Gavin A. Schmidt

Photo of GAVIN SCHMIDT

Gavin A. Schmidt

  • CHIEF, GODDARD INST FOR SPACE STD
  • 212.678.5627
  • NASA/GSFC
  • Mail Code: 611
  • New York , NY 00125
  • Employer: NASA
  • Brief Bio

    Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

    Research Interests

    Coupled climate modeling

    Development, application and evaluation of coupled ocean-atmosphere-composition climate models.

    Paleoclimate

    Investigation of changes in past climate and what they can reveal about model skill and future changes.

    Detection and attribution of Climate change

    Exploring the fingerprints of forced and internal changes in the climate record and in models to better understand why climate changed in the past, why it is changing now and how it might change in the future. 

    Current Projects

    GISS ModelE development

    Construction, expansion and evaluation of the GISS ModelE coupled GCM.

    Education

    B.A. (Hons) Mathematics, Oxford University, 1988
    PhD in Applied Mathematics, University College London, 1994

    Awards

    AGU Climate Communications Prize (2011)
    EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year (2011)

    Publications

    Refereed

    Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Lean. 2014. "The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678]

    Field, R. D., D. Kim, A. N. LeGrande, et al. J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES." Geophys. Res. Lett., 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, G. A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2014. "Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961]

    Fischer, R. P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)." Geosci. Model Dev., 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. D. Annan, P. J. Bartlein, et al. B. I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J. C. Hargreaves, S. P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A. N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M. E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou. 2014. "Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5." Clim. Past, 10 (1): 221-250 [10.5194/cp-10-221-2014]

    Santer, B. D., C. Bonfils, J. F. Painter, et al. M. D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G. A. Schmidt, J. C. Fyfe, J. N. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K. E. Taylor, and F. J. Wentz. 2014. "Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature." Nature Geosci, 7 (3): 185-189 [10.1038/ngeo2098]

    Santer, B. D., J. F. Painter, C. Bonfils, et al. C. A. Mears, S. Solomon, T. M. Wigley, P. J. Gleckler, G. A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N. P. Gillett, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, and F. J. Wentz. 2013. "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (43): 17235-17240 [10.1073/pnas.1305332110]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade. 2013. "Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning." Computing in Science & Engineering, 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2013. "Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118 (2): 243-262 [10.1029/2012JD017804]

    Romanou, A., W. W. Gregg, J. Romanski, et al. M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev. 2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling, 66: 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008]

    Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, et al. K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G. A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy. 2013. "Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions." Nature Climate change, 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835]

    Shindell, D. T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, et al. G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, W. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt. 2013. "Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13 (5): 2653-2689 [10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013]

    Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, et al. G. A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E. U. Noble, and Z. Li. 2012. "A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies." Future Internet, 4 (4): 1069-1085 [10.3390/fi4041069]

    Field, R. D., C. Risi, G. A. Schmidt, et al. J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A. N. LeGrande, A. H. Sobel, and R. J. Healy. 2012. "A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H₂O retrieval simulator for climate models." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12 (21): 10485-10504 [10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012]

    Vieira, L. E., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, et al. M. Kretzschmar, G. A. Schmidt, and M. C. Cheung. 2012. "How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance." Geophys Res Lett, 39 (16): L16104 [10.1029/2012GL052950]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2012. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)." Geosci. Model Dev., 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, H. J. Dowsett, and C. A. Loptson. 2012. "On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification." Earth Planet Sci Lett, 321-322: 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042]

    Tierney, J. E., S. C. Lewis, B. I. Cook, A. N. LeGrande, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period." Earth Planet Sci Lett, 307 (1-2): 103-112 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund. 2011. "Tracking climate models." Statistical Analy Data Mining, 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126]

    Legrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy." Paleoceanography, 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043]

    Lewis, S. C., M. K. Gagan, L. K. Ayliffe, et al. J. Zhao, W. S. Hantoro, P. C. Treble, J. C. Hellstrom, A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt, and B. W. Suwargadi. 2011. "High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4." Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048]

    Koch, D., S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, et al. G. S. Faluvegi, J. R. McConnell, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, D. Rind, R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2011. "Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry–Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses." J Climate, 24 (11): 2693-2714 [10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1]

    Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, et al. G. A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama. 2011. "Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation." J Geophys Res, 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209]

    Carozza, D. A., L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event." Geophys Res Lett, 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038]

    Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, et al. K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. N. Legrande, J. L. Li, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann. 2011. "Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2011. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)." Geosci. Model Dev., 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, R. L. Miller, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res, 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287]

    Lacis, A. A., G. A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R. A. Ruedy. 2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science, 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events." Climate of the Past, 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, and H. J. Dowsett. 2010. "Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data." Nature Geosci, 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2010. "Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change." J. Quaternary Sci., 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314]

    Field, R. D., G. W. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region." Geophys Res Lett, 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408]

    Usoskin, I. G., C. V. Field, G. A. Schmidt, et al. A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R. K. Ungar. 2009. "Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, D. M. Koch, et al. G. A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S. E. Bauer. 2009. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions." Science, 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760]

    Mann, M. E., G. A. Schmidt, S. K. Miller, and A. N. LeGrande. 2009. "Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information." Geophysical Research Letters, 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354]

    Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, et al. J. M. Lough, T. D. van Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki. 2009. "High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects." The Holocene, 19 (1): 3-49 [10.1177/0959683608098952]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives." Climate of the Past, 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009]

    Field, C. V., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2009. "Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578]

    Koch, D. M., S. Menon, A. D. Del Genio, et al. R. A. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century." J Climate, 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2009. "Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity." Int. J. Climatol., 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831]

    Wright, J. S., A. H. Sobel, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM." Geophys Res Lett, 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091]

    Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Solar trends and global warming." J. Geophys. Res., 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639]

    Non-Refereed

    Schmidt, G. A. 2014. "On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming." Science, 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis. 2014. "Reconciling warming trends." Nature Geosci, 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105]

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. Archer. 2009. "Climate change: Too much of a bad thing." Nature, 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a]

    Talks, Presentations and Posters

    NASA Satellite Sees Great Freeze Over Great Lakes
    Scientists say it's understandable that the Great Lakes have had so much ice this year considering the cold temperatures in the region that persisted through the winter.
    NASA Satellite Sees Great Freeze Over Great Lakes
    Scientists say it's understandable that the Great Lakes have had so much ice this year considering the cold temperatures in the region that persisted through the winter.
    NASA Satellite Sees Great Freeze Over Great Lakes
    Scientists say it's understandable that the Great Lakes have had so much ice this year considering the cold temperatures in the region that persisted through the winter.
    NASA Finds 2013 Sustained Long-Term Climate Warming Trend
    NASA scientists say 2013 tied with 2009 and 2006 for the seventh warmest year since 1880, continuing a long-term trend of rising global temperatures.
    NASA Scientist Receives Inaugural Climate Communications Award
    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist based at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, has received the inaugural Climate Communications Prize from the American Geophysical Union.
    Carbon Dioxide Controls Earth's Temperature
    A new atmosphere-ocean climate modeling study shows that the planet's temperature depends, ultimately, on the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide.
    Carbon Dioxide Controls Earth's Temperature
    A new atmosphere-ocean climate modeling study shows that the planet's temperature depends, ultimately, on the atmospheric level of carbon dioxide.
    Climatologist Gavin Schmidt Discusses the Temperature Record
    Gavin Schmidt offers some context on the surface temperature record, a data set that's generated considerable interest -- and some controversy -- in the past.
    Interactions with Aerosols Boost Warming Potential of Some Gases
    Certain gases that cause warming are so closely linked with aerosol production that the emissions of one type of pollutant can affect the quantity of the other.
    Interactions with Aerosols Boost Warming Potential of Some Gases
    Certain gases that cause warming are so closely linked with aerosol production that the emissions of one type of pollutant can affect the quantity of the other.

    Selected Public Outreach

    TED talk 2 / 2014 - 2 / 2014
    The Emergent Patterns of Climate Change

    Brief Bio

    Postdoc at McGill University 1994-1996; NOAA Climate and Global Change fellow at NASA GISS in New York (1996-1998), Associate Research Scientist at Columbia University (1998-2004), NASA GISS from 2004. Director from 2014.

    Refereed

    Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G. A. Schmidt, and J. Lean. 2014. "The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (14): 8798-8824 [doi:10.1002/2014JD021678]

    Field, R. D., D. Kim, A. N. LeGrande, et al. J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES." Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (16): 6030-6036 [doi:10.1002/2014GL060572]

    Miller, R. L., G. A. Schmidt, L. Nazarenko, et al. N. L. Tausnev, S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.-W. Lo, R. A. Ruedy, D. T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Perez Garcia Pando, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G. L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (2): 441-477 [10.1002/2013MS000266]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, G. A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley. 2014. "Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the preindustrial and mid-Holocene." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 (12): 7064-7082 [10.1002/2013JD020961]

    Fischer, R. P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2014. "A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM)." Geosci. Model Dev. 7 (3): 883-907 [10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014]

    Schmidt, G. A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, et al. R. A. Ruedy, G. L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. P. Bauer, S. E. Bauer, M. K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. M. Canuto, Y. Chen, Y. Cheng, T. L. Clune, A. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. S. Faluvegi, J. E. Hansen, R. J. Healy, N. Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A. A. Lacis, A. N. Legrande, J. Lerner, K.-W. Lo, E. Matthews, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, V. Oinas, A. O. Oloso, J. P. Perlwitz, M. J. Puma, W. M. Putman, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D. T. Shindell, S. Sun, R. A. Syed, N. L. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang. 2014. "Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive." J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 6 (1): 141-184 [10.1002/2013MS000265]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. D. Annan, P. J. Bartlein, et al. B. I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J. C. Hargreaves, S. P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A. N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M. E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou. 2014. "Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5." Clim. Past 10 (1): 221-250 [10.5194/cp-10-221-2014]

    Santer, B. D., C. Bonfils, J. F. Painter, et al. M. D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G. A. Schmidt, J. C. Fyfe, J. N. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K. E. Taylor, and F. J. Wentz. 2014. "Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 185-189 [10.1038/ngeo2098]

    Santer, B. D., J. F. Painter, C. Bonfils, et al. C. A. Mears, S. Solomon, T. M. Wigley, P. J. Gleckler, G. A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N. P. Gillett, K. E. Taylor, P. W. Thorne, and F. J. Wentz. 2013. "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (43): 17235-17240 [10.1073/pnas.1305332110]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade. 2013. "Climate Informatics: Accelerating Discovering in Climate Science with Machine Learning." Computing in Science & Engineering 15 (5): 32-40 [10.1109/MCSE.2013.50]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2013. "Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions." J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118 (2): 243-262 [10.1029/2012JD017804]

    Romanou, A., W. W. Gregg, J. Romanski, et al. M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev. 2013. "Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation." Ocean Modelling 66 26-44 [10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008]

    Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, et al. K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G. A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy. 2013. "Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions." Nature Climate change 3 (6): 567-670 [10.1038/nclimate1835]

    Shindell, D. T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, et al. G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, W. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt. 2013. "Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 (5): 2653-2689 [10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013]

    Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, et al. G. A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E. U. Noble, and Z. Li. 2012. "A Web-Based Geovisual Analytical System for Climate Studies." Future Internet 4 (4): 1069-1085 [10.3390/fi4041069]

    Field, R. D., C. Risi, G. A. Schmidt, et al. J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A. N. LeGrande, A. H. Sobel, and R. J. Healy. 2012. "A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H₂O retrieval simulator for climate models." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12 (21): 10485-10504 [10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012]

    Vieira, L. E., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, et al. M. Kretzschmar, G. A. Schmidt, and M. C. Cheung. 2012. "How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance." Geophys Res Lett 39 (16): L16104 [10.1029/2012GL052950]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2012. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1)." Geosci. Model Dev. 5 (1): 185-191 [10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, H. J. Dowsett, and C. A. Loptson. 2012. "On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification." Earth Planet Sci Lett 321-322 128-138 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042]

    Tierney, J. E., S. C. Lewis, B. I. Cook, A. N. LeGrande, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period." Earth Planet Sci Lett 307 (1-2): 103-112 [10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038]

    Monteleoni, C., G. A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund. 2011. "Tracking climate models." Statistical Analy Data Mining 4 (4): 372-392 [10.1002/sam.10126]

    Legrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy." Paleoceanography 26 (3): PA3225 [10.1029/2010PA002043]

    Lewis, S. C., M. K. Gagan, L. K. Ayliffe, et al. J. Zhao, W. S. Hantoro, P. C. Treble, J. C. Hellstrom, A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, G. A. Schmidt, and B. W. Suwargadi. 2011. "High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian–Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 303 (1-2): 133-142 [10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048]

    Koch, D., S. E. Bauer, A. Del Genio, et al. G. S. Faluvegi, J. R. McConnell, S. Menon, R. L. Miller, D. Rind, R. A. Ruedy, G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2011. "Coupled Aerosol-Chemistry–Climate Twentieth-Century Transient Model Investigation: Trends in Short-Lived Species and Climate Responses." J Climate 24 (11): 2693-2714 [10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1]

    Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, et al. G. A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama. 2011. "Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation." J Geophys Res 116 (D24): D24101 [10.1029/2010JD015209]

    Carozza, D. A., L. A. Mysak, and G. A. Schmidt. 2011. "Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event." Geophys Res Lett 38 (5): L05702 [10.1029/2010GL046038]

    Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, et al. K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. N. Legrande, J. L. Li, G. A. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann. 2011. "Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements." Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 (2): 741-752 [10.5194/acp-11-741-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., J. H. Jungclaus, C. M. Ammann, et al. E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T. J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N. A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D. T. Shindell, S. K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L. E. Vieira. 2011. "Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0)." Geosci. Model Dev. 4 (1): 33-45 [10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011]

    Schmidt, G. A., R. A. Ruedy, R. L. Miller, and A. A. Lacis. 2010. "Attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect." J Geophys Res 115 (D20): D20106 [10.1029/2010JD014287]

    Lacis, A. A., G. A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R. A. Ruedy. 2010. "Atmospheric CO₂: Principal Control Knob Governing Earth's Temperature." Science 330 (6002): 356-359 [10.1126/science.1190653]

    Lewis, S. C., A. N. Legrande, M. Kelley, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events." Climate of the Past 6 (3): 325-343 [10.5194/cp-6-325-2010]

    Lunt, D. J., A. M. Haywood, G. A. Schmidt, et al. U. Salzmann, P. J. Valdes, and H. J. Dowsett. 2010. "Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data." Nature Geosci 3 (1): 60-64 [10.1038/NGEO706]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2010. "Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change." J. Quaternary Sci. 25 (1): 79-87 [10.1002/jqs.1314]

    Field, R. D., G. W. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G. A. Schmidt. 2010. "A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region." Geophys Res Lett 37 (5): L05706 [10.1029/2009GL041408]

    Usoskin, I. G., C. V. Field, G. A. Schmidt, et al. A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G. A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R. K. Ungar. 2009. "Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D6): D06108 [10.1029/2008JD011333]

    Shindell, D. T., G. Faluvegi, D. M. Koch, et al. G. A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S. E. Bauer. 2009. "Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions." Science 326 (5953): 716-718 [10.1126/science.1174760]

    Mann, M. E., G. A. Schmidt, S. K. Miller, and A. N. LeGrande. 2009. "Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information." Geophysical Research Letters 36 (5): L05708 [10.1029/2008GL036354]

    Jones, P. D., K. R. Briffa, T. J. Osborn, et al. J. M. Lough, T. D. van Ommen, B. M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E. R. Wahl, F. W. Zwiers, M. E. Mann, G. A. Schmidt, C. M. Ammann, B. M. Buckley, K. M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J. T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A. W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki. 2009. "High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects." The Holocene 19 (1): 3-49 [10.1177/0959683608098952]

    LeGrande, A. N., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives." Climate of the Past 5 (3): 441-455 [10.5194/cp-5-441-2009]

    Field, C. V., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D12): D12110 [10.1029/2008JD011217]

    Field, C. V., G. A. Schmidt, and D. T. Shindell. 2009. "Interpreting 10 Be changes during the Maunder Minimum." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D2): D02113 [10.1029/2008JD010578]

    Koch, D. M., S. Menon, A. D. Del Genio, et al. R. A. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate over the Past Century." J Climate 22 (10): 2659-2677 [10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1]

    Schmidt, G. A. 2009. "Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity." Int. J. Climatol. 29 (14): 2041-2048 [10.1002/joc.1831]

    Wright, J. S., A. H. Sobel, and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM." Geophys Res Lett 36 (12): L12804 [10.1029/2009GL038091]

    Benestad, R. E., and G. A. Schmidt. 2009. "Solar trends and global warming." J. Geophys. Res. 114 (D14): D14101 [10.1029/2008JD011639]

    Non-Refereed

    Schmidt, G. A. 2014. "On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming." Science 344 (6181): 256 [10.1126/science.1251819]

    Schmidt, G. A., D. T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis. 2014. "Reconciling warming trends." Nature Geosci 7 (3): 158-160 [10.1038/ngeo2105]

    Schmidt, G. A., and D. Archer. 2009. "Climate change: Too much of a bad thing." Nature 458 (7242): 1117-1118 [10.1038/4581117a]

                                                                                                                                                                                            
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