Dr. Michael D King

Dr. Michael D King

  • EMERITUS
  • 303.704.5414
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 610
  • Greenbelt , MD 20771
  • Employer: EMERITUS
  • Brief Bio

    Dr. Michael D. King is a Senior Scientist Emeritus in the Earth Sciences Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.  He previously served as Senior Project Scientist of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) from 1992 to 2008.  He began his career at Goddard Space Flight Center in January 1978 as a physical scientist, and served as Project Scientist of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) from 1983-1992.  The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) was the first science satellite launched from the Space Shuttle (STS 41-G) and was deployed by Sally Ride from Challenger in October 1984.  After retiring from NASA in April 2008, he joined the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, where he currently holds a faculty appointment as a Senior Research Scientist.

    Dr. King is Team Leader of the MODIS science team on the Terra and Aqua satellites.  As a team member, he also led the development of 5 science algorithms being run routinely to process MODIS data, including the algorithm for determining cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius of both liquid water and ice clouds, and gridded global atmosphere properties at 1° x 1° latitude/longitude resolution.

    Dr. King’s research experience includes conceiving, developing, and operating multispectral scanning radiometers from a number of aircraft platforms in field experiments ranging from arctic stratus clouds to smoke from the Kuwait oil fires and biomass burning in Brazil and southern Africa.  He has also developed inversion algorithms for deriving aerosol size distribution and refractive index from ground-based sunphotometers used worldwide.

    Dr. King has received many awards including the William Nordberg Memorial Award for Earth Science, the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement, Medal, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, and the NASA Exception Service Medal; the Verner E. Suomi Award of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) for fundamental contributions to remote sensing and radiative transfer; and recipient of the Space Systems Award of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Team.  He is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).  He has also been an author or co-author of over 90 papers published in refereed scientific journals, in addition to editing 1 Book (Our Changing Planet: The View from Space), 4 Scientific Documents (EOS Science Plan; EOS Science Plan Executive Summary; EOS Reference Handbook; EOS Data Products Handbook, Volume 1) and many book chapters and technical reports.

     


    Current Projects

    MODIS

     Science Team Leader

    Research Interests

    Remote sensing of cloud optical properties, spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, aerosol optical properties


    Positions/Employment

    4/2008 - Present

    Senior Research Scientist

    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Bouler, CO
    8/1992 - 4/2008

    Senior Project Scientist, Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD
    1/1983 - 8/1992

    Project Scientist, Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD
    1/1978 - 1/1983

    Physical Scientist

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

    Education

    1971 B.A. (Physics), Colorado College
    1973 M.S. (Atmospheric Sciences), University of Arizona (4.0 GPA)
    1977 Ph.D. (Atmospheric Sciences), University of Arizona (4.0 GPA)

    Professional Societies

    National Academy of Engineering, 2003 - Present
    Member
    American Meteorological Society, 1977 - Present
    Fellow
    American Geophysical Union, 1978 - Present
    Fellow
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2001 - Present
    Fellow
    American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2008 - Present
    Member

    Awards

    Magna cum laude, Colorado College, 1971
    NASA Exceptional Service Medal, 1985
    Fellow, American Meteorological Society, 1990
    NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, 1992
    Transactions Prize Paper Award, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society, 1993
    Senior Atmospheric Scientist (3104 positon), 1993
    Honorary Doctor of Science, Colorado College, 1995
    Elected Goddard Senior Fellow, 1997 (GSFC)
    Verner E. Suomi Award, American Meteorological Society, 2000
    NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, 2001
    William Nordberg Memorial Award (NASA-GSFC), 2001
    Member, National Academy of Engineering, 2003
    Fellow, American Geophysical Union, 2006
    People's Voice Award for Education, Webby Awards (for Earth Observatory web site), 2006
    Space Systems Award, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006
    Presidential Rank Award of Meritorious Senior Professional, 2006
    Award of Excellence, Society for Technical Communication, 2010
    Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2014
    Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2015
    Faculty Fellow, Texas A&M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), 2015

    Publications

    Refereed

    Ding, J., P. Yang, R. E. Holz, et al. S. E. Platnick, K. G. Meyer, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, and M. D. King. 2016. "Ice cloud backscatter study and comparison with CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data." Optics Express, 24 (1): 620 [10.1364/oe.24.000620]

    Gatebe, C. K., and M. D. King. 2016. "Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications." Remote Sensing of Environment, 179: 131-148 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029]

    Hioki, S., P. Yang, B. A. Baum, et al. S. Platnick, K. G. Meyer, M. D. King, and J. Riedi. 2016. "Degree of ice particle surface roughness inferred from polarimetric observations." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16 (12): 7545-7558 [10.5194/acp-16-7545-2016]

    Platnick, S. E., K. G. Meyer, M. D. King, et al. G. Wind, N. Amarasinghe, B. Marchant, G. T. Arnold, Z. Zhang, P. A. Hubanks, R. E. Holz, P. Yang, W. L. Ridgway, and J. Riedi. 2016. "The MODIS cloud optical and microphysical products: Collection 6 updates and examples from Terra and Aqua." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2016.2610522]

    Xiong, X., M. D. King, V. V. Salomonson, et al. W. L. Barnes, B. N. Wenny, A. Angal, A. Wu, S. Madhavan, and D. O. Link. 2015. "Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra and Aqua Missions." Qian/Optical Payloads for Space Missions, 53-89 [10.1002/9781118945179.ch3]

    King, M. D., S. E. Platnick, W. P. Menzel, S. A. Ackerman, and P. A. Hubanks. 2013. "Spatial and temporal distribution of clouds observed by MODIS onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 51: 3826-3852.

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment, 52: 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Minnis, P., G. Hong, W. L. Ayers, et al. W. L. Ayers, W. L. Ayers, C. Yost, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, D. Hlavka, M. King, E. Korn, M. McGill, H. Selkirk, A. Thompson, L. Tian, and P. Yang. 2012. "Simulations of Infrared Radiances over a Deep Convective Cloud System Observed during TC4: Potential for Enhancing Nocturnal Ice Cloud Retrievals." Remote Sensing, 4 (10): 3022-3054 [10.3390/rs4103022]

    Kindel, B. C., P. Pilewskie, K. S. Schmidt, O. Coddington, and M. King. 2011. "Solar spectral absorption by marine stratus clouds: Measurements and modeling." J. Geophys. Res., 116 (D10): D10203 [10.1029/2010JD015071]

    Román, M., C. K. Gatebe, C. Schaaf, et al. R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, and M. D. King. 2011. "Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30m–500m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment, 115 (9): 2184-2203 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.012]

    King, M. D., S. Platnick, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, and R. T. Dominguez. 2010. "Remote sensing of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds during TC⁴ : Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR." J. Geophys. Res., 115: D00J07 [10.1029/2009JD013277]

    Schmidt, K. S., P. Pilewskie, B. Mayer, et al. M. Wendisch, B. Kindel, S. Platnick, M. D. King, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, L. Tian, G. Heymsfield, and H. Kalesse. 2010. "Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds." J. Geophys. Res., 115 (D10): D00J22 [10.1029/2009JD013124]

    Lyapustin, A., C. Gatebe, R. Kahn, et al. R. Brandt, J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. King, C. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky. 2010. "Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10 (9): 4359-4375 [10.5194/acp-10-4359-2010]

    Wind, G., S. Platnick, M. King, et al. P. Hubanks, M. Pavolonis, A. Heidinger, P. Yang, and B. Baum. 2010. "Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49 (11): 2315-2333 [10.1175/2010JAMC2364.1]

    Gatebe, C., O. Dubovik, M. King, and A. Sinyuk. 2010. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10 (6): 2777-2794 [10.5194/acp-10-2777-2010]

    Kokhanovsky, A. A., S. Platnick, and M. D. King. 2010. "Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Clouds from Space using Backscattering and Thermal Emission Techniques." The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space, 231-257 [10.1007/978-3-642-14791-3_5]

    Georgiev, G., C. Gatebe, J. Butler, and M. King. 2009. "BRDF Analysis of Savanna Vegetation and Salt-Pan Samples." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 47 (8): 2546-2556 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2021331]

    Moody, E., M. King, C. Schaaf, and S. Platnick. 2008. "MODIS-Derived Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Products: Spatial and Temporal Pixel Distribution and Zonal Averages." J Appl Meteor Climatol, 47 (11): 2879-2894 [10.1175/2008JAMC1795.1]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and D. J. Diner. 2007. "Dust in the Wind (Chapter 10)." Our Changing Planet: “The View From Space”, 46 – 50, ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Gatebe, C. K., J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Kowalewski, and M. D. King. 2007. "Characterization of errors in the use of integrating-sphere systems in the calibration of scanning radiometers." Appl Opt, 46 (31): 7640-7651 [10.1364/AO.46.007640]

    Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. L. Schaaf, D. K. Hall, and S. E. Platnick. 2007. "Northern Hemisphere five-year average (2000–2004) spectral albedos of surfaces in the presence of snow: Statistics computed from Terra MODIS land products." Remote Sensing of Environment, 111 (2-3): 337-345 [10.1016/j.rse.2007.03.026]

    Yang, P., L. Zhang, G. Hong, et al. S. Nasiri, B. Baum, H.-L. Huang, M. D. King, and S. E. Platnick. 2007. "Differences between collection 4 and 5 MODIS ice cloud optical/microphysical products and their impact on radiative forcing simulations." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 45 (9): 2886-2899 [10.1109/TGRS.2007.898276]

    King, M. D., C. L. Parkinson, K. C. Partington, and R. G. Williams, eds. 2007. "Our Changing Planet: The View from Space." Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 391 pp., ISBN: 9780521828703.

    Hong, G., P. Yang, B. Gao, et al. B. Baum, Y. Hu, M. King, and S. Platnick. 2007. "High cloud properties from three years of MODIS Terra and Aqua collection-4 data over the tropics." J Appl Meteor Climatol, 46: 1840-1856 [10.1175/2007JAMC1583.1]

    Chylek, P., S. Robinson, M. K. Dubey, et al. M. D. King, Q. Fu, and W. B. Clodius. 2006. "Comparison of near-infrared and thermal infrared cloud phase detections." J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D20): D20203 [10.1029/2006JD007140]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman. 2006. "Deep Blue Retrievals of Asian Aerosol Properties During ACE-Asia." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 44 (11): 3180-3195 [10.1109/TGRS.2006.879540]

    Abdou, W., S. Pilorz, M. Helmlinger, et al. J. Conel, D. Diner, C. Bruegge, J. Martonchik, C. Gatebe, and M. King. 2006. "Sua pan surface bidirectional reflectance: A case study to evaluate the effect of atmospheric correction on the surface products of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during SAFARI 2000." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 44: 1699-1706.

    Jin, M., J. M. Shepherd, and M. D. King. 2005. "Urban aerosols and their variations with clouds and rainfall: A case study for New York and Houston." J. Geophys. Res., 110 (D10): D10S20 [10.1029/2004JD005081]

    Moody, E., M. King, S. Platnick, C. Schaaf, and F. Gao. 2005. "Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-Added datasets derived from Terra MODIS land products." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 43 (1): 144-158 [10.1109/TGRS.2004.838359]

    Mace, G., Y. Zhang, S. Platnick, et al. M. King, P. Minnis, and P. Yang. 2005. "Evaluation of cirrus cloud properties derived from MODIS data using cloud properties derived from ground-based observations collected at the ARM SGP site." J Appl Meteor, 44: 221-240 [10.1175/JAM2193.1]

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann. 2005. "Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance." J Atmos Sci, 62 (4): 1072-1092 [10.1175/JAS3386.1]

    Baum, B., P. Yang, A. Heymsfield, et al. S. E. Platnick, M. D. King, Y. Hu, and S. Bedka. 2005. "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part II: Narrowband models." J Appl Meteor, 44 (12): 1896-1911 [10.1175/JAM2309.1]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman. 2004. "Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 42 (3): 557-569 [10.1109/TGRS.2004.824067]

    King, M., S. Platnick, P. Yang, et al. G. Arnold, M. Gray, J. Riedi, S. Ackerman, and K. Liou. 2004. "Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness and effective radius in the Arctic: Application of airborne multispectral MAS data." J Atmos Oceanic Technol, 21: 857-875 [10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<0857:RSOLWA>2.0.CO;2]

    Swap, R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, et al. M. D. King, S. E. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes. 2003. "Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)." J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D13): 8465 [10.1029/2003JD003747]

    King, M. D., S. Platnick, C. C. Moeller, H. E. Revercomb, and D. A. Chu. 2003. "Remote sensing of smoke, land and clouds from the NASA ER-2 during SAFARI 2000." J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13), 8502: 10.1029/2002JD003207.

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S. Platnick, et al. G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid. 2003. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa." J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D13): 8489 [10.1029/2002JD002397]

    Platnick, S., M. King, S. Ackerman, et al. W. Menzel, B. Baum, J. Riedi, and R. Frey. 2003. "The MODIS cloud products: Algorithms and examples from Terra." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 41 (2): 459-473 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808301]

    King, M. D., W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, et al. D. Tanré, B.-C. Gao, S. E. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. A. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. A. Hubanks. 2003. "Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 41 (2): 442-458 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808226]

    Swap, R., H. Annegarn, J. Suttles, et al. J. Haywood, M. Helmlinger, C. Hely, P. Hobbs, B. Holben, J. Ji, M. King, T. Landmann, W. Maenhaut, L. Otter, B. Pak, S. Piketh, S. Platnick, J. Privette, D. Roy, A. Thompson, D. Ward, and R. Yokelson. 2002. "The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the dry season field campaign." South African Journal of Science, 98: 125-130.

    Dubovik, O., B. Holben, T. Eck, et al. A. Smirnov, Y. Kaufman, M. King, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker. 2002. "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations." J Atmos Sci, 59: 590-608.

    Arnold, G. T., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, J. Li, and P. Soulen. 2002. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for Arctic sea ice and tundra." International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23 (18): 3763-3781 [10.1080/01431160110117373]

    Platnick, S. E., J. Li, M. D. King, H. Gerber, and P. Hobbs. 2001. "A solar reflectance method for retrieving the optical thickness and droplet size of liquid water clouds over snow and ice surfaces." J Geophys Res, 106 (D14): 15185-15199 [10.1029/2000JD900441 ]

    Marchand, R., T. Ackerman, M. King, et al. C. Moroney, R. Davies, J. Muller, and H. Gerber. 2001. "Multiangle observations of Arctic stratus clouds from FIRE ACE: June 3 1998 case study." J Geophys Res, 106: 15201-15214.

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, et al. Q. Ji, G. Arnold, and J. Li. 2001. "Sensitivity of off-nadir zenith angles to correlation between visible and near-infrared reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol over land." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 39: 805-819.

    Rolland, P., K. Liou, M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, and G. McFarquhar. 2000. "Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using MODIS channels: Methodology and sensitivity to assumptions." J Geophys Res, 105: 11721-11738.

    King, M., and D. Herring. 2000. "Monitoring Earth's vital signs." Scientific American, 282: 72-77.

    Dubovik, O., and M. D. King. 2000. "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements." J Geophys Res, 105 (D16): 20,673-20,696 [10.1029/2000JD900282]

    Curry, J., P. Hobbs, M. King, et al. D. Randall, P. Minnis, and A. Et. 2000. "FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment." Bull Amer Meteor Soc, 81: 5-30.

    Baum, B., P. Soulen, K. Strabala, et al. M. King, S. Ackerman, W. Menzel, and P. Yang. 2000. "Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. II: Cloud thermodynamic phase." J Geophys Res, 105 (9): 11781-11792.

    Soulen, P., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, G. T. Arnold, and J. Li. 2000. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy during the SCAR-A Kuwait oil fire and TARFOX experiments." J Geophys Res, 105 (D8): 10203-10218 [10.1029/1999JD901115]

    Dubovik, O., A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, et al. M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker. 2000. "Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements." J Geophys Res, 105 (D8): 9791-9806 [10.1029/2000JD900040]

    Platnick, S. E., P. Durkee, K. Nielson, et al. J. Taylor, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, R. Ferek, P. Hobbs, and J. Rottman. 2000. "The role of background cloud microphysics in the radiative formation of ship tracks." J Atmos Sci, 57: 2607-2624 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2607:TROBCM>2.0.CO;2]

    Durkee, P., R. Chartier, A. Brown, et al. E. Trehubenko, S. Rogerson, C. Skupniewicz, K. Nielsen, S. E. Platnick, and M. D. King. 2000. "Composite ship track characteristics." J Atmos Sci, 57 (16): 2542-2553 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2542:CSTC>2.0.CO;2]

    Wan, Z., Y. Zhang, X. Ma, et al. M. D. King, J. S. Myers, and X. Li. 1999. "Vicarious calibration of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Airborne Simulator thermal-infrared channels." Appl. Opt., 38 (30): 6294-6306.

    King, M. D., Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and T. Nakajima. 1999. "Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: Past, present and future." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80: 2229-2259.

    Ou, S. C., K. N. Liou, M. D. King, and S.-C. Tsay. 1999. "Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Parameters Based on a 0.63-3.7 µm Radiance Correlation Technique Applied to AVHRR Data." Geophys. Res. Lett, 26: 2437-2440.

    Kaufman, Y. J., R. Kleidman, and M. D. King. 1998. "SCAR-B fires in the Tropics: Properties and their remote sensing from EOS-MODIS." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 103: 31955-31968.

    Kaufman, Y. J., P. V. Hobbs, V. Kirchhoff, et al. P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, and S. A. Christopher. 1998. "Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 103 (D24): 31,783-31,808 [10.1029/98JD02281]

    Kaufman, Y. J., P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, et al. P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay. 1998. "Smoke, Cloud and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) Experiment." J. Geophys. Res, 103: 31783-31808.

    King, M. D., S.-C. Tsay, S. A. Ackerman, and N. F. Larsen. 1998. "Discriminating heavy aerosol, clouds, and fires during SCAR-B: Application of airborne multispectral MAS data." J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D24): 31989 [10.1029/98JD01043]

    Tsay, S.-C., M. D. King, G. T. Arnold, and J. Y. Li. 1998. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B." J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D24): 31943 [10.1029/98JD01167]

    Wielicki, B. A., B. R. Barkstrom, B. A. Baum, et al. T. P. Charlock, R. N. Green, D. P. Kratz, R. B. Lee, P. Minnis, G. L. Smith, T. Wong, D. F. Young, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, D. A. Crommelynck, L. Donner, R. Kandel, M. D. King, A. J. Miller, V. Ramanathan, D. A. Randall, L. L. Stowe, and R. M. Welch. 1998. "Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES): Algorithm overview." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, 36 (4): 1127-1141 [10.1109/36.701020]

    Wang, M., and M. D. King. 1997. "Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals." J. Geophys. Res., 102 (D22): 25915-25926 [10.1029/97JD02225]

    Kaufman, Y. J., D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, et al. T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, and P. M. Teillet. 1997. "Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 102: 16815-16830.

    Tsay, S.-C., P. M. Gabriel, M. D. King, and G. L. Stephens. 1996. "Spectral Reflectance and Atmospheric Energetics in Cirrus-like Clouds. Part II: Applications of a Fourier-Riccati Approach to Radiative Transfer." J. Atmos. Sci, 53: 3450-3467.

    King, M. D., W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, et al. J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S.-C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, and F. G. Osterwisch. 1996. "Airborne Scanning Spectrometer for Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Surface Properties." J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13 (4): 777-794 [10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0777:ASSFRS>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., D. D. Herring, and D. J. Diner. 1995. "The Earth Observing System (EOS): A space-based program for assessing mankind's impact on the global environment." Optics and Photonic News, 6: 34-39.

    Wielicki, B. A., R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison. 1995. "Mission to Planet Earth: Role of clouds and radiation in climate." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 76: 2125-2153.

    Gumley, L. E., and M. D. King. 1995. "Remote Sensing of Flooding in the U.S. Upper Midwest during the Summer of 1993." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76 (6): 933-943 [10.1175/1520-0477(1995)076<0933:RSOFIT>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., S.-C. Tsay, and S. E. Platnick. 1995. "In Situ Observations of the Indirect Effects of Aerosol on Clouds." in Aerosol Forcing of Climate, John Wiley and Sons: 227-248.

    Price, R. D., M. D. King, J. T. Dalton, et al. K. S. Pedelty, P. E. Ardanuy, and M. K. Hobish. 1994. "Earth science data for all: EOS and the EOS Data and Information System." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 60 (3): 277-285.

    King, M. D., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs. 1993. "Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 98: 2729-2739.

    Harshvardhan, and M. D. King. 1993. "Comparative accuracy of diffuse radiative properties computed using selected multiple scattering approximations." J. Atmos. Sci., 50 (2): 247-259 [10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<0247:CAODRP>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., Y. J. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, and D. Tanre. 1992. "Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 30: 2-27.

    King, M. D. 1992. "Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 97 (D13): 14545-14549 [10.1029/92JD01043]

    Nakajima, T., and M. D. King. 1992. "Asymptotic theory for optically thick layers: Application to the Discrete Ordinates Method." Applied Optics, 31 (36): 7669-7683 [10.1364/AO.31.007669]

    Nakajima, T., M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, and L. F. Radke. 1991. "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations." J. Atmos. Sci, 48 (5): 728-751 [10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<0728:DOTOTA>2.0.CO;2]

    Nakajima, R., and M. D. King. 1990. "Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory." J. Atmos. Sci, 47 (15): 1878-1893 [10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1878:DOTOTA>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs. 1990. "Determination of the spectral absorption of solar radiation by marine stratocumulus clouds from airborne measurements within clouds." J. Atmos. Sci, 47 (7): 894-908 [10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<0894:DOTSAO>2.0.CO;2]

    Radke, L. F., J. A. Coakley, and M. D. King. 1989. "Direct and Remote Sensing Observations of the Effects of Ships on Clouds." Science, 246 (4934): 1146-1149 [10.1126/science.246.4934.1146]

    King, M. D. 1987. "Determination of the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements." J. Atmos. Sci., 44 (13): 1734-1751 [10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1734:DOTSOT>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., M. G. Strange, P. Leone, and L. R. Blaine. 1986. "Multiwavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds." J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 513-522.

    King, M. D., and Harshvardhan. 1986. "Comparative accuracy of selected multiple scattering approximations." J. Atmos. Sci., 43 (8): 784-801 [10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0784:CAOSMS>2.0.CO;2]

    Spinhirne, J. D., and M. D. King. 1985. "Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichon stratospheric aerosol layer." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.), 90: 10607-10619.

    King, M. D., Harshvardhan, and A. Arking. 1984. "A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichòn stratospheric aerosol layer." J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23 (7): 1121-1137 [10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<1121:AMOTRP>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D. 1983. "Number of terms required in the Fourier expansion of the reflection function for optically thick atmospheres." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 143-161.

    King, M. D. 1982. "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier." J. Atmos. Sci., 1356-1369.

    King, M. D. 1981. "A method for determining the single scattering albedo of clouds through observation of the internal scattered radiation field." J. Atmos. Sci., 38 (9): 2031-2044 [10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<2031:AMFDTS>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., D. M. Byrne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman. 1980. "Spectral variation of optical depth at tucson, arizona between august 1975 and december 1977." Journal of Applied Meteorology, 723-732.

    King, M. D., and R. J. Curran. 1980. "The effect of a nonuniform planetary albedo on the interpretation of Earth radiation budget observations." J. Atmos. Sci., 1262-1278.

    Reagan, J. A., D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, and B. M. Herman. 1980. "Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic Lidar and solar radiometer measurements." J. Geophys. Res., 85 (C3): 1591-1599 [10.1029/JC085iC03p01591]

    King, M. D., and B. M. Herman. 1979. "Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part I: Theory." J. Atmos. Sci., 36 (1): 163-173 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0163:DOTGAA>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D. 1979. "Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part II: Application." J. Atmos. Sci., 36 (6): 1072-1083.

    King, M. D., D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan. 1978. "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements." J. Atmos. Sci., 35 (11): 2153-2167 [10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<2153:ASDOBI>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., and D. M. Byrne. 1976. "A method for inferring total ozone content from the spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer." J. Atmos. Sci., 33 (11): 2242-2251 [10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2242:AMFITO>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Georgiev, G. T., J. J. Butler, K. J. Thome, K. J. Ranson, and M. D. King. 2011. "Assessment of multiangu-lar polarization contribution to the bidirectional reflectance of natural samples." IEEE International Geoscience Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 1017-1020 [10.1109/IGARSS.2011.6049306]

    Georgiev, G. T., J. J. Butler, K. J. Thome, K. J. Ranson, and M. D. King. 2010. "The effect of incident light polarization on vegetation bidirectional reflectance factor." 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 1652-1655 [10.1109/IGARSS.2010.5652893]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2008. "BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples." IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IV-573 - IV-576 [10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779786]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2006. "Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing." Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6296: San Diego, California, 10 pp [10.1117/12.680542]

    Brief Bio

    Dr. Michael D. King is a Senior Scientist Emeritus in the Earth Sciences Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center.  He previously served as Senior Project Scientist of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) from 1992 to 2008.  He began his career at Goddard Space Flight Center in January 1978 as a physical scientist, and served as Project Scientist of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) from 1983-1992.  The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) was the first science satellite launched from the Space Shuttle (STS 41-G) and was deployed by Sally Ride from Challenger in October 1984.  After retiring from NASA in April 2008, he joined the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, where he currently holds a faculty appointment as a Senior Research Scientist.

    Dr. King is Team Leader of the MODIS science team on the Terra and Aqua satellites.  As a team member, he also led the development of 5 science algorithms being run routinely to process MODIS data, including the algorithm for determining cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius of both liquid water and ice clouds, and gridded global atmosphere properties at 1° x 1° latitude/longitude resolution.

    Dr. King’s research experience includes conceiving, developing, and operating multispectral scanning radiometers from a number of aircraft platforms in field experiments ranging from arctic stratus clouds to smoke from the Kuwait oil fires and biomass burning in Brazil and southern Africa.  He has also developed inversion algorithms for deriving aerosol size distribution and refractive index from ground-based sunphotometers used worldwide.

    Dr. King has received many awards including the William Nordberg Memorial Award for Earth Science, the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement, Medal, NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal, and the NASA Exception Service Medal; the Verner E. Suomi Award of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) for fundamental contributions to remote sensing and radiative transfer; and recipient of the Space Systems Award of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Team.  He is a member of the US National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS), and a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).  He has also been an author or co-author of over 90 papers published in refereed scientific journals, in addition to editing 1 Book (Our Changing Planet: The View from Space), 4 Scientific Documents (EOS Science Plan; EOS Science Plan Executive Summary; EOS Reference Handbook; EOS Data Products Handbook, Volume 1) and many book chapters and technical reports.

     


    Publications

    Refereed

    Ding, J., P. Yang, R. E. Holz, et al. S. E. Platnick, K. G. Meyer, M. A. Vaughan, Y. Hu, and M. D. King. 2016. "Ice cloud backscatter study and comparison with CALIPSO and MODIS satellite data." Optics Express 24 (1): 620 [10.1364/oe.24.000620]

    Gatebe, C. K., and M. D. King. 2016. "Airborne spectral BRDF of various surface types (ocean, vegetation, snow, desert, wetlands, cloud decks, smoke layers) for remote sensing applications." Remote Sensing of Environment 179 131-148 [10.1016/j.rse.2016.03.029]

    Hioki, S., P. Yang, B. A. Baum, et al. S. Platnick, K. G. Meyer, M. D. King, and J. Riedi. 2016. "Degree of ice particle surface roughness inferred from polarimetric observations." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16 (12): 7545-7558 [10.5194/acp-16-7545-2016]

    Platnick, S. E., K. G. Meyer, M. D. King, et al. G. Wind, N. Amarasinghe, B. Marchant, G. T. Arnold, Z. Zhang, P. A. Hubanks, R. E. Holz, P. Yang, W. L. Ridgway, and J. Riedi. 2016. "The MODIS cloud optical and microphysical products: Collection 6 updates and examples from Terra and Aqua." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. [Full Text (Link)] [10.1109/TGRS.2016.2610522]

    Xiong, X., M. D. King, V. V. Salomonson, et al. W. L. Barnes, B. N. Wenny, A. Angal, A. Wu, S. Madhavan, and D. O. Link. 2015. "Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Terra and Aqua Missions." Qian/Optical Payloads for Space Missions 53-89 [10.1002/9781118945179.ch3]

    King, M. D., S. E. Platnick, W. P. Menzel, S. A. Ackerman, and P. A. Hubanks. 2013. "Spatial and temporal distribution of clouds observed by MODIS onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 51 3826-3852

    Gatebe, C. K., T. Varnai, R. Poudyal, C. M. Ichoku, and M. D. King. 2012. "Taking the pulse of pyrocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Environment 52 121-130 [10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.045]

    Minnis, P., G. Hong, W. L. Ayers, et al. W. L. Ayers, W. L. Ayers, C. Yost, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, D. Hlavka, M. King, E. Korn, M. McGill, H. Selkirk, A. Thompson, L. Tian, and P. Yang. 2012. "Simulations of Infrared Radiances over a Deep Convective Cloud System Observed during TC4: Potential for Enhancing Nocturnal Ice Cloud Retrievals." Remote Sensing 4 (10): 3022-3054 [10.3390/rs4103022]

    Kindel, B. C., P. Pilewskie, K. S. Schmidt, O. Coddington, and M. King. 2011. "Solar spectral absorption by marine stratus clouds: Measurements and modeling." J. Geophys. Res. 116 (D10): D10203 [10.1029/2010JD015071]

    Román, M., C. K. Gatebe, C. Schaaf, et al. R. Poudyal, Z. Wang, and M. D. King. 2011. "Variability in surface BRDF at different spatial scales (30m–500m) over a mixed agricultural landscape as retrieved from airborne and satellite spectral measurements." Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (9): 2184-2203 [10.1016/j.rse.2011.04.012]

    King, M. D., S. Platnick, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, and R. T. Dominguez. 2010. "Remote sensing of radiative and microphysical properties of clouds during TC⁴ : Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR." J. Geophys. Res. 115 D00J07 [10.1029/2009JD013277]

    Schmidt, K. S., P. Pilewskie, B. Mayer, et al. M. Wendisch, B. Kindel, S. Platnick, M. D. King, G. Wind, G. T. Arnold, L. Tian, G. Heymsfield, and H. Kalesse. 2010. "Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds." J. Geophys. Res. 115 (D10): D00J22 [10.1029/2009JD013124]

    Lyapustin, A., C. Gatebe, R. Kahn, et al. R. Brandt, J. Redemann, P. Russell, M. King, C. Pedersen, S. Gerland, R. Poudyal, A. Marshak, Y. Wang, C. Schaaf, D. Hall, and A. Kokhanovsky. 2010. "Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (9): 4359-4375 [10.5194/acp-10-4359-2010]

    Wind, G., S. Platnick, M. King, et al. P. Hubanks, M. Pavolonis, A. Heidinger, P. Yang, and B. Baum. 2010. "Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band." J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 49 (11): 2315-2333 [10.1175/2010JAMC2364.1]

    Gatebe, C., O. Dubovik, M. King, and A. Sinyuk. 2010. "Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and surface optical properties from combined airborne- and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 (6): 2777-2794 [10.5194/acp-10-2777-2010]

    Kokhanovsky, A. A., S. Platnick, and M. D. King. 2010. "Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Clouds from Space using Backscattering and Thermal Emission Techniques." The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space 231-257 [10.1007/978-3-642-14791-3_5]

    Georgiev, G., C. Gatebe, J. Butler, and M. King. 2009. "BRDF Analysis of Savanna Vegetation and Salt-Pan Samples." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 47 (8): 2546-2556 [10.1109/TGRS.2009.2021331]

    Moody, E., M. King, C. Schaaf, and S. Platnick. 2008. "MODIS-Derived Spatially Complete Surface Albedo Products: Spatial and Temporal Pixel Distribution and Zonal Averages." J Appl Meteor Climatol 47 (11): 2879-2894 [10.1175/2008JAMC1795.1]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and D. J. Diner. 2007. "Dust in the Wind (Chapter 10)." Our Changing Planet: “The View From Space” 46 – 50

    Gatebe, C. K., J. J. Butler, J. W. Cooper, M. Kowalewski, and M. D. King. 2007. "Characterization of errors in the use of integrating-sphere systems in the calibration of scanning radiometers." Appl Opt 46 (31): 7640-7651 [10.1364/AO.46.007640]

    Moody, E. G., M. D. King, C. L. Schaaf, D. K. Hall, and S. E. Platnick. 2007. "Northern Hemisphere five-year average (2000–2004) spectral albedos of surfaces in the presence of snow: Statistics computed from Terra MODIS land products." Remote Sensing of Environment 111 (2-3): 337-345 [10.1016/j.rse.2007.03.026]

    Yang, P., L. Zhang, G. Hong, et al. S. Nasiri, B. Baum, H.-L. Huang, M. D. King, and S. E. Platnick. 2007. "Differences between collection 4 and 5 MODIS ice cloud optical/microphysical products and their impact on radiative forcing simulations." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 45 (9): 2886-2899 [10.1109/TGRS.2007.898276]

    King, M. D., C. L. Parkinson, K. C. Partington, and R. G. Williams. 2007. "Our Changing Planet: The View from Space." 391 pp.

    Hong, G., P. Yang, B. Gao, et al. B. Baum, Y. Hu, M. King, and S. Platnick. 2007. "High cloud properties from three years of MODIS Terra and Aqua collection-4 data over the tropics." J Appl Meteor Climatol 46 1840-1856 [10.1175/2007JAMC1583.1]

    Chylek, P., S. Robinson, M. K. Dubey, et al. M. D. King, Q. Fu, and W. B. Clodius. 2006. "Comparison of near-infrared and thermal infrared cloud phase detections." J. Geophys. Res. 111 (D20): D20203 [10.1029/2006JD007140]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman. 2006. "Deep Blue Retrievals of Asian Aerosol Properties During ACE-Asia." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 44 (11): 3180-3195 [10.1109/TGRS.2006.879540]

    Abdou, W., S. Pilorz, M. Helmlinger, et al. J. Conel, D. Diner, C. Bruegge, J. Martonchik, C. Gatebe, and M. King. 2006. "Sua pan surface bidirectional reflectance: A case study to evaluate the effect of atmospheric correction on the surface products of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) during SAFARI 2000." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 44 1699-1706

    Jin, M., J. M. Shepherd, and M. D. King. 2005. "Urban aerosols and their variations with clouds and rainfall: A case study for New York and Houston." J. Geophys. Res. 110 (D10): D10S20 [10.1029/2004JD005081]

    Moody, E., M. King, S. Platnick, C. Schaaf, and F. Gao. 2005. "Spatially complete global spectral surface albedos: Value-Added datasets derived from Terra MODIS land products." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 43 (1): 144-158 [10.1109/TGRS.2004.838359]

    Mace, G., Y. Zhang, S. Platnick, et al. M. King, P. Minnis, and P. Yang. 2005. "Evaluation of cirrus cloud properties derived from MODIS data using cloud properties derived from ground-based observations collected at the ARM SGP site." J Appl Meteor 44 221-240 [10.1175/JAM2193.1]

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, A. I. Lyapustin, G. T. Arnold, and J. Redemann. 2005. "Airborne spectral measurements of ocean directional reflectance." J Atmos Sci 62 (4): 1072-1092 [10.1175/JAS3386.1]

    Baum, B., P. Yang, A. Heymsfield, et al. S. E. Platnick, M. D. King, Y. Hu, and S. Bedka. 2005. "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part II: Narrowband models." J Appl Meteor 44 (12): 1896-1911 [10.1175/JAM2309.1]

    Hsu, N.-Y. C., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, and J. R. Herman. 2004. "Aerosol properties over bright-reflecting source regions." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 42 (3): 557-569 [10.1109/TGRS.2004.824067]

    King, M., S. Platnick, P. Yang, et al. G. Arnold, M. Gray, J. Riedi, S. Ackerman, and K. Liou. 2004. "Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness and effective radius in the Arctic: Application of airborne multispectral MAS data." J Atmos Oceanic Technol 21 857-875 [10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021<0857:RSOLWA>2.0.CO;2]

    Swap, R. J., H. J. Annegarn, J. T. Suttles, et al. M. D. King, S. E. Platnick, J. L. Privette, and R. J. Scholes. 2003. "Africa burning: A thematic analysis of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D13): 8465 [10.1029/2003JD003747]

    King, M. D., S. Platnick, C. C. Moeller, H. E. Revercomb, and D. A. Chu. 2003. "Remote sensing of smoke, land and clouds from the NASA ER-2 during SAFARI 2000." J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13) 8502 10.1029/2002JD003207

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S. Platnick, et al. G. T. Arnold, E. F. Vermote, and B. Schmid. 2003. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa." J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D13): 8489 [10.1029/2002JD002397]

    Platnick, S., M. King, S. Ackerman, et al. W. Menzel, B. Baum, J. Riedi, and R. Frey. 2003. "The MODIS cloud products: Algorithms and examples from Terra." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 41 (2): 459-473 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808301]

    King, M. D., W. Menzel, Y. Kaufman, et al. D. Tanré, B.-C. Gao, S. E. Platnick, S. Ackerman, L. A. Remer, R. Pincus, and P. A. Hubanks. 2003. "Cloud and aerosol properties, precipitable water, and profiles of temperature and water vapor from MODIS." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 41 (2): 442-458 [10.1109/TGRS.2002.808226]

    Swap, R., H. Annegarn, J. Suttles, et al. J. Haywood, M. Helmlinger, C. Hely, P. Hobbs, B. Holben, J. Ji, M. King, T. Landmann, W. Maenhaut, L. Otter, B. Pak, S. Piketh, S. Platnick, J. Privette, D. Roy, A. Thompson, D. Ward, and R. Yokelson. 2002. "The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the dry season field campaign." South African Journal of Science 98 125-130

    Dubovik, O., B. Holben, T. Eck, et al. A. Smirnov, Y. Kaufman, M. King, D. Tanre, and I. Slutsker. 2002. "Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations." J Atmos Sci 59 590-608

    Arnold, G. T., S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, J. Li, and P. Soulen. 2002. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for Arctic sea ice and tundra." International Journal of Remote Sensing 23 (18): 3763-3781 [10.1080/01431160110117373]

    Platnick, S. E., J. Li, M. D. King, H. Gerber, and P. Hobbs. 2001. "A solar reflectance method for retrieving the optical thickness and droplet size of liquid water clouds over snow and ice surfaces." J Geophys Res 106 (D14): 15185-15199 [10.1029/2000JD900441 ]

    Marchand, R., T. Ackerman, M. King, et al. C. Moroney, R. Davies, J. Muller, and H. Gerber. 2001. "Multiangle observations of Arctic stratus clouds from FIRE ACE: June 3 1998 case study." J Geophys Res 106 15201-15214

    Gatebe, C. K., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, et al. Q. Ji, G. Arnold, and J. Li. 2001. "Sensitivity of off-nadir zenith angles to correlation between visible and near-infrared reflectance for use in remote sensing of aerosol over land." IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 39 805-819

    Rolland, P., K. Liou, M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, and G. McFarquhar. 2000. "Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using MODIS channels: Methodology and sensitivity to assumptions." J Geophys Res 105 11721-11738

    King, M., and D. Herring. 2000. "Monitoring Earth's vital signs." Scientific American 282 72-77

    Dubovik, O., and M. D. King. 2000. "A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from Sun and sky radiance measurements." J Geophys Res 105 (D16): 20,673-20,696 [10.1029/2000JD900282]

    Curry, J., P. Hobbs, M. King, et al. D. Randall, P. Minnis, and A. Et. 2000. "FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment." Bull Amer Meteor Soc 81 5-30

    Baum, B., P. Soulen, K. Strabala, et al. M. King, S. Ackerman, W. Menzel, and P. Yang. 2000. "Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. II: Cloud thermodynamic phase." J Geophys Res 105 (9): 11781-11792

    Soulen, P., M. D. King, S.-C. Tsay, G. T. Arnold, and J. Li. 2000. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy during the SCAR-A Kuwait oil fire and TARFOX experiments." J Geophys Res 105 (D8): 10203-10218 [10.1029/1999JD901115]

    Dubovik, O., A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, et al. M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker. 2000. "Accuracy assessment of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements." J Geophys Res 105 (D8): 9791-9806 [10.1029/2000JD900040]

    Platnick, S. E., P. Durkee, K. Nielson, et al. J. Taylor, S.-C. Tsay, M. D. King, R. Ferek, P. Hobbs, and J. Rottman. 2000. "The role of background cloud microphysics in the radiative formation of ship tracks." J Atmos Sci 57 2607-2624 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2607:TROBCM>2.0.CO;2]

    Durkee, P., R. Chartier, A. Brown, et al. E. Trehubenko, S. Rogerson, C. Skupniewicz, K. Nielsen, S. E. Platnick, and M. D. King. 2000. "Composite ship track characteristics." J Atmos Sci 57 (16): 2542-2553 [10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<2542:CSTC>2.0.CO;2]

    Wan, Z., Y. Zhang, X. Ma, et al. M. D. King, J. S. Myers, and X. Li. 1999. "Vicarious calibration of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Airborne Simulator thermal-infrared channels." Appl. Opt. 38 (30): 6294-6306

    King, M. D., Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, and T. Nakajima. 1999. "Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: Past, present and future." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 80 2229-2259

    Ou, S. C., K. N. Liou, M. D. King, and S.-C. Tsay. 1999. "Remote Sensing of Cirrus Cloud Parameters Based on a 0.63-3.7 µm Radiance Correlation Technique Applied to AVHRR Data." Geophys. Res. Lett 26 2437-2440

    Kaufman, Y. J., R. Kleidman, and M. D. King. 1998. "SCAR-B fires in the Tropics: Properties and their remote sensing from EOS-MODIS." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 103 31955-31968

    Kaufman, Y. J., P. V. Hobbs, V. Kirchhoff, et al. P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, and S. A. Christopher. 1998. "Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) experiment." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103 (D24): 31,783-31,808 [10.1029/98JD02281]

    Kaufman, Y. J., P. V. Hobbs, V. W. Kirchhoff, et al. P. Artaxo, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, D. E. Ward, E. M. Prins, K. M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C. A. Nobre, J. D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A. M. Thompson, J. F. Gleason, S. A. Christopher, and S.-C. Tsay. 1998. "Smoke, Cloud and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) Experiment." J. Geophys. Res 103 31783-31808

    King, M. D., S.-C. Tsay, S. A. Ackerman, and N. F. Larsen. 1998. "Discriminating heavy aerosol, clouds, and fires during SCAR-B: Application of airborne multispectral MAS data." J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D24): 31989 [10.1029/98JD01043]

    Tsay, S.-C., M. D. King, G. T. Arnold, and J. Y. Li. 1998. "Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B." J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D24): 31943 [10.1029/98JD01167]

    Wielicki, B. A., B. R. Barkstrom, B. A. Baum, et al. T. P. Charlock, R. N. Green, D. P. Kratz, R. B. Lee, P. Minnis, G. L. Smith, T. Wong, D. F. Young, R. D. Cess, J. A. Coakley, D. A. Crommelynck, L. Donner, R. Kandel, M. D. King, A. J. Miller, V. Ramanathan, D. A. Randall, L. L. Stowe, and R. M. Welch. 1998. "Clouds and the Earth's radiant energy system (CERES): Algorithm overview." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens 36 (4): 1127-1141 [10.1109/36.701020]

    Wang, M., and M. D. King. 1997. "Correction of Rayleigh scattering effects in cloud optical thickness retrievals." J. Geophys. Res. 102 (D22): 25915-25926 [10.1029/97JD02225]

    Kaufman, Y. J., D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, et al. T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, and P. M. Teillet. 1997. "Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 102 16815-16830

    Tsay, S.-C., P. M. Gabriel, M. D. King, and G. L. Stephens. 1996. "Spectral Reflectance and Atmospheric Energetics in Cirrus-like Clouds. Part II: Applications of a Fourier-Riccati Approach to Radiative Transfer." J. Atmos. Sci 53 3450-3467

    King, M. D., W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, et al. J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S.-C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, and F. G. Osterwisch. 1996. "Airborne Scanning Spectrometer for Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, Water Vapor, and Surface Properties." J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 13 (4): 777-794 [10.1175/1520-0426(1996)013<0777:ASSFRS>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., D. D. Herring, and D. J. Diner. 1995. "The Earth Observing System (EOS): A space-based program for assessing mankind's impact on the global environment." Optics and Photonic News 6 34-39

    Wielicki, B. A., R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison. 1995. "Mission to Planet Earth: Role of clouds and radiation in climate." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc 76 2125-2153

    Gumley, L. E., and M. D. King. 1995. "Remote Sensing of Flooding in the U.S. Upper Midwest during the Summer of 1993." Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 76 (6): 933-943 [10.1175/1520-0477(1995)076<0933:RSOFIT>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., S.-C. Tsay, and S. E. Platnick. 1995. "In Situ Observations of the Indirect Effects of Aerosol on Clouds." in Aerosol Forcing of Climate John Wiley and Sons 227-248

    Price, R. D., M. D. King, J. T. Dalton, et al. K. S. Pedelty, P. E. Ardanuy, and M. K. Hobish. 1994. "Earth science data for all: EOS and the EOS Data and Information System." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 60 (3): 277-285

    King, M. D., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs. 1993. "Optical properties of marine stratocumulus clouds modified by ships." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 98 2729-2739

    Harshvardhan, and M. D. King. 1993. "Comparative accuracy of diffuse radiative properties computed using selected multiple scattering approximations." J. Atmos. Sci. 50 (2): 247-259 [10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<0247:CAODRP>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., Y. J. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, and D. Tanre. 1992. "Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)." IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30 2-27

    King, M. D. 1992. "Directional and spectral reflectance of the Kuwait oil-fire smoke." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 97 (D13): 14545-14549 [10.1029/92JD01043]

    Nakajima, T., and M. D. King. 1992. "Asymptotic theory for optically thick layers: Application to the Discrete Ordinates Method." Applied Optics 31 (36): 7669-7683 [10.1364/AO.31.007669]

    Nakajima, T., M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, and L. F. Radke. 1991. "Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations." J. Atmos. Sci 48 (5): 728-751 [10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<0728:DOTOTA>2.0.CO;2]

    Nakajima, R., and M. D. King. 1990. "Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory." J. Atmos. Sci 47 (15): 1878-1893 [10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1878:DOTOTA>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., L. F. Radke, and P. V. Hobbs. 1990. "Determination of the spectral absorption of solar radiation by marine stratocumulus clouds from airborne measurements within clouds." J. Atmos. Sci 47 (7): 894-908 [10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<0894:DOTSAO>2.0.CO;2]

    Radke, L. F., J. A. Coakley, and M. D. King. 1989. "Direct and Remote Sensing Observations of the Effects of Ships on Clouds." Science 246 (4934): 1146-1149 [10.1126/science.246.4934.1146]

    King, M. D. 1987. "Determination of the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements." J. Atmos. Sci. 44 (13): 1734-1751 [10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<1734:DOTSOT>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., M. G. Strange, P. Leone, and L. R. Blaine. 1986. "Multiwavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds." J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 513-522

    King, M. D., and Harshvardhan. 1986. "Comparative accuracy of selected multiple scattering approximations." J. Atmos. Sci. 43 (8): 784-801 [10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<0784:CAOSMS>2.0.CO;2]

    Spinhirne, J. D., and M. D. King. 1985. "Latitudinal variation of spectral optical thickness and columnar size distribution of the El Chichon stratospheric aerosol layer." J. Geophys. Res. (Atmos.) 90 10607-10619

    King, M. D., Harshvardhan, and A. Arking. 1984. "A model of the radiative properties of the El Chichòn stratospheric aerosol layer." J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 23 (7): 1121-1137 [10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<1121:AMOTRP>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D. 1983. "Number of terms required in the Fourier expansion of the reflection function for optically thick atmospheres." J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 143-161

    King, M. D. 1982. "Sensitivity of constrained linear inversions to the selection of the Lagrange multiplier." J. Atmos. Sci. 1356-1369

    King, M. D. 1981. "A method for determining the single scattering albedo of clouds through observation of the internal scattered radiation field." J. Atmos. Sci. 38 (9): 2031-2044 [10.1175/1520-0469(1981)038<2031:AMFDTS>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., D. M. Byrne, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman. 1980. "Spectral variation of optical depth at tucson, arizona between august 1975 and december 1977." Journal of Applied Meteorology 723-732

    King, M. D., and R. J. Curran. 1980. "The effect of a nonuniform planetary albedo on the interpretation of Earth radiation budget observations." J. Atmos. Sci. 1262-1278

    Reagan, J. A., D. M. Byrne, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, and B. M. Herman. 1980. "Determination of the complex refractive index and size distribution of atmospheric particulates from bistatic-monostatic Lidar and solar radiometer measurements." J. Geophys. Res. 85 (C3): 1591-1599 [10.1029/JC085iC03p01591]

    King, M. D., and B. M. Herman. 1979. "Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part I: Theory." J. Atmos. Sci. 36 (1): 163-173 [10.1175/1520-0469(1979)036<0163:DOTGAA>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D. 1979. "Determination of the ground albedo and the index of absorption of atmospheric particulates by remote sensing. Part II: Application." J. Atmos. Sci. 36 (6): 1072-1083

    King, M. D., D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan. 1978. "Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements." J. Atmos. Sci. 35 (11): 2153-2167 [10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<2153:ASDOBI>2.0.CO;2]

    King, M. D., and D. M. Byrne. 1976. "A method for inferring total ozone content from the spectral variation of total optical depth obtained with a solar radiometer." J. Atmos. Sci. 33 (11): 2242-2251 [10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2242:AMFITO>2.0.CO;2]

    Non-Refereed

    Georgiev, G. T., J. J. Butler, K. J. Thome, K. J. Ranson, and M. D. King. 2011. "Assessment of multiangu-lar polarization contribution to the bidirectional reflectance of natural samples." IEEE International Geoscience Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 1017-1020 [10.1109/IGARSS.2011.6049306]

    Georgiev, G. T., J. J. Butler, K. J. Thome, K. J. Ranson, and M. D. King. 2010. "The effect of incident light polarization on vegetation bidirectional reflectance factor." 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS) 1652-1655 [10.1109/IGARSS.2010.5652893]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2008. "BRDF of Salt Pan Regolith Samples." IGARSS 2008 - 2008 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IV-573 - IV-576 [10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779786]

    Georgiev, G. T., C. K. Gatebe, J. J. Butler, and M. D. King. 2006. "Comparison between laboratory and airborne BRDF measurements for remote sensing." Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6296 10 pp [10.1117/12.680542]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
    NASA Logo, National Aeronautics and Space Administration