fronts. Part II: Effects of Surface Friction." J Atmos Sci 56 (19): 3366-3384 [10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<3366:EOCOOL>2.0.CO;2]

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1997. "On the evolution of the 10-11 June 1985 PRE-STORM squall line: Initiation, development of rear inflow, and dissipation." Mon. Wea. Rev. 125 478-504

    Braun, S. A., J. R. Houze, and B. F. Smull. 1997. "Airborne dual-Doppler observations of an intense frontal system approaching the Pacific Northwest coast ." Mon. Wea. Rev. 125 3131-3156

    Braun, S. A., and J. R. Houze. 1997. "On the evolution of the 10-11 June 1985 PRE-STORM squall line: Initiation, development of rear inflow, and dissipation." Mon. Wea. Rev. 125 478-504

    Braun, S. A., R. A. Houze, and M.-J. Yng. 1996. "Comments on “The impact of the ice phase and radiation on a midlatitude squall line system." J. Atmos. Sci. 53 1343-1351

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1996. "The heat budget of a midlatitude squall line and implications for potential vorticity production ." J. Atmos. Sci. 53 1217-1240

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1995. "Melting and freezing within a midlatitude mesoscale convective system." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 121 55-77

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1995. "Diagnosis of hydrometeor profiles from area-mean vertical velocity data." Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 121 23-53

    Braun, S. A., and R. A. Houze. 1994. "The transition zone and secondary maximum of radar reflectivity behind a midlatitude squall line: Results retrieved from Doppler radar data ." J. Atmos. Sci. 51 2733-2755

    Sun, J., S. A. Braun, M. I. Biggerstaff, R. G. Fovell, and R. A. Houze. 1993. "Warm upper-level downdrafts associated with a squall line." Mon. Wea. Rev. 121 2919-2927

    Braun, S. A., and J. P. Monteverdi. 1991. "An analysis of a mesocyclone-induced tornado occurrence in northern California ." Wea. Forecasting 6 13-31

    Monteverdi, J. P., S. A. Braun, and T. C. Trimble. 1988. "Funnel clouds in the San Joaquin Valley, California." Mon. Wea. Rev. 116 782-789

    Non-Refereed

    Davies, D. K., K. J. Murphy, K. Michael, et al. I. Becker-Reshef, C. O. Justice, R. A. Boller, S. A. Braun, J. E. Schmaltz, M. Wong, A. N. Pasch, T. S. Dye, A. M. Da Silva, H. M. Goodman, and P. J. Morin. 2015. "The Use of NASA LANCE Imagery and Data for Near Real-Time Applications." Time-Sensitive Remote Sensing 165-182 [10.1007/978-1-4939-2602-2_11]

    Shirah, G. W., L. K. Perkins, H. G. Mitchell, et al. S. A. Snodgrass, B. A. Kekesi, J. W. Williams, M. Newcombe, W. T. Bridgman, C. L. Starr, H. G. Kostis, and S. A. Braun. 2007. "Towers in the Tempest." IEEE Visualization 2007 Scientific American Theater

    Mcgill, M. J., D. Hlvaka, W. D. Hart, J. Spinhirne, and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements during the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign." 2001 AGU Fall Meeting

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, J. Fulton, and D. Nolan. 2001. "Warm-Core Intensification of a Hurricane Through Horizontal Eddy Heat Transports Inside the Eye." USWRP Science Symposium

    Braun, S. A., M. Montgomery, J. Fulton, and D. Nolan. 2001. "Warm-Core Intensification through Horizontal Eddy Heat Transports into the Eye." Ninth Conference Mesoscale Processes

    Pu, Z.-X., and S. A. Braun. 2001. "Evaluation of Bogus Vortex Techniques Using Four-Demensional Variational Data Assimilation." 14th and 18th Conference

    Pu, Z., W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, et al. S. A. Braun, J. Halverson, A. Y. Hou, and W. S. Olson. 2001. "The Impact of TRMM Data on Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of Super Typhoon Paka." 9th Conference Mesoscale Processes

    Braun, S. A., J. Simpson, and W.-K. Tao. 2000. "Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined from a 13-KM Resolution Numerical Simulation." AMS Spring Meeting

    Pu, Z.-X., S. A. Braun, and W.-K. Tao. 1999. "Four-Dimensional Data Assimulation and Numerical Simulation of Hurricane George (1998)." 9th MM5 Users Workshop

    Pu, Z.-X., S. A. Braun, and W.-K. Tao. 1999. "Four-Dimensional Data Assimulation and Numerical Simulation of Hurricanes." 3rd WMO Symposium on Data Assimilation

    Braun, S. A., and W.-K. Tao. 1998. "Evaluation of the Goddard and Reisner Cloud Microphysical Parameterizations in a Simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991)." MM5 Users Workshop 49-52

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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